Space Science Reviews

, Volume 166, Issue 1–4, pp 37–70

The First Magnetic Fields

  • Lawrence M. Widrow
  • Dongsu Ryu
  • Dominik R. G. Schleicher
  • Kandaswamy Subramanian
  • Christos G. Tsagas
  • Rudolf A. Treumann
Article

Abstract

We review current ideas on the origin of galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields. We begin by summarizing observations of magnetic fields at cosmological redshifts and on cosmological scales. These observations translate into constraints on the strength and scale magnetic fields must have during the early stages of galaxy formation in order to seed the galactic dynamo. We examine mechanisms for the generation of magnetic fields that operate prior during inflation and during subsequent phase transitions such as electroweak symmetry breaking and the quark–hadron phase transition. The implications of strong primordial magnetic fields for the reionization epoch as well as the first generation of stars are discussed in detail. The exotic, early-Universe mechanisms are contrasted with astrophysical processes that generate fields after recombination. For example, a Biermann-type battery can operate in a proto-galaxy during the early stages of structure formation. Moreover, magnetic fields in either an early generation of stars or active galactic nuclei can be dispersed into the intergalactic medium.

Keywords

Magnetic fields Inflation Early Universe Quark–hadron transition 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. T. Abel, P. Anninos, Y. Zhang, M.L. Norman, New Astron. 2, 181 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. T. Abel, G.L. Bryan, M.L. Norman, Science 295, 93 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. J. Adamek, R. Durrer, F. Elisa, M. Vonlanthen, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 6, 17 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. J. Adams, U.H. Danielsson, D. Grasso, H. Rubinstein, Phys. Lett. B 388, 253 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. S. Ando, A. Kusenko, arXiv:1005.1924 (2010)
  6. M. Ando, K. Doi, H. Susa, Astrophys. J. 716, 1566 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. P. Anninos, Y. Zhang, T. Abel, M.L. Norman, New Astron. 2, 209 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. P. Arnold, G.D. Moore, Phys. Rev. D 73, 025006 (2006a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. P. Arnold, G.D. Moore, Phys. Rev. D 73, 025013 (2006b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. P. Arnold, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 16, 2555–2594 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. P. Arnold, G.D. Moore, Phys. Rev. D 76, 045009 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. P. Arnold, P.S. Leang, Phys. Rev. D 76, 065012 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. R.M. Athreya, V.K. Kapahi, P.J. McCarthy, W. van Breugel, Astron. Astrophys. 329, 809 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. R. Banerjee, K. Jedamzik, Phys. Rev. D 70, 123003 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. R. Banerjee, R.E. Pudritz, Astrophys. J. 641, 949 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. R. Banerjee, R.E. Pudritz, L. Holmes, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 355, 248 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. J.D. Barrow, C.G. Tsagas, Phys. Rev. D 77, 107302 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. J.D. Barrow, C.G. Tsagas, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 414, 312 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. J.D. Barrow, P.G. Ferreira, J. Silk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3610–3613 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. A. Brandenburg, Phys. Rev. D 54, 1291 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. I. Brown, R. Crittenden, Phys. Rev. D 72, 063002 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. M.L. Bernet, F. Miniati, S. J Lilly, P.P. Kronber, M. Dessauges-Zavadsky, Nature 454, 302 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. S. Bethke, Eur. Phys. J. C 64, 689–703 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. L. Biermann, Z. Naturforsch. A 5, 65 (1950) MathSciNetADSMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. J.-P. Blaizot, E. Iancu, Phys. Rep. 359, 355 (2002) ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. C. Bonvin, C. Caprini, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 5, 022 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. V. Bromm, R.B. Larson, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 42, 79 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. R.-G. Cai, B. Hu, H.