Lower and Upper Ionosphere of Mars
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The ionosphere of Mars has been explored mostly with the radio occultation experiment onboard Mariners 6, 7, 9; Mars 2, 3, 4, 6; Viking 1, 2, and more recently on Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Express (MEX). In addition to the radio occultation experiment, MEX also carried Mars Advanced Radar for the Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) experiment which provided electron density profiles well above the main ionospheric peak. The atmosphere of Mars was measured directly by the neutral mass spectrometer onboard Viking 1 and 2 Landers. Later, an accelerometer and radio occultation experiment on MGS provided large data sets of atmospheric density at various locations in the upper and lower atmospheres of Mars, respectively. In this paper we review results of these upper and lower atmospheric/ionospheric measurements. Results of these measurements have been compared with theoretical models by several workers; therefore, we also review various atmospheric and ionospheric models of Mars.