Space Science Reviews

, Volume 167, Issue 1, pp 93–140

LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) Observation Campaign: Strategies, Implementation, and Lessons Learned

  • Jennifer L. Heldmann
  • Anthony Colaprete
  • Diane H. Wooden
  • Robert F. Ackermann
  • David D. Acton
  • Peter R. Backus
  • Vanessa Bailey
  • Jesse G. Ball
  • William C. Barott
  • Samantha K. Blair
  • Marc W. Buie
  • Shawn Callahan
  • Nancy J. Chanover
  • Young-Jun Choi
  • Al Conrad
  • Dolores M. Coulson
  • Kirk B. Crawford
  • Russell DeHart
  • Imke de Pater
  • Michael Disanti
  • James R. Forster
  • Reiko Furusho
  • Tetsuharu Fuse
  • Tom Geballe
  • J. Duane Gibson
  • David Goldstein
  • Stephen A. Gregory
  • David J. Gutierrez
  • Ryan T. Hamilton
  • Taiga Hamura
  • David E. Harker
  • Gerry R. Harp
  • Junichi Haruyama
  • Morag Hastie
  • Yutaka Hayano
  • Phillip Hinz
  • Peng K. Hong
  • Steven P. James
  • Toshihiko Kadono
  • Hideyo Kawakita
  • Michael S. Kelley
  • Daryl L. Kim
  • Kosuke Kurosawa
  • Duk-Hang Lee
  • Michael Long
  • Paul G. Lucey
  • Keith Marach
  • Anthony C. Matulonis
  • Richard M. McDermid
  • Russet McMillan
  • Charles Miller
  • Hong-Kyu Moon
  • Ryosuke Nakamura
  • Hirotomo Noda
  • Natsuko Okamura
  • Lawrence Ong
  • Dallan Porter
  • Jeffery J. Puschell
  • John T. Rayner
  • J. Jedadiah Rembold
  • Katherine C. Roth
  • Richard J. Rudy
  • Ray W. Russell
  • Eileen V. Ryan
  • William H. Ryan
  • Tomohiko Sekiguchi
  • Yasuhito Sekine
  • Mark A. Skinner
  • Mitsuru Sôma
  • Andrew W. Stephens
  • Alex Storrs
  • Robert M. Suggs
  • Seiji Sugita
  • Eon-Chang Sung
  • Naruhisa Takatoh
  • Jill C. Tarter
  • Scott M. Taylor
  • Hiroshi Terada
  • Chadwick J. Trujillo
  • Vidhya Vaitheeswaran
  • Faith Vilas
  • Brian D. Walls
  • Jun-ihi Watanabe
  • William J. Welch
  • Charles E. Woodward
  • Hong-Suh Yim
  • Eliot F. Young
Open Access
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11214-011-9759-y

Cite this article as:
Heldmann, J.L., Colaprete, A., Wooden, D.H. et al. Space Sci Rev (2012) 167: 93. doi:10.1007/s11214-011-9759-y

Abstract

NASA’s LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission was designed to explore the nature of previously detected enhanced levels of hydrogen near the lunar poles. The LCROSS mission impacted the spent upper stage of the launch vehicle into a permanently shadowed region of the lunar surface to create an ejecta plume. The resultant impact crater and plume were then observed by the LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft as well as a cadre of telescopes on the Earth and in space to determine the nature of the materials contained within the permanently shadowed region. The Shepherding Spacecraft then became a second impactor which was also observed by multiple assets.

The LCROSS Observation Campaign was a key component of the LCROSS mission. The goal of the Observation Campaign was to realize the scientific benefits of extending the LCROSS observations to multiple ground and space-based assets.

This paper describes the LCROSS Observation Campaign and provides an overview of the Campaign coordination and logistics as well as a summary of the observation techniques utilized at a multitude of observatories. Lessons learned from the LCROSS Observation Campaign are also discussed to assist with the planning of future unique observing events.

Keywords

Moon Missions Observations Telescopes 
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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer L. Heldmann
    • 1
  • Anthony Colaprete
    • 1
  • Diane H. Wooden
    • 1
  • Robert F. Ackermann
    • 2
  • David D. Acton
    • 3
  • Peter R. Backus
    • 4
  • Vanessa Bailey
    • 21
  • Jesse G. Ball
    • 10
  • William C. Barott
    • 4
  • Samantha K. Blair
    • 4
  • Marc W. Buie
    • 5
  • Shawn Callahan
    • 6
  • Nancy J. Chanover
    • 7
  • Young-Jun Choi
    • 8
  • Al Conrad
    • 9
  • Dolores M. Coulson
    • 10
  • Kirk B. Crawford
    • 2
  • Russell DeHart
    • 11
  • Imke de Pater
    • 12
  • Michael Disanti
    • 13
  • James R. Forster
    • 12
  • Reiko Furusho
    • 14
  • Tetsuharu Fuse
    • 15
  • Tom Geballe
    • 10
  • J. Duane Gibson
    • 6
  • David Goldstein
    • 16
  • Stephen A. Gregory
    • 17
  • David J. Gutierrez
    • 2
  • Ryan T. Hamilton
    • 7
  • Taiga Hamura
    • 18
  • David E. Harker
    • 19
  • Gerry R. Harp
    • 4
  • Junichi Haruyama
    • 20
  • Morag Hastie
    • 6
  • Yutaka Hayano
    • 15
  • Phillip Hinz
    • 21
  • Peng K. Hong
    • 18
  • Steven P. James
    • 22
  • Toshihiko Kadono
    • 23
  • Hideyo Kawakita
    • 24
  • Michael S. Kelley
    • 25
  • Daryl L. Kim
    • 2
  • Kosuke Kurosawa
    • 18
  • Duk-Hang Lee
    • 26
    • 8
  • Michael Long
    • 27
  • Paul G. Lucey
    • 28
  • Keith Marach
    • 3
  • Anthony C. Matulonis
    • 10
  • Richard M. McDermid
    • 10
  • Russet McMillan
    • 29
    • 7
  • Charles Miller
    • 7
  • Hong-Kyu Moon
    • 8
  • Ryosuke Nakamura
    • 30
  • Hirotomo Noda
    • 14
  • Natsuko Okamura
    • 18
  • Lawrence Ong
    • 31
  • Dallan Porter
    • 6
  • Jeffery J. Puschell
    • 32
  • John T. Rayner
    • 33
  • J. Jedadiah Rembold
    • 34
  • Katherine C. Roth
    • 10
  • Richard J. Rudy
    • 2
  • Ray W. Russell
    • 2
  • Eileen V. Ryan
    • 34
  • William H. Ryan
    • 34
  • Tomohiko Sekiguchi
    • 35
  • Yasuhito Sekine
    • 18
  • Mark A. Skinner
    • 17
  • Mitsuru Sôma
    • 14
  • Andrew W. Stephens
    • 10
  • Alex Storrs
    • 36
  • Robert M. Suggs
    • 37
  • Seiji Sugita
    • 38
  • Eon-Chang Sung
    • 8
  • Naruhisa Takatoh
    • 15
  • Jill C. Tarter
    • 4
  • Scott M. Taylor
    • 3
  • Hiroshi Terada
    • 15
  • Chadwick J. Trujillo
    • 10
  • Vidhya Vaitheeswaran
    • 21
  • Faith Vilas
    • 6
  • Brian D. Walls
    • 10
  • Jun-ihi Watanabe
    • 14
  • William J. Welch
    • 12
  • Charles E. Woodward
    • 39
  • Hong-Suh Yim
    • 8
  • Eliot F. Young
    • 5
  1. 1.Division of Space Sciences and AstrobiologyNASA Ames Research CenterMoffett FieldUSA
  2. 2.The Aerospace CorporationLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Raytheon Vision SystemsGoletaUSA
  4. 4.SETI InstituteMountain ViewUSA
  5. 5.Southwest Research InstituteBoulderUSA
  6. 6.MMT ObservatoryTucsonUSA
  7. 7.Astronomy DepartmentNew Mexico State UniversityLas CrucesUSA
  8. 8.Korea Astronomy and Space Science InstituteDaejeonSouth Korea
  9. 9.Keck ObservatoryMauna KeaUSA
  10. 10.Gemini ObservatoryHiloUSA
  11. 11.Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc.GreenbeltUSA
  12. 12.UC BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  13. 13.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  14. 14.National Astronomical Observatory of JapanMitaka, TokyoJapan
  15. 15.Subaru TelescopeNational Astronomical Observatory of JapanHiloJapan
  16. 16.University of TexasAustinUSA
  17. 17.Boeing LTSKiheiUSA
  18. 18.Department of Complexity Science and EngineeringUniversity of TokyoKashiwa, ChibaJapan
  19. 19.Center for Astronomy and Space ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaSan DiegoUSA
  20. 20.Institute of Space and Astronautical ScienceJAXASagamihara, KanagawaJapan
  21. 21.Steward ObservatoryUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  22. 22.Capt USAF, AFRL/RDSM Det 15AF Maui Optical and Supercomputing Site (AMOS)KiheiUSA
  23. 23.Institute of Laser EngineeringOsaka University, SuitaOsakaJapan
  24. 24.Department of PhysicsKyoto Sangyo UniversityKita-ku, KyotoJapan
  25. 25.Department of AstronomyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  26. 26.University of Science and TechnologyDaejeonSouth Korea
  27. 27.Premiere WirelessOrangeUSA
  28. 28.Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and PlanetologyUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA
  29. 29.Apache Point ObservatorySunspotUSA
  30. 30.National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyTsukuba, IbarakiJapan
  31. 31.NASA Goddard/Science Systems and Applications, Inc.GreenbeltUSA
  32. 32.Raytheon Space and Airborne SystemsEl SegundoUSA
  33. 33.Institute for AstronomyUniversity of HawaiiHiloUSA
  34. 34.New Mexico TechSocorroUSA
  35. 35.Hokkaido University of EducationKita-ku, SapporoJapan
  36. 36.Towson UniversityTowsonUSA
  37. 37.NASA Marshall Space Flight CenterHuntsvilleUSA
  38. 38.University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  39. 39.Department of AstronomyUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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