-B. Zhang, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 8, 025 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. C. Caprini, F. Finelli, D. Paoletti, A. Riotto, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 6, 021 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. C.L. Carilli, K.M. Menten, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 40, 319 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. B. Cheng, A.V. Olinto, Phys. Rev. D 50, 2421 (1994) ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. M. Christensson, M. Hindmarsh, A. Brandenburg, Phys. Rev. E 64, 056405 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. J.M. Cornwall, Phys. Rev. D 56, 6146 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. R.A. Daly, A. Loeb, Astrophys. J. 355, 416 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. G. Davies, L.M. Widrow, Astrophys. J. 540, 755 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. V. Demozzi, V. Mukhanov, H. Rubinstein, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 8, 25 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. C.D. Dermer et al., Astrophys. J. 733L, 21 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. R. Durrer, L. Hollenstein, R.K. Jain, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 3, 37 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. R. Durrer, New Astron. Rev. 51, 275 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. R. Durrer, C. Caprini, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 11, 10 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. R. Durrer, P.G. Ferreira, T. Kahniashvili, Phys. Rev. D 61, 043001 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. E. Fenu, C. Pitrou, R. Maartens, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 414, 580 (2011). doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18554.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. G.B. Field, S.M. Carroll, Phys. Rev. D 62, 103008 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. F. Finelli, F. Paci, D. Paoletti, Phys. Rev. D 78, 023510 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. B.D. Fried, Phys. Fluids 2, 337 (1959) MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. U. Frisch et al., J. Fluid Mech. 68, 769 (1975) ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. M. Gasperini, M. Giovannini, G. Veneziano, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3796 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. M. Giovannini, K.E. Kunze, Phys. Rev. D 77, 063003 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. S.C.O. Glover, D.W. Savin, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 393, 911 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. N.Y. Gnedin, A. Ferrara, E.G. Zweibel, Astrophys. J. 539, 505 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. D. Grasso, H.R. Rubinstein, Phys. Rep. 248, 163 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. P.J. Greenberg, Astrophys. J. 164, 589 (1971) MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. A.H. Guth, S.-Y. Pi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1110 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. S.W. Hawking, Phys. Lett. B 115, 295 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. P. Hennebelle, S. Fromang, Astron. Astrophys. 477, 9 (2008) ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. P. Hennebelle, R. Teyssier, Astron. Astrophys. 477, 25 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. B. Himmetoglu, C.R. Contaldi, M. Peloso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 111301 (2009a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. B. Himmetoglu, C.R. Contaldi, M. Peloso, Phys. Rev. D 81, 063528 (2009b) Google Scholar
  59. C.J. Hogan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1488 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. F. Hoyle, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Motion of Gaseous Masses of Cosmical Dimensions, ed. by J.M. Burgers, H.C. van de Hulst (Central Air Documents Office, Dayton, 1949), p. 195 Google Scholar
  61. F. Hoyle, Nature 223, 936 (1969) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. K. Ichiki, K. Takahashi, H. Ohno, H. Hanayama, N. Sugiyama, Science 311, 827 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. K. Ichiki, K. Takahashi, N. Sugiyama, H. Hanayama, H. Ohno, astro-ph/0701329v1 (2006)
  64. J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975) MATHGoogle Scholar
  65. K. Jedamzik, V. Katalinić, A.V. Olinto, Phys. Rev. D 57, 3264 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. K. Jedamzik, V. Katalinić, A.V. Olinto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 700 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. T. Kahniashvili, B. Ratra, Phys. Rev. 71, 103006 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. A.J. Keane, R.K. Barrett, Class. Quantum Gravity 17, 201 (2000) MathSciNetADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. K.-T. Kim, P.P. Kronber, G. Giovannini, T. Vernturi, Nature 341, 720 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. E.-J. Kim, A.V. Olinto, R. Rosner, Astrophys. J. 468, 28 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. E.W. Kolb, M.S. Turner, The Early Universe, Frontiers in Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1990) Google Scholar
  72. E. Komatsu, K.M. Smith, J. Dunkley, C.L. Bennett, B. Gold, G. Hinshaw, N. Jarosik, D. Larson, M.R. Nolta, L. Page, D.N. Spergel, M. Halpern, R.S. Hill, A. Kogut, M. Limon, S.S. Meyer, N. Odegard, G.S. Tucker, J.L. Weiland, E. Wollack, E.L. Wright, arXiv:1001.4538 (2010)
