Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 176, Issue 1–4, pp 265–278 | Cite as

Cosmic Rays Through the Solar Hale Cycle

Insights from Ulysses
  • B. Heber
Article

Abstract

The Ulysses spacecraft had been the first to orbit the Sun over its poles and to explore the heliosphere at these high heliolatitudes. It has now completed three fast latitude scans, two at solar minimum and one at solar maximum. Since its launch in October 1990, this mission has led to several surprising discoveries concerning energetic particles, cosmic rays, Jovian electrons, the solar wind, the heliospheric magnetic field and the global features of the heliosphere. This review addresses the propagation and modulation of cosmic rays and other charged particles from an observational point of view with emphasis on what has been learned from exploring the inner heliosphere to high heliolatitudes.

Keywords

Cosmic Rays Heliosphere Modulation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. R.A. Burger, M.S. Potgieter, B. Heber, Rigidity dependence of cosmic ray proton latitudinal gradients measured by the Ulysses spacecraft: implications for the diffusion tensor. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 27447–27456 (2000). doi: 10.1029/2000JA000153 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. R.A. Burger, M. Hitge, The effect of a Fisk-type heliospheric magnetic field on cosmic-ray modulation. Astrophys. J. 617, L73–L76 (2004). doi: 10.1086/427076 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. N. De Simone, V. Di Felice, J. Gieseler, M. Boezio, M. Casolino, P. Picozza, B. Heber, PAMELA Collaboration, Latitudinal and radial gradients of galactic cosmic ray protons in the inner heliosphere—PAMELA and Ulysses observations. Astrophys. Space Sci. Trans. (2011, in press) Google Scholar
  4. R.W. Ebert, D.J. McComas, H.A. Elliott, R.J. Forsyth, J.T. Gosling, Bulk properties of the slow and fast solar wind and interplanetary coronal mass ejections measured by Ulysses: three polar orbits of observations. J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 114, 1109 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013631 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. P. Evenson, Cosmic Ray electrons. Space Sci. Rev. 83, 63–74 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. S.E.S. Ferreira, M.S. Potgieter, R.A. Burger, B. Heber, H. Fichtner, The modulation of Jovian and galactic electrons in the heliosphere. I. Latitudinal transport of a few-MeV electrons. J. Geophys. Res. 106(A11), 24979–24988 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. L.A. Fisk, Motion of the footpoints of heliospheric magnetic field lines at the Sun: implications for recurrent energetic particle events at high heliographic latitudes. J. Geophys. Res. 101, 15547–15554 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. L.A. Fisk, J.R. Jokipii, Mechanisms for latitudinal transport of energetic particles in the heliosphere. Space Sci. Rev. 89, 115–124 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. B. Heber, Modulation of galactic and anomalous cosmic rays in the inner heliosphere. Adv. Space Res. 27, 451–460 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. B. Heber, R.G. Marsden, Cosmic Ray modulation over the poles at solar maximum: observations. Space Sci. Rev. 97, 309–319 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. B. Heber, M.S. Potgieter, Galactic cosmic ray observations at different heliospheric latitudes. Adv. Space Res. 26(5), 839–852 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. B. Heber, M.S. Potgieter, Cosmic Rays at high heliolatitudes. Space Sci. Rev. 127, 117–194 (2006). doi: 10.1007/s11214-006-9085-y ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. B. Heber, W. Dröge, H. Kunow, R. Müller-Mellin, G. Wibberenz, P. Ferrando, A. Raviart, C. Paizis, Spatial variation of >106 MeV proton fluxes observed during the Ulysses rapid latitude scan: Ulysses COSPIN/KET results. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1513–1516 (1996a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. B. Heber, W. Dröge, P. Ferrando, L. Haasbroek, H. Kunow, R. Müller-Mellin, C. Paizis, M. Potgieter, A. Raviart, G. Wibberenz, Spatial variation of >40 MeV/n nuclei fluxes observed during Ulysses rapid latitude scan. Astron. Astrophys. 316, 538–546 (1996b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. B. Heber, P. Ferrando, A. Raviart, G. Wibberenz, R. Müller-Mellin, H. Kunow, H. Sierks, V. Bothmer, A. Posner, C. Paizis, M.S. Potgieter, Differences in the temporal variation of galactic cosmic ray electrons and protons: implications from Ulysses at solar minimum. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26(14), 2133–2136 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. B. Heber, G. Wibberenz, M.S. Potgieter, R.A. Burger, S.E.S. Ferreira, R. Müller-Mellin, H. Kunow, P. Ferrando, A.C. Raviart, C. Lopate, F.B. McDonald, H.V. Cane, Ulysses COSPIN/KET observations: charge sign dependence and spatial gradients during the 1990–2000 A>0 solar magnetic cycle. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 10-101029200 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. B. Heber, C. Sarri, G. Paizis, P. Ferrando, A. Raviart, A. Posner, G. Wibberenz, R. Müller-Mellin, H. Kunow, The Ulysses fast latitude scans: COSPIN/KET results. Ann. Geophys. 21, 1275–1288 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. B. Heber, J. Gieseler, P. Dunzlaff, R. Gómez-Herrero, A. Klassen, R. Müller-Mellin, R.A. Mewaldt, M.S. Potgieter, S.E.S. Ferreira, Latitudinal gradients of galactic cosmic rays during the 2007 solar minimum. Astrophys. J. 689, 1443–1447 (2008). doi: 10.1086/592596 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. M. Hitge, R.A. Burger, Cosmic ray modulation with a Fisk-type heliospheric magnetic field and a latitude-dependent solar wind speed. Adv. Space Res. 45, 18–27 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2009.07.024 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. J. Hoeksema, The large-scale structure of the heliospheric current sheet during the ULYSSES epoch. Space Sci. Rev. 72, 137–148 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. J.R. Jokipii, G. Wibberenz, Epilogue: Cosmic Rays in the active heliosphere. Space Sci. Rev. 83, 365–368 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. G.H. Jones, A. Balogh, E.J. Smith, Solar magnetic field reversal as seen at Ulysses. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 2 (2003) Google Scholar
