Space Science Reviews

, Volume 186, Issue 1–4, pp 409–435 | Cite as

Solar Cycle in the Heliosphere and Cosmic Rays

  • Galina A. Bazilevskaya
  • Edward W. Cliver
  • Gennady A. Kovaltsov
  • Alan G. Ling
  • M. A. Shea
  • D. F. Smart
  • Ilya G. Usoskin
Article

Abstract

Manifestations of the 11-year solar cycle and longer time-scale variability in the heliosphere and cosmic rays are considered. We briefly review the cyclic variability of such heliospheric parameters as solar wind speed and density and heliospheric magnetic field, open magnetic flux and latitude variations of the heliospheric current sheet. It is discussed whether the local in-situ observation near Earth can represent the global 3D heliospheric pattern. Variability of cosmic rays near Earth provides an indirect useful tool to study the heliosphere. We discuss details of the heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays, as recorded at and near Earth, and their relation to the heliospheric conditions in the outer heliosphere. On the other hand, solar energetic particles can serve as probes for explosive phenomena on the Sun and conditions in the corona and inner heliosphere. The occurrence of major solar proton events depicts an overall tendency to follow the solar cycle but individual events may appear at different phases of the solar cycle, as defined by various factors. The solar cycle in the heliosphere and cosmic rays depicts a complex pattern which includes different processes and cannot be described by a simple correlation with sunspot number.

Keywords

Heliosphere Cosmic rays Solar energetic particles Solar activity 

List of Abbreviations

AU

Astronomical unit (the mean Sun-Earth distance, ≈1.5×1011 m)

CME

Coronal mass ejection

CR

Cosmic rays

GLE

Ground-level enhancement of cosmic rays

GCR

Galactic cosmic rays

HCS

Heliospheric current sheet

HMF

Heliospheric magnetic field

IC

Ionization chamber

MHD

Magnetohydrodynamics

NM

Neutron monitor

OMF

Open magnetic flux

SEP

Solar energetic particles

SPE

Solar proton events

SSN

Sunspot number

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is a result of the ISSI workshop “The Solar Activity Cycle: Physical Causes And Consequences”. G.B. acknowledges support of the RFBR grants 14-02-00905a, 14-02-10006k, 13-02-00585, 13-02-00931, 12-02-00215a and of the “Fundamental Properties of Matter and Astrophysics” Program of the Presidium of the RAS. E.W.C. acknowledges support from AFOSR Task 2301RDZ4. A.G.L. acknowledges support from AFRL contract FA8718-05-C-0036. G.K. was partly supported by the Academy of Finland. I.U.’s contribution is in the framework of the ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence (Academy of Finland, project no. 272157). Dr. Clifford Lopate is acknowledged for Huancayo/Haleakala NM data. Oulu NM data is available at http://cosmicrays.oulu.fi.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Galina A. Bazilevskaya
    • 1
  • Edward W. Cliver
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gennady A. Kovaltsov
    • 4
  • Alan G. Ling
    • 5
  • M. A. Shea
    • 6
  • D. F. Smart
    • 6
  • Ilya G. Usoskin
    • 7
  1. 1.Lebedev Physics InstituteRussian Academy of ScienceMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Space Vehicles DirectorateAir Force Research LaboratoryKirtland AFBUSA
  3. 3.National Solar ObservatorySunspotUSA
  4. 4.Ioffe Physical-Technical InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia
  5. 5.Atmospheric Environmental ResearchKirtland AFBUSA
  6. 6.SSSRCNashuaUSA
  7. 7.Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (Oulu unit) and Dept. PhysicsUniversity of OuluFinland

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