Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 183, Issue 1–4, pp 253–275 | Cite as

Measuring the Masses of Supermassive Black Holes

  • Bradley M. Peterson
Article

Abstract

Supermassive black holes reside at the centers of most, if not all, massive galaxies: the difference between active and quiescent galaxies is due to differences in mass accretion rate and radiative efficiency rather than whether or not they have nuclear black holes. In this contribution, methods for measuring the masses of supermassive black holes are discussed, with emphasis on reverberation mapping which is most generally applicable to accreting supermassive black holes and, in particular, to distant quasars where time resolution can be used as a surrogate for angular resolution. Indirect methods based on scaling relationships from reverberation mapping studies are also discussed, along with their current limitations.

Keywords

Active galactic nuclei Black hole Reverberation mapping 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author is grateful for support by the US National Science Foundation through grant AST-1008882 to The Ohio State University and for the kind hospitality of the International Space Science Institute in Bern, where this work was first presented. The author thanks Misty Bentz for providing Figs. 4 and 8, Kate Grier for Figs. 1, 5 and 6, and Jong-Hak Woo for Fig. 7. The author also thanks Misty Bentz, Kelly Denney, Stephan Frank, Kate Grier, Peter Jonker, Smita Mathur, Ian McHardy, Yue Shen, Marianne Vestergaard, and an anonymous referee for advice, criticism, and comments on the manuscript.

