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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 191, Issue 1–4, pp 111–169 | Cite as

Magnetic White Dwarfs

  • Lilia Ferrario
  • Domitilla de Martino
  • Boris T. Gänsicke
Article

Abstract

In this paper we review the current status of research on the observational and theoretical characteristics of isolated and binary magnetic white dwarfs (MWDs).

Magnetic fields of isolated MWDs are observed to lie in the range 103–109 G. While the upper limit cutoff near 109 G appears to be real, the lower limit is more difficult to investigate. The incidence of magnetism below a few 103 G still needs to be established by sensitive spectropolarimetric surveys-conducted on 8 m class telescopes.

Highly magnetic WDs tend to exhibit a complex and non-dipolar field structure with some objects showing the presence of higher order multipoles. There is no evidence that fields of highly magnetic WDs decay over time, which is consistent with the estimated Ohmic decay times scales of ∼1011 yrs. The slow rotation periods (∼100 yrs) inferred for a large number of isolated MWDs in comparison to those of non-magnetic WDs (a few days) suggest that strong magnetic fields augment the braking of the stellar core.

MWDs, as a class, also appear to be more massive (0.784±0.047 M) than their weakly or non-magnetic counterparts (0.663±0.136 M).

MWDs are also found in binary systems where they accrete matter from a low-mass donor star. These binaries, called magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (MCVs), comprise about 20–25 % of all known CVs. Zeeman and cyclotron spectroscopy of MCVs have revealed the presence of fields in the range ∼7–230 MG. Complex field geometries have been inferred in the high field MCVs (the polars) whilst magnetic field strength and structure in the lower field group (intermediate polars, IPs) are much harder to establish.

The MCVs exhibit an orbital period distribution which is similar to that of non magnetic CVs. Polars dominate the distribution at orbital periods ≲4 h and IPs at longer periods. It has been argued that IPs above the 2–3 hr CV period gap with magnetic moments ≳ 5×1033 G cm3 may eventually evolve into polars. It is vital to enlarge the still incomplete sample of MCVs to understand not only their accretion processes but also their evolution.

The origin of fields in MWDs is still being debated. While the fossil field hypothesis remains an attractive possibility, field generation within the common envelope of a binary system has been gaining momentum, since it would explain the absence of MWDs paired with non-degenerate companions and also the lack of relatively wide pre-MCVs.

Keywords

Magnetic fields Magnetic white dwarfs Magnetic cataclysmic variables Binary systems 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the organisers of this workshop for the timely opportunity to review our understanding of the strongest magnetic fields in the Universe, and ISSI for their warm hospitality. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement n. 320964 (WDTracer). DDM acknowledges financial support by ASI/INAF under contract I/037/12/0.

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mathematical Sciences InstituteThe Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.INAFOsservatorio Astronomico di CapodimonteNaplesItaly
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsUniversity of WarwickCoventryUK

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