Space Science Reviews

, Volume 176, Issue 1–4, pp 265–278 | Cite as

Cosmic Rays Through the Solar Hale Cycle

Insights from Ulysses
  • B. Heber


The Ulysses spacecraft had been the first to orbit the Sun over its poles and to explore the heliosphere at these high heliolatitudes. It has now completed three fast latitude scans, two at solar minimum and one at solar maximum. Since its launch in October 1990, this mission has led to several surprising discoveries concerning energetic particles, cosmic rays, Jovian electrons, the solar wind, the heliospheric magnetic field and the global features of the heliosphere. This review addresses the propagation and modulation of cosmic rays and other charged particles from an observational point of view with emphasis on what has been learned from exploring the inner heliosphere to high heliolatitudes.


Cosmic Rays Heliosphere Modulation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte PhysikChristian-Albrechts-Universität zu KielKielGermany

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