Gravity Wave Mixing and Effective Diffusivity for Minor Chemical Constituents in the Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere
- 329 Downloads
The influence of gravity waves (GWs) on the distributions of minor chemical constituents in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) is studied on the basis of the effective diffusivity concept. The mixing ratios of chemical species used for calculations of the effective diffusivity are obtained from numerical experiments with an off-line coupled model of the dynamics and chemistry abbreviated as KMCM-MECTM (Kuehlungsborn Mechanistic general Circulation Model—MEsospheric Chemistry-Transport Model). In our control simulation the MECTM is driven with the full dynamical fields from an annual cycle simulation with the KMCM, where mid-frequency GWs down to horizontal wavelengths of 350 km are resolved and their wave-mean flow interaction is self-consistently induced by an advanced turbulence model. A perturbation simulation with the MECTM is defined by eliminating all meso-scale variations with horizontal wavelengths shorter than 1000 km from the dynamical fields by means of spectral filtering before running the MECTM.
The response of the MECTM to GWs perturbations reveals strong effects on the minor chemical constituents. We show by theoretical arguments and numerical diagnostics that GWs have direct, down-gradient mixing effects on all long-lived minor chemical species that possess a mean vertical gradient in the MLT. Introducing the term wave diffusion (WD) and showing that wave mixing yields approximately the same WD coefficient for different chemical constituents, we argue that it is a useful tool for diagnostic irreversible transport processes. We also present a detailed discussion of the gravity-wave mixing effects on the photochemistry and highlight the consequences for the general circulation of the MLT.
KeywordsWave diffusion Gravity waves Wave mixing Effective diffusivity Atmospheric chemistry MLT
- G. Brasseur, S. Solomon, Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere: Chemistry and Physics of the Stratosphere and Mesosphere, 2nd edn. (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1986) Google Scholar
- B. Fichtelmann, G. Sonnemann, On the variation of ozone in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere: a comparison between theory and observation. Z. Meteorol. 9(6), 297–308 (1989) Google Scholar
- J. London, Radiative energy sources and sinks in the stratosphere and mesosphere, in Proc. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atmospheric Ozone: Its Variation and Human Influences, Algarve, Portugal, Report FAAEE-80-20, 703 (1980) Google Scholar
- S. Lossow, J. Urban, H. Schmidt, D.R. Marsh, J. Gumbel, P. Eriksson, D. Murtagh, Wintertime water vapor in the polar upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere: first satellite observations by Odin submillimeter radiometer. J. Geophys. Res. 114, D10304 (2009a). doi: 10.1029/2008JD011462 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- J. Ma, The modified Lagrangian-mean diagnostics of the stratospheric transport and chemistry, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 130 pp., 1999 Google Scholar
- D. Offermann, P. Hoffmann, P. Knieling, R. Koppmann, J. Oberheide, D.M. Riggin, V.M. Tunbridge, W. Steinbrecht, Quasi-two day waves in the summer mesosphere: triple structure of amplitudes and long-term development. J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00P02 (2011). doi: 10.1029/2010JD015051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- J.P. Russell, W.E. Ward, R.P. Lowe, R.G. Roble, G.G. Shepherd, B. Solheim, Atomic oxygen profiles (80 to 115 km) derived from Wind Imaging Interferometer/Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite measurements of the hydroxyl and greenline airglow: local time–latitude dependence. J. Geophys. Res. 110, D15305 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2004JD005570 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- S.P. Sander, R.R. Friedl, D.M. Golden, M.J. Kurylo, R.E. Huie, V.L. Orkin, G.K. Moortgat, P.H. Wine, A.R. Ravishankara, C.E. Kolb, M.J. Molina, B.J. Finlayson-Pitts, Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, JPL Publication 06-2, Evaluation Number 15, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA (2006) Google Scholar
- G.A. Schmidt, R. Ruedy, J.E. Hansen, I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi, A.D. Friend, T.M. Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, N.Y. Kiang, D. Koch, A.A. Lacis, J. Lerner, K.K. Lo, R.L. Miller, L. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, J. Perlwitz, J. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, G.L. Russell, M. Sato, D.T. Shindell, P.H. Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, M.-S. Yao, Present day atmospheric simulations using GISS ModelE: comparison to in-situ, satellite and reanalysis data. J. Climate 19, 153–192 (2006). doi: 10.1175/JCLI3612.1 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- T. Shimazaki, Minor Constituents in the Middle Atmosphere (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1985) Google Scholar