  23. J.H. King, Solar cycle variations in IMF intensity. J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5938–5940 (1979). doi: 10.1029/JA084iA10p05938 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. D.J. McComas, R. Goldstein, J.T. Gosling, R.M. Skoug, Ulysses second orbit: remarkably different solar wind. Space Sci. Rev. 97, 99–103 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. D.J. McComas, R.W. Ebert, H.A. Elliot, B.E. Goldstein, J.T. Gosling, N.A. Schwadron, R.M. Skoug, Ulysses second orbit: remarkably different solar wind. Space Sci. Rev. 97, 99–103 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. R.B. McKibben, Three-dimensional solar modulation of Cosmic Ray and anomalous components in the inner heliosphere. Space Sci. Rev. 83, 21–32 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. R.B. McKibben, C. Lopate, M. Zhang, Modulation near solar maximum at high solar latitudes: observations from the Ulysses cospin high energy telescope. Space Sci. Rev. 97, 367–371 (2001). doi: 10.1023/A:1011810024476 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. R.B. McKibben, J.J. Connell, C. Lopate, J.A. Simson, M. Zhang, Observations of galactic cosmic rays and the anomalous helium during the Ulysses passage from the south pole to the north pole. Astron. Astrophys. 316(2), 547–554 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. R.B. McKibben, J.J. Connell, C. Lopate, J.D. Anglin, A. Balogh, S. Dalla, T.R. Sanderson, R.G. Marsden, M.Y. Hofer, H. Kunow, A. Posner, B. Heber, ULYSSES COSPIN observations of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles from the South Pole to the North Pole of the Sun during solar maximum. Ann. Geophys. 21, 1217–1228 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. J. Minnie, J.W. Bieber, W.H. Matthaeus, R.A. Burger, On the ability of different diffusion theories to account for directly simulated diffusion coefficients. Astrophys. J. 663, 1049–1054 (2007). doi: 10.1086/518765 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. E.N. Parker, The passage of energetic particles through interplanetary space. Planet. Space Sci. 13, 9–49 (1965) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. M.S. Potgieter, S.E.S. Ferreira, R. Burger, Modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere over 11 and 22 year cycles: a modelling perspective. Adv. Space Res. 27, 481–492 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. M. Potgieter, Cosmic Rays in the inner heliosphere: insights from observations, theory and models. Space Sci. Rev. (2011, this issue). doi: 10.1007/s11214-011-9750-7
  34. M. Potgieter, L. Haasbroek, P. Ferrando, B. Heber, The modeling of the latitude dependence of cosmic ray protons and electrons in the inner heliosphere. Adv. Space Res. 19(6), 917–920 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. A. Shalchi, G. Li, G.P. Zank, Analytic forms of the perpendicular cosmic ray diffusion coefficient for an arbitrary turbulence spectrum and applications on transport of Galactic protons and acceleration at interplanetary shocks. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 325, 99–111 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s10509-009-0168-6 zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  36. J.A. Simpson, M. Zhang, S. Bame, A solar polar North-South asymmetry for Cosmic-Ray propagation in the heliosphere: the ULYSSES pole-to-pole rapid transit. Astrophys. J. 465, 69 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. E.J. Smith, A. Balogh, R.J. Forsyth, D.J. McComas, Ulysses in the south polar cap at solar maximum: heliospheric magnetic field. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4159 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. O. Sternal, Evidence for a Fisk-type heliospheric magnetic field in Ulysses/ket electron observations. PhD thesis, Christian-Albrechts-University, Kiel, Germany, 2010 Google Scholar
  39. Y. Wang, E. Robbrecht, N.R. Sheeley, On the weakening of the polar magnetic fields during Solar Cycle 23. Astrophys. J. 707, 1372–1386 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/707/2/1372 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. K.P. Wenzel, R.G. Marsden, D.E. Page, E.J. Smith, The ULYSSES Mission. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 92, 207 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. X. Zhou, E.J. Smith, Solar cycle variations of heliospheric magnetic flux. J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 114, 3106 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013421 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. T.H. Zurbuchen, N.A. Schwadron, L.A. Fisk, Direct observational evidence for a heliospheric magnetic field with large excursions in latitude. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 24175–24182 (1997). doi: 10.1029/97JA02194 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte PhysikChristian-Albrechts-Universität zu KielKielGermany

Personalised recommendations