  73. A. Kosowsky, A. Loeb, Astrophys. J. 469, 1 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. P.P. Kronberg, Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 325 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. P.P. Kronberg, Astrophys. J. 676, 70 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. P.P. Kronberg, J.P. Perry, E.L.H. Zukowski, Astrophys. J. 387, 528 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. R.M. Kulsrud, E.G. Zweibel, Rep. Prog. Phys. 71, 046901 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. R.M. Kulsrud, R. Cen, J.P. Ostriker, D. Ryu, Astrophys. J. 480, 481 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. M. Langer, J.-L. Puget, N. Aghanim, Phys. Rev. D 67, 3505 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. R.B. Larson, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 145, 271 (1969) ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. A. Lazarian, Astron. Astrophys. 264, 326 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. A. Lewis, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043011 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. D.H. Lyth, A. Woszczyna, Phys. Rev. D 52, 3338 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. M.N. Machida, K. Omukai, T. Matsumoto, S. Inutsuka, Astrophys. J. Lett. 647, L1 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. A. Mack, T. Kahniashvili, A. Kosowsky, Phys. Rev. D 65, 123004 (2002) MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  86. H. Maki, S. Hajime, Astrophys. J. 609, 467 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. J. Martin, J. Yokoyama, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 1, 25 (2008) ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. St. Mrówczyński, Phys. Lett. B 214, 587 (1988) ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. St. Mrówczyński, Phys. Lett. B 314, 118 (1993) ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. A. Neronov, I. Vovk, Science 328, 73 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. J.A. Peacock, Cosmological Physics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999) MATHGoogle Scholar
  92. P.J.E. Peebles, Astrophys. J. 155, 393 (1969) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. P.J.E. Peebles, Principles of Physical Cosmology. Princeton Series in Physics (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1993) Google Scholar
  94. M.V. Penston, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 144, 425 (1969) ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. C. Pinto, D. Galli, Astron. Astrophys. 484, 17 (2008) ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. C. Pinto, D. Galli, F. Bacciotti, Astron. Astrophys. 484, 1 (2008) ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yu.E. Pokrovsky, A.V. Selikhov, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fis. 47, 11 (1988) [English Translation JETPL 47, 12 (1988)] ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. R.E. Pudritz, J. Silk, Astrophys. J. 342, 650 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. J.A. Quashnock, A. Loeb, D. Spergel, Astrophys. J. Lett. 344, L49 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. B. Ratra, Astrophys. J. 391, L1 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. A. Rebhan, M. Strickland, M. Attems, Phys. Rev. D 78, 045023 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. M.J. Rees, Q. J. R. Astron. Soc. 28, 197 (1987) ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. M.J. Rees, in Cosmical Magnetism, ed. by D. Lynden-Bell (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1994), p. 155 Google Scholar
  104. L.F.S. Rodrigues, R.S. de Souza, R. Opher, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 406, 482 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. P. Romatschke, A. Rebhan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 252301 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. B. Schenke, A. Dumitru, Y. Nara, M. Strickland, J. Phys. G 35, 104101 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. D.R.G. Schleicher, D. Galli, F. Palla, M. Camenzind, R.S. Klessen, M. Bartelmann, S.C.O. Glover, Astron. Astrophys. 490, 521 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. D.R.G. Schleicher, R. Banerjee, R.S. Klessen, Astrophys. J. 692, 236 (2009a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. D.R.G. Schleicher, D. Galli, S.C.O. Glover, R. Banerjee, F. Palla, R. Schneider, R.S. Klessen, Astrophys. J. 703, 1096 (2009b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. D.R.G. Schleicher, Astron. Astrophys. arXiv:1008.3481 (2010)
  111. S. Seager, D.D. Sasselov, D. Scott, Astrophys. J. Lett. 523, L1 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. T.R. Seshadri, K. Subramanian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 101301 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. T.R. Seshadri, K. Subramanian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 081303 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. S.K. Sethi, K. Subramanian, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356, 778 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. S.K. Sethi, Z. Haiman, K. Pandey, arXiv:1005.2942 (2010)