References

  1. D. Alloin, J. Clavel, B.M. Peterson, G.A. Reichert, G.M. Stirpe, in Frontiers of Space and Ground-Based Astronomy: The Astrophysics of the 21st Century, ed. by W. Wamsteker, M.S. Longair, Y. Kondo (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1994) Google Scholar
  2. Y. Andrillat, S. Souffrin, Astrophys. Lett. 1, 111 (1968) ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. R.R.J. Antonucci, R.D. Cohen, Astrophys. J. 271, 564 (1983) ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. J.N. Bahcall, B.Z. Kozlovsky, E.E. Salpeter, Astrophys. J. 171, 467 (1972) ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. J.A. Baldwin, G.J. Ferland, K.T. Korista, D. Verner, Astrophys. J. 455, L119 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. A.J. Barth et al., Astrophys. J. 732, 121 (2011a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. A.J. Barth et al., Astrophys. J. 743, L4 (2011b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. M.C. Bentz, B.M. Peterson, R.W. Pogge, M. Vestergaard, C.A. Onken, Astrophys. J. 644, 133 (2006a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. M.C. Bentz et al., Astrophys. J. 651, 775 (2006b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. M.C. Bentz et al., Astrophys. J. 662, 205 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. M.C. Bentz, B.M. Peterson, R.W. Pogge, M. Vestergaard, Astrophys. J. 694, L166 (2009a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. M.C. Bentz, B.M. Peterson, H. Netzer, R.W. Pogge, M. Vestergaard, Astrophys. J. 697, 160 (2009b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. M.C. Bentz et al., Astrophys. J. 705, 199 (2009c) ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. M.C. Bentz et al., Astrophys. J. 716, 993 (2010a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. M.C. Bentz et al., Astrophys. J. 720, L46 (2010b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. M.C. Bentz et al., Astrophys. J. 767, 149 (2013) ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. R.D. Blandford, C.F. McKee, Astrophys. J. 255, 419 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. G. Bower et al., Astrophys. J. 492, L111 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. B.J. Brewer et al., Astrophys. J. 733, L33 (2011) ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. E.M. Burbidge, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 5, 399 (1967) ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. J. Clavel et al., Astrophys. J. 366, 64 (1991) ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. S. Collin, T. Kawaguchi, B.M. Peterson, M. Vestergaard, Astron. Astrophys. 456, 75 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. S. Collin-Souffrin, D. Alloin, Y. Andrillat, Astron. Astrophys. 22, 343 (1973) ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. N. Cretton, P.T. de Zeeuw, R.P. van der Marel, H.-W. Rix, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 124, 383 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. E. Dalla Bontà, L. Ferrarese, E.M. Corsini, J. Miralde Escudé, L. Coccato, M. Sarzi, A. Pizzella, A. Beifiori, Astrophys. J. 690, 537 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. K.M. Dasyra, L.J. Tacconi, R.I. Davies, R. Genzel, D. Lutz, B.M. Peterson, S. Veilleux, A.J. Baker, M. Schweitzer, E. Sturm, Astrophys. J. 657, 102 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. K. Davidson, Astrophys. J. 171, 213 (1972) ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. R.I. Davies et al., Astrophys. J. 646, 754 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. G. de Francisco, A. Capetti, A. Marconi, Astron. Astrophys. 479, 355 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. K.D. Denney, Astrophys. J. 759, 44 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. K.D. Denney et al., Astrophys. J. 653, 152 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. K.D. Denney, B.M. Peterson, M. Dietrich, M. Vestergaard, M.C. Bentz, Astrophys. J. 692, 246 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. K.D. Denney et al., Astrophys. J. 721, 715 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. K.D. Denney, R.W. Pogge, R.J. Assef, C.S. Kochanek, B.M. Peterson, M. Vestergaard. Astrophys. J. (2013, submitted). arXiv:1303.3889
  35. M. Dietrich et al., Astrophys. J. 408, 146 (1993) ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. M. Dietrich, F. Hamann, J.C. Shields, A. Constantin, M. Vestergaard, F. Chaffee, C.B. Foltz, V.T. Junkkarinen, Astrophys. J. 581, 912 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. V.T. Doroshenko, S.G. Sergeev, S.A. Klimanov, V.I. Pronik, Yu.S. Efimov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 426, 416 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. A.C. Fabian et al., Nature 459, 540 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. G.J. Ferland, R.F. Mushotzky, Astrophys. J. 262, 564 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. G.J. Ferland, K.T. Korista, B.M. Peterson, Astrophys. J. 363, L21 (1990) ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. G.J. Ferland, B.M. Peterson, K. Horne, W.F. Welsh, S.N. Nahar, Astrophys. J. 387, 95 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. L. Ferrarese, H. Ford, Space Sci. Rev. 116, 523 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. L. Ferrarese, D. Merritt, Astrophys. J. 539, L9 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. L. Ferrarese, R.W. Pogge, B.M. Peterson, D. Merritt, A. Wandel, C.L. Joseph, Astrophys. J. 555, L79 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. S. Fine, S.M. Croom, J. Bland-Hawthorn, K.A. Pimbblet, N.P. Ross, D.P. Schneider, T. Shanks, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 409, 591 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. K. Gebhardt et al., Astrophys. J. 539, L13 (2000a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. K. Gebhardt et al., Astrophys. J. 543, L5 (2000b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. K. Gebhardt et al., Astrophys. J. 583, 92 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. R. Genzel, F. Eisenhauer, S. Gillessen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3121 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. M. Gierliński, M. Nikołajuk, B. Czerny, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 383, 741 