Space Science Reviews

, Volume 166, Issue 1, pp 97–132

Cosmic Rays in Galactic and Extragalactic Magnetic Fields

  • Felix Aharonian
  • Andrei Bykov
  • Etienne Parizot
  • Vladimir Ptuskin
  • Alan Watson

DOI: 10.1007/s11214-011-9770-3

Cite this article as:
Aharonian, F., Bykov, A., Parizot, E. et al. Space Sci Rev (2012) 166: 97. doi:10.1007/s11214-011-9770-3


We briefly review sources of cosmic rays, their composition and spectra as well as their propagation in the galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, both regular and fluctuating. A special attention is paid to the recent results of the X-ray and gamma-ray observations that shed light on the origin of the galactic cosmic rays and the challenging results of Pierre Auger Observatory on the ultra high energy cosmic rays. The perspectives of both high energy astrophysics and cosmic-ray astronomy to identify the sources of ultra high energy cosmic rays, the mechanisms of particle acceleration, to measure the intergalactic radiation fields and to reveal the structure of magnetic fields of very different scales are outlined.


Cosmic rays, ISM (ISM:) supernova remnants Clusters of galaxies Shock waves Magnetic fields 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felix Aharonian
    • 1
    • 2
  • Andrei Bykov
    • 3
  • Etienne Parizot
    • 4
  • Vladimir Ptuskin
    • 5
  • Alan Watson
    • 6
  1. 1.Center for Astroparticle Physics and AstrophysicsDIASDublinIreland
  2. 2.MPIKHeidelbergGermany
  3. 3.Ioffe Institute for Physics and TechnologySt. PetersburgRussia
  4. 4.APCUniversité Paris Diderot 10Paris Cedex 13France
  5. 5.Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial MagnetismIonosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Science (IZMIRAN)TroitskRussia
  6. 6.School of Physics and Astronomy University of LeedsLeedsUK

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