  116. J.R. Shaw, A. Lewis, Phys. Rev. D 81, 043517 (2010) ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. G. Sigl, A.V. Olinto, K. Jedamski, Phys. Rev. D 55, 4582 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. J. Silk, Astrophys. J. 151, 431 (1968) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. J. Silk, M. Langer, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 371, 444 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. D.T. Son, Phys. Rev. D 59, 063008 (1999) MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  121. A.A. Starobinskii, Phys. Lett. B 117, 175 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. H. Stefani, Introduction to General Relativity (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1990) Google Scholar
  123. M.A. Stenrup, A. Larson, N. Elander, Phys. Rev. A 79, 012713 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. M. Strickland, Braz. J. Phys. 37, 762 (2007a) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. M. Strickland, J. Phys. G, Nucl. Part. Phys. 34, S429 (2007b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. K. Subramanian, Astron. Nachr. 327, 333 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. K. Subramanian, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 294, 718 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. K. Subramanian, Astron. Nachr. 331, 110 (2010) ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. K. Subramanian, J.D. Barrow, Phys. Rev. D 58, 083502 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. K. Subramanian, J.D. Barrow, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3575 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. K. Subramanian, D. Narasimha, S.M. Chitre, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 271, 15 (1994) ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. K. Subramanian, T.R. Seshadri, J.D. Barrow, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 344, L31 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. S. Sur, et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 721, L134 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. S.I. Syrovatskii, in Interstellar Gas Dynamics, ed. by H.J. Habbing. IAU Symposium No. 39 (Springer, New York, 1970) Google Scholar
  135. K. Takahashi et al., Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 410, 247 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. J.C. Tan, E.G. Blackman, Astrophys. J. 603, 401 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. H. Tashiro, N. Sugiyama, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 368, 965 (2006a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. H. Tashiro, N. Sugiyama, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 372, 1060 (2006b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. K. Thorne, Astrophys. J. 148, 51 (1967) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. C.G. Tsagas, Class. Quantum Gravity 22, 393 (2005) MathSciNetADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. C.G. Tsagas, A. Kandus, Phys. Rev. D 71, 123506 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. C.G. Tsagas, A. Challinor, R. Maartens, Phys. Rep. 465, 61 (2008) MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. M.S. Turner, L.M. Widrow, Phys. Rev. D 37, 2743 (1988) ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. T. Vachaspati, Phys. Lett. B 265, 258 (1991) ADSGoogle Scholar
  145. E. Weibel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 83 (1959) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. S.D.M. White, Astrophys. J. 286, 38 (1984) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. L.M. Widrow, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 775 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. H. Xu et al., Astrophys. J. Lett. 688, L57 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. A. Yahil, Astrophys. J. 265, 1047 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. D.G. Yamazaki, K. Ichiki, T. Kajino, G.J. Mathews, Phys. Rev. D 77, 043005 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  151. Ya.B. Zel’dovich, Astron. Astrophys. 5, 84 (1970) ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence M. Widrow
    • 1
  • Dongsu Ryu
    • 2
  • Dominik R. G. Schleicher
    • 3
  • Kandaswamy Subramanian
    • 4
  • Christos G. Tsagas
    • 5
  • Rudolf A. Treumann
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and AstronomyQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Astronomy and Space ScienceChungnam National UniversityDaejeonKorea
  3. 3.Institut für AstrophysikGeorg-August-UniversitätGöttingenGermany
  4. 4.IUCAAPune University CampusPuneIndia
  5. 5.Department of PhysicsAristotle University ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  6. 6.ISSIBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations