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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 163, Issue 1–4, pp 371–459 | Cite as

Dawn’s Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector

  • Thomas H. PrettymanEmail author
  • William C. Feldman
  • Harry Y. McSweenJr.
  • Robert D. Dingler
  • Donald C. Enemark
  • Douglas E. Patrick
  • Steven A. Storms
  • John S. Hendricks
  • Jeffery P. Morgenthaler
  • Karly M. Pitman
  • Robert C. Reedy
Article

Abstract

The NASA Dawn Mission will determine the surface composition of 4 Vesta and 1 Ceres, providing constraints on their formation and thermal evolution. The payload includes a Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND), which will map the surface elemental composition at regional spatial scales. Target elements include the constituents of silicate and oxide minerals, ices, and the products of volcanic exhalation and aqueous alteration. At Vesta, GRaND will map the mixing ratio of end-members of the howardite, diogenite, and eucrite (HED) meteorites, determine relative proportions of plagioclase and mafic minerals, and search for compositions not well sampled by the meteorite collection. The large south polar impact basin may provide an opportunity to determine the composition of Vesta’s mantle and lower crust. At Ceres, GRaND will provide chemical information needed to test different models of Ceres’ origin and thermal and aqueous evolution. GRaND is also sensitive to hydrogen layering and can determine the equivalent H2O/OH content of near-surface hydrous minerals as well as the depth and water abundance of an ice table, which may provide information about the state of water in the interior of Ceres. Here, we document the design and performance of GRaND with sufficient detail to interpret flight data archived in the Planetary Data System, including two new sensor designs: an array of CdZnTe semiconductors for gamma ray spectroscopy, and a loaded-plastic phosphor sandwich for neutron spectroscopy. An overview of operations and a description of data acquired from launch up to Vesta approach is provided, including annealing of the CdZnTe sensors to remove radiation damage accrued during cruise. The instrument is calibrated using data acquired on the ground and in flight during a close flyby of Mars. Results of Mars flyby show that GRaND has ample sensitivity to meet science objectives at Vesta and Ceres. Strategies for data analysis are described and prospective results for Vesta are presented for different operational scenarios and compositional models.

Keywords

Dawn mission Asteroid Vesta Ceres Geochemistry Gamma ray Neutron Spectroscopy 

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ADC

Analog to Digital Converter

AMP

Linear amplifier

ATLO

Assembly, Test, and Launch Operations

BLP

Boron-Loaded Plastic

BGO

Bismuth Germanate

CAT

Category

CMA

Central Moving Average

CPG

Coplanar Grids

CZT

Cadmium Zinc Telluride

DLR

Differential Line Receiver

DN

Data Number

DTS

Decimated Time Series

EDR

Experimental Data Record

EMC

Electromagnetic conductance or Earth-Mars Cruise

EMI

Electromagnetic interference

EOP

End of Process

FEE

Front End Electronics

FEIR

Full Energy Interaction Rate

FET

Field Effect Transistor

FPGA

Field Programmable Gate Array

FWHM

Full Width at Half Maximum

GI

Gated Integrator

GPAW

GRaND Peak Analysis Widget

GRaND

Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector

HED

Howardite, Eucrite, and Diogenite

HV

High Voltage

HVPS

High Voltage Power Supply

ICO

Initial Check Out

INV

Signal invert

LAMO

Low Altitude Mapping Orbit

LIG

Lithium-loaded Glass

LLD

Lower Level Discriminator

LPF

Low Pass Filter

LVPS

Low Voltage Power Supply

MCA

Mars Closest Approach

MCNPX

Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended

MGA

Mars Gravity Assist

MUX

Multiplexor

MVC

Mars-Vesta Cruise

NIPC

Non-Interactive Payload Command

PDS

Planetary Data System

PMT

Photomultiplier tube

QSP

Charge-sensitive preamplifier

RDR

Reduced Data Record

REE

Rare Earth Elements

RMS

Root Mean Square

S/C

Spacecraft

SCET/UTC

Spacecraft Event Time/Universal Time Coordinated

SEP

Solar Energetic Particle

SIS

Software Interface Specification

SOH

State of Health

SPICE

System of applications and data maintained by NASA’s Navigation and Ancilliary Information Facility (Acton 1996)

SSD

Scintillator Shaper-Digitizer

TG

Threshold Generator

TTSP

Time to Second Pulse

TVACQ

Thermal cycling in Vacuum for instrument Qualification

UART

Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter

VIR

Visible and Infrared

VR

Virtual Recorder

WEH

Water-Equivalent Hydrogen

ZCD

Zero-Crossing Discriminator

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to express our sincere gratitude to everyone who contributed to the development and operation of GRaND. The hardware was built by a dedicated team of engineers and technicians at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Significant contributions were made by Frank Ameduri, Sean Apgar, Juan Baldonado, Bruce Barraclough, John Bernardin, Robert Clanton, David Cronk, Danny Everett, Ken Fuller (deceased), Jack Gioia, Irma Gonzales, Jerome Kolar, Cindy Little, Ruxanne Lopez, Gary Smith, James Sheldon, Belinda Wong-Swanson, Martin Sweet, Vernon Vigil, and Bob Williford. We greatly appreciate the support of David Seagraves and the staff of the LANL Calibration Facility. Key contributions to the development and manufacturing of sensor components were made by Chuck Hurlbut of Eljen Technology, Phil Parkhurst of Proteus, Inc., and Steve Soldner and Csaba Szeles of EI Detection and Imaging Systems. We are grateful for the support of the Dawn Payload Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, especially Ed Miller and Betina Pavri, from development through launch, as well as the support of Mike Violet and his team at Orbital Sciences Corporation during integration. We acknowledge the Dawn Science Operations Team, including Steve Joy (UCLA), Joe Mafi (UCLA), and Carol Polanskey (JPL), who made many contributions essential to successful flight operations. GRaND suffered a major setback, late in development, when several photomultiplier tubes cracked during thermal cycling in vacuum. We are grateful to John Goldsten of JHU-APL for providing a flight-quality photomultiplier tube (PMT) to replace one that was damaged and to Holger Sierks (MPS) for his help in finding a source of tubes in Europe. David Lawrence (JHU-APL) and Larry Nittler (Carnegie Institution) provided thorough reviews data and documents submitted to the Planetary Data System. We wish to thank David Lawrence and Mike Toplis (University of Toulouse) for their insightful reviews of this manuscript. Finally, we are grateful for many helpful discussions with members of the planetary community and Dawn team, including Mike Gaffey, Ralph Milliken, David Mittlefehldt, Marc Rayman, Carol Raymond, Chris Russell, and Naoyuki Yamashita. A portion of this work was performed under a grant from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas H. Prettyman
    • 1
    Email author
  • William C. Feldman
    • 1
  • Harry Y. McSweenJr.
    • 3
  • Robert D. Dingler
    • 2
  • Donald C. Enemark
    • 2
  • Douglas E. Patrick
    • 2
  • Steven A. Storms
    • 2
  • John S. Hendricks
    • 4
  • Jeffery P. Morgenthaler
    • 1
  • Karly M. Pitman
    • 1
  • Robert C. Reedy
    • 1
  1. 1.Planetary Science InstituteTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA
  3. 3.University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  4. 4.TechSource, Inc.Los AlamosUSA

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