Space Science Reviews

, Volume 174, Issue 1–4, pp 113–154 | Cite as

Outgassing History and Escape of the Martian Atmosphere and Water Inventory

  • Helmut Lammer
  • Eric Chassefière
  • Özgür Karatekin
  • Achim Morschhauser
  • Paul B. Niles
  • Olivier Mousis
  • Petra Odert
  • Ute V. Möstl
  • Doris Breuer
  • Véronique Dehant
  • Matthias Grott
  • Hannes Gröller
  • Ernst Hauber
  • Lê Binh San Pham
Article

Abstract

The evolution and escape of the martian atmosphere and the planet’s water inventory can be separated into an early and late evolutionary epoch. The first epoch started from the planet’s origin and lasted ∼500 Myr. Because of the high EUV flux of the young Sun and Mars’ low gravity it was accompanied by hydrodynamic blow-off of hydrogen and strong thermal escape rates of dragged heavier species such as O and C atoms. After the main part of the protoatmosphere was lost, impact-related volatiles and mantle outgassing may have resulted in accumulation of a secondary CO2 atmosphere of a few tens to a few hundred mbar around ∼4–4.3 Gyr ago. The evolution of the atmospheric surface pressure and water inventory of such a secondary atmosphere during the second epoch which lasted from the end of the Noachian until today was most likely determined by a complex interplay of various nonthermal atmospheric escape processes, impacts, carbonate precipitation, and serpentinization during the Hesperian and Amazonian epochs which led to the present day surface pressure.

Keywords

Early Mars Young Sun Magma ocean Volcanic outgassing Impacts Thermal escape Nonthermal escape Atmospheric evolution 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Lammer
    • 1
  • Eric Chassefière
    • 2
  • Özgür Karatekin
    • 3
  • Achim Morschhauser
    • 4
  • Paul B. Niles
    • 5
  • Olivier Mousis
    • 6
    • 7
  • Petra Odert
    • 1
    • 8
  • Ute V. Möstl
    • 8
  • Doris Breuer
    • 4
  • Véronique Dehant
    • 3
  • Matthias Grott
    • 4
  • Hannes Gröller
    • 1
  • Ernst Hauber
    • 4
  • Lê Binh San Pham
    • 3
  1. 1.Space Research InstituteAustrian Academy of SciencesGrazAustria
  2. 2.Laboratoire IDES, CNRS, UMR8148Univ. Paris-SudOrsayFrance
  3. 3.Royal Observatory of BelgiumBrusselsBelgium
  4. 4.German Aerospace CenterInstitute of Planetary ResearchBerlinGermany
  5. 5.Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Johnson Space CenterNASAHoustonUSA
  6. 6.Observatoire de BesançonBesançonFrance
  7. 7.UPS-OMP; CNRS-INSU; IRAPUniversité de ToulouseToulouseFrance
  8. 8.Institute for Physics/IGAMUniversity of GrazGrazAustria

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