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. M. Gliozzi, L. Titarchuk, S. Satyapal, D. Prince, I. Jang, Astrophys. J. 735, 16 (2011) ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. A.W. Graham, C.A. Onken, E. Athanassoula, F. Combes, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 412, 2211 (2011) ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. J.E. Greene et al., Astrophys. J. 723, 409 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. C.J. Grier et al., Astrophys. J. 744, L4 (2012a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. C.J. Grier et al., Astrophys. J. 755, 60 (2012b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. C.J. Grier et al., Astrophys. J. 764, 47 (2013) ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. E. Guerras, E. Mediavilla, J. Jimenez-Vicente, C.S. Kochanek, J.A. Muñoz, E. Falco, V. Motta, Astrophys. J. 764, 160 (2013) ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. K. Gültekin et al., Astrophys. J. 698, 198 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. J.R. Herrnstein, J.M. Moran, L.J. Greenhill, A.S. Trotter, Astrophys. J. 629, 719 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. E.K.S. Hicks, M.A. Malkan, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 174, 31 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. K. Horne, B.M. Peterson, S.J. Collier, H. Netzer, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 116, 465 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. W. Ishibashi, T.J.-L. Courvoisier, Astron. Astrophys. 540, L2 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. K. Iwasawa, G. Miniutti, A.C. Fabian, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 355, 1073 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. S. Kaspi, P.S. Smith, H. Netzer, D. Maoz, B.T. Jannuzi, U. Giveon, Astrophys. J. 533, 631 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. S. Kaspi, D. Maoz, H. Netzer, B.M. Peterson, M. Vestergaard, B.T. Jannuzi, Astrophys. J. 629, 61 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. S. Kaspi, W.N. Brandt, D. Maoz, H. Netzer, D.P. Schneider, O. Shemmer, Astrophys. J. 659, 997 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. W. Kollatschny, Astron. Astrophys. 407, 461 (2003a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. W. Kollatschny, Astron. Astrophys. 412, L61 (2003b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. J.A. Kollmeier et al., Astrophys. J. 648, 128 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. A.P. Koratkar, C.M. Gaskell, Astrophys. J. 370, L61 (1991) ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. K.T. Korista, J.A. Baldwin, G.J. Ferland, D. Verner, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 108, 401 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. J. Kormendy, D. Richstone, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 33, 581 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. C.A. Kuehn, J.A. Baldwin, B.M. Peterson, K.T. Korista, Astrophys. J. 673, 69 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. H. Landt, M.C. Bentz, B.M. Peterson, M. Elvis, M.J. Ward, K.T. Korista, M. Karovska, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 413, L106 (2011) ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. A. Laor, Astrophys. J. 505, L83 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. D. Lynden-Bell, Nature 223, 690 (1969) ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. F. Macchetto, A. Marconi, D.J. Axon, A. Capetti, W. Sparks, P. Crane, Astrophys. J. 489, 579 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. J. Magorrian et al., Astron. J. 115, 2285 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. D. Maoz et al., Astrophys. J. 404, 576 (1993) ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. A. Marconi, D.J. Axon, R. Maiolino, T. Nagao, G. Pastorini, P. Pietrini, A. Robinson, G. Torricelli, Astrophys. J. 678, 693 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. A. Markowitz et al., Astrophys. J. 593, 96 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. N.J. McConnell, C.-P. Ma, Astrophys. J. 764, 184 (2013) ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. K.L. McGill, J.-H. Woo, T. Treu, M.A. Malkan, Astrophys. J. 673, 703 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. I.M. McHardy, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 430, L49 (2013) ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. I.M. McHardy, E. Koerding, C. Knigge, P. Uttley, R.P. Fender, Nature 444, 730 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. I.M. McHardy, P. Arévalo, P. Uttley, I.E. Papadakis, D.P. Summons, W. Brinkmann, M.J. Page, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 382, 985 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. R.J. McLure, M.J. Jarvis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 337, 109 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. L. Meyer, A.M. Ghez, B. Schödel, S. Yelda, A. Boehle, J.R. Lu, T. Do, M.R. Morris, E.E. Becklin, K. Matthews, Science 338, 84 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. M. Miyoshi, J. Moran, J. Herrnstein, L. Greenhill, N. Nakai, P. Diamond, M. Inoue, Nature 373, 127 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. R. Morales, A.C. Fabian, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 329, 209 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. C.J. Nelson, R.F. Green, G. Bower, K. Gebhardt, D. Weistrop, Astrophys. J. 615, 652 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. H. Netzer, P. Marziani, Astrophys. J. 724, 318 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. C.A. Onken, L. Ferrarese, D. Merritt, B.M. Peterson, R.W. Pogge, M. Vestergaard, A. Wandel, Astrophys. J. 615, 645 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. C.A. Onken et al., Astrophys. J. 670, 105 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. A. Pancoast, B.J. Brewer, T. Treu, Astrophys. J. 730, 139 (2011) ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. A. Pancoast et al., Astrophys. J. 754, 49 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. I.E. Papadakis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 348, 207 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. D. Park, B.C. Kelly, J.-H. Woo, T. Treu, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 203, 6 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. G. Pastorini et al., Astron. Astrophys. 469, 405 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. M. Pastoriza, H. Gerola, Astrophys. Lett. 6, 155 (1970) ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. B.M. Peterson, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 105, 247 (1993) ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. B.M. Peterson, in Advanced Lectures on the Starburst–AGN Connection, ed. by I. Aretxaga, D. Kunth, R. Mújica (World Scientific, Singapore, 2001) Google Scholar
