Space Science Reviews

, Volume 168, Issue 1–4, pp 175–209 | Cite as

Global Response of the Ionosphere to Atmospheric Tides Forced from Below: Recent Progress Based on Satellite Measurements

Global Tidal Response of the Ionosphere


This paper provides an overview on the recent progress in studying the ionospheric response to atmospheric tides forced from below. The global spatial structure and temporal variability of the atmospheric temperature tides and their ionospheric responses are considered on the basis of modern satellite-board data (COSMIC and TIMED). The tidal waves from the two data sets have been extracted by one and the same data analysis method. The similarity between the lower thermospheric temperature tides and their ionospheric responses provides evidence for confirming the new paradigm of atmosphere-ionosphere coupling. This paper provides also new experimental results which give an explanation why the WN4 and partly WN3 longitude structures are so prominent pattern in the ionosphere. These results present evidence indicating that the WN4 (WN3) structure is not generated only by the DE3 (DE2) tide as it has been often assumed. The DE3 (DE2) tide remains the leading contributor, but the SPW4 and SE2 (SPW3, DW4 and SE1) waves have their effects as well in a way that the ionospheric response becomes almost double (1.5 time stronger). The paper presents also the global distribution and temporal variability of the sun-synchronous 24-h (DW1), 12-h (SW2) and 8-h (TW3) electron density oscillations. It has been shown that while the latitude and altitude structure of the ionospheric SW2 response is predominantly shaped by the migrating SW2 tide forced from below the DW1 response is mainly due to daily variability of the photo-ionization. The peculiar vertical structure of the ionospheric TW3 response, that shows downward/upward phase progression, calls for further study of the physical processes shaping this ionospheric response.


Nonmigrating tides Ionospheric response Modulated vertical plasma drift “Fountain effect” 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geophysical InstituteBulg. Acad. SciencesSofiaBulgaria

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