Space Science Reviews

, Volume 162, Issue 1–4, pp 25–83 | Cite as

Upstream of Saturn and Titan

  • C. S. Arridge
  • N. André
  • C. L. Bertucci
  • P. Garnier
  • C. M. Jackman
  • Z. Németh
  • A. M. Rymer
  • N. Sergis
  • K. Szego
  • A. J. Coates
  • F. J. Crary


The formation of Titan’s induced magnetosphere is a unique and important example in the solar system of a plasma-moon interaction where the moon has a substantial atmosphere. The field and particle conditions upstream of Titan are important in controlling the interaction and also play a strong role in modulating the chemistry of the ionosphere. In this paper we review Titan’s plasma interaction to identify important upstream parameters and review the physics of Saturn’s magnetosphere near Titan’s orbit to highlight how these upstream parameters may vary. We discuss the conditions upstream of Saturn in the solar wind and the conditions found in Saturn’s magnetosheath. Statistical work on Titan’s upstream magnetospheric fields and particles are discussed. Finally, various classification schemes are presented and combined into a single list of Cassini Titan encounter classes which is also used to highlight differences between these classification schemes.


Titan Induced magnetosphere Saturn Plasma interaction 



The authors thank the staff at the International Space Science Institute for their hospitality. CSA wishes to thank A. Wellbrock and H.T. Smith for useful discussions and assistance. The authors would like to thank N. Krupp for use of MIMI-LEMMS data, M. Kusterer (JHU/APL) for assistance with the data reduction, M. Dougherty for the use of MAG data, and S.M. Krimigis for MIMI data. We are grateful to Cassini/MIMI and Cassini/CAPS colleagues for comments that improved this study. We thank the many individuals at JPL, NASA, ESA and numerous PI and Co-I institutions who have contributed to making the Cassini project an outstanding success. CSA was supported by an STFC post-doctoral fellowship under grant ST/G007462/1, AMR was supported by NASA-JPL contract NAS5-97271 between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Johns Hopkins University for the MIMI investigation and by NASA-JPL contract 1243218 for the CAPS program at the Southwest Research Institute. Work at JHU/APL was supported by NASA and by subcontracts at the UMD and the Academy of Athens. The German contribution of MIMI/LEMMS was financed by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung through the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt and by the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. The French co-authors acknowledge support from the French space agency CNES. The authors acknowledge the support of EUROPLANET RI project (Grant agreement no.: 228319) funded by EU; and also the support of the International Space Science Institute (Bern). CAPS operations at Mullard Space Science Laboratory, UCL, and MAG operations at Imperial College London are supported in the UK by the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the European Space Agency.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. S. Arridge
    • 1
    • 2
  • N. André
    • 4
    • 3
  • C. L. Bertucci
    • 5
  • P. Garnier
    • 6
  • C. M. Jackman
    • 7
  • Z. Németh
    • 8
  • A. M. Rymer
    • 9
  • N. Sergis
    • 10
  • K. Szego
    • 8
  • A. J. Coates
    • 1
    • 2
  • F. J. Crary
    • 11
  1. 1.Mullard Space Science LaboratoryUniversity College LondonDorkingUK
  2. 2.The Centre for Planetary Sciences at UCL/BirkbeckLondonUK
  3. 3.CNRSInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et PlanétologieToulouse Cedex 4France
  4. 4.UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et PlanétologieUniversité de ToulouseToulouseFrance
  5. 5.Instituto de Astronomía y Física del EspacioCiudad Autónoma de Buenos AiresArgentina
  6. 6.Swedish Institute of Space PhysicsUppsalaSweden
  7. 7.Space and Atmospheric Physics Group, The Blackett LaboratoryImperial College LondonLondonUK
  8. 8.KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear PhysicsBudapestHungary
  9. 9.Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics LaboratoryLaurelUSA
  10. 10.Office of Space ResearchAcademy of AthensAthensGreece
  11. 11.Southwest Research InstituteSan AntonioUSA

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