  103. B.M. Peterson, New Astron. Rev. 52, 240 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. B.M. Peterson, in The Emission-Line Universe, ed. by J. Cepa (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009) Google Scholar
  105. B.M. Peterson, A. Wandel, Astrophys. J. 521, L95 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  106. B.M. Peterson, A. Wandel, Astrophys. J. 540, L13 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. B.M. Peterson, R.M. Wagner, D.M. Crenshaw, K.A. Meyers, P.L. Byard, C.B. Foltz, H.R. Miller, Astron. J. 88, 926 (1983) ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. B.M. Peterson, K.A. Meyers, E.R. Capriotti, C.B. Foltz, B.J. Wilkes, H.R. Miller, Astrophys. J. 292, 164 (1985) ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. B.M. Peterson et al., Astrophys. J. 368, 119 (1991) ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. B.M. Peterson, L. Ferrarese, K.M. Gilbert, S. Kaspi, M.A. Malkan, D. Maoz, D. Merritt, C.A. Onken, R.W. Pogge, M. Vestergaard, A. Wandel, Astrophys. J. 613, 682 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. B.M. Peterson et al., Astrophys. J. 632, 799 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. L. Popović et al., Astron. Astrophys. 529, A130 (2011) Google Scholar
  113. A. Rafiee, P. Hall, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 194, 42 (2011) ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. M.J. Rees, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 22, 471 (1984) ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. G.T. Richards et al., Astron. J. 141, 167 (2011) ADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  116. E.E. Salpeter, Astrophys. J. 140, 796 (1964) ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. S.G. Sergeev, S.A. Klimanov, V.T. Doroshenko, Yu.S. Efimov, S.V. Nazarov, V.I. Pronik, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 410, 1877 (2011) ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. F. Shankar, New Astron. Rev. 53, 57 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. A.I. Shapovalova et al., Astron. Astrophys. 509, 106 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. A.I. Shapovalova et al., Astrophys. J. Suppl. 202, 19 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. Y. Shen, B.C. Kelly, Astrophys. J. 746, 169 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. Y. Shen, J.E. Greene, M.A. Strauss, G.T. Richards, D.P. Schneider, Astrophys. J. 680, 169 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. C. Siopsis et al., Astrophys. J. 693, 946 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. C.L. Steinhardt, M. Elvis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 402, 2637 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. J. Thomas, R.P. Saglia, R. Bender, D. Thomas, K. Gebhardt, J. Magorrian, D. Richstone, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 353, 391 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. J. Tohline, D.E. Osterbrock, Astrophys. J. 210, L117 (1976) ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. H.D. Tran, Z. Tsvetanov, H.D. Ford, J. Davies, W. Jaffe, F.C. van den Bosch, A. Rest, Astron. J. 121, 2928 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. S. Tremaine et al., Astrophys. J. 574, 740 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. M.-H. Ulrich, K. Horne, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 283, 748 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. M.-H. Ulrich, A. Boksenberg, M.V. Penston, G.E. Bromage, J. Clavel, A. Elvius, G.C. Perola, M.A.J. Snijders, Astrophys. J. 382, 483 (1991) ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. M. Valluri, D. Merritt, E. Emsellem, Astrophys. J. 602, 66 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. R.P. van der Marel, N. Cretton, P.T. de Zeeuw, H.-W. Rix, Astrophys. J. 493, 613 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. D.E. Vanden Berk, C. Yip, A. Connolly, S. Jester, C. Stoughton, in AGN Physics with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, ed. by G.T. Richards, P.B. Hall (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco, 2004) Google Scholar
  134. M. Vestergaard, Astrophys. J. 571, 733 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. M. Vestergaard, Astrophys. J. 601, 676 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  136. M. Vestergaard, P.S. Osmer, Astrophys. J. 699, 800 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. M. Vestergaard, B.M. Peterson, Astrophys. J. 625, 688 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  138. M. Vestergaard, B.M. Peterson, Astrophys. J. 641, 676 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  139. M. Vestergaard, B.J. Wilkes, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 134, 1 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. A. Wandel, B.M. Peterson, M.A. Malkan, Astrophys. J. 526, 579 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. I. Wanders et al., Astrophys. J. 453, L87 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. L.C. Watson, P. Martini, K.M. Dasyra, M.C. Bentz, L. Ferrarese, B.M. Peterson, R.W. Pogge, L. Tacconi, Astrophys. J. 682, L21 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  143. D. Watson, K.D. Denney, M. Vestergaard, T.M. Davis, Astrophys. J. 740, L49 (2011) ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. J. Woo et al., Astrophys. J. 716, 269 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  145. X.-B. Wu, R. Wang, M.Z. Kong, F.K. Liu, J.L. Han, Astron. Astrophys. 424, 793 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  146. Ya.B. Zel’dovich, I.D. Novikov, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 158, 811 (1964) Google Scholar
  147. Y. Zu, C.S. Kochanek, B.M. Peterson, Astrophys. J. 735, 80 (2011) ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AstronomyThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations