Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 157, Issue 1–4, pp 57–91 | Cite as

Charge Transfer Reactions

  • Konrad DennerlEmail author
Open Access
Article

Abstract

Charge transfer, or charge exchange, describes a process in which an ion takes one or more electrons from another atom. Investigations of this fundamental process have accompanied atomic physics from its very beginning, and have been extended to astrophysical scenarios already many decades ago. Yet one important aspect of this process, i.e. its high efficiency in generating X-rays, was only revealed in 1996, when comets were discovered as a new class of X-ray sources. This finding has opened up an entirely new field of X-ray studies, with great impact due to the richness of the underlying atomic physics, as the X-rays are not generated by hot electrons, but by ions picking up electrons from cold gas. While comets still represent the best astrophysical laboratory for investigating the physics of charge transfer, various studies have already spotted a variety of other astrophysical locations, within and beyond our solar system, where X-rays may be generated by this process. They range from planetary atmospheres, the heliosphere, the interstellar medium and stars to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, where charge transfer may even be observationally linked to dark matter. This review attempts to put the various aspects of the study of charge transfer reactions into a broader historical context, with special emphasis on X-ray astrophysics, where the discovery of cometary X-ray emission may have stimulated a novel look at our universe.

Keywords

Charge transfer Charge exchange Atomic physics X-rays Ions Energetic neutral atoms Nuclear fusion X-ray astronomy History Solar wind Comets Moon Planets Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Heliosphere X-ray background Local bubble Interstellar medium North polar spur Supernova remnants Stars Galaxies Clusters of galaxies Dark matter Rosat EUVE BeppoSAX Chandra XMM-Newton Suzaku ASTRO-H IXO 

References

  1. R. Ali, C.L. Cocke, M.L.A. Raphaelian, M. Stockli, Multielectron processes in 10-keV/u Arq+ (5≤q≤17) on Ar collisions. Phys. Rev. A 49, 3586–3596 (1994). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.49.3586 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. R.J. Allan, R.E.S. Clegg, A.S. Dickinson, D.R. Flower, Mg-H(+) charge transfer and MG line intensities in gaseous nebulae. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 235, 1245–1255 (1988) ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. S.K. Allison, S.D. Warshaw, Passage of heavy particles through matter. Rev. Mod. Phys. 25, 779–817 (1953). doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.25.779 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. M. Arnaud, N. Aghanim, R. Gastaud, D.M. Neumann, D. Lumb, U. Briel, B. Altieri, S. Ghizzardi, J. Mittaz, T.P. Sasseen, W.T. Vestrand, XMM-Newton observation of the Coma Galaxy cluster. The temperature structure in the central region. Astron. Astrophys. 365, 67–73 (2001). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20000195 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. W. Baade, F. Zwicky, Remarks on super-novae and cosmic rays. Phys. Rev. 46(1), 76-77 (1934). doi: 10.1103/PhysRev.46.76.2 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. S.L. Baliunas, S.E. Butler, Silicon lines as spectral diagnostics—The effect of charge transfer. Astrophys. J. 235, 45–48 (1980). doi: 10.1086/183154 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. S.J. Bame, A.J. Hundhausen, J.R. Asbridge, I.B. Strong, Solar wind ion composition. Phys. Rev. Lett. 20, 393–395 (1968). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.20.393 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. S.J. Bame, D.J. McComas, B.L. Barraclough, J.L. Phillips, K.J. Sofaly, J.C. Chavez, B.E. Goldstein, R.K. Sakurai, The ULYSSES solar wind plasma experiment. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 92, 237–265 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. S. Barabash, R. Lundin, T. Zarnowiecki, S. Grzedzielski, Diagnostic of energetic neutral particles at Mars by the ASPERA-C instrument for the Mars 96 mission. Adv. Space Res. 16, 81 (1995). doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(95)00212-W ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. P. Beiersdorfer, Laboratory X-ray astrophysics. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 41, 343–390 (2003). doi: 10.1146/annurev.astro.41.011802.094825 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. P. Beiersdorfer, L. Schweikhard, R. Olson, G.V. Brown, S.B. Utter, J.R. Crespo López-Urrutia, K. Widmann, X-ray measurements of charge transfer reactions involving cold, very highly charged ions. Phys. Scr. T 80, 121–123 (1999). doi: 10.1238/Physica.Topical.080a00121 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. P. Beiersdorfer, R.E. Olson, G.V. Brown, H. Chen, C.L. Harris, P.A. Neill, L. Schweikhard, S.B. Utter, K. Widmann, X-ray emission following low-energy charge exchange collisions of highly charged ions. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(24), 5090–5093 (2000). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.85.5090 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. P. Beiersdorfer, C.M. Lisse, R.E. Olson, G.V. Brown, H. Chen, X-ray velocimetry of solar wind ion impact on comets. Astrophys. J. 549, 47 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. P. Beiersdorfer, K.R. Boyce, G.V. Brown, H. Chen, S.M. Kahn, R.L. Kelley, M. May, R.E. Olson, F.S. Porter, C.K. Stahle, W.A. Tillotson, Laboratory simulation of charge exchange—produced X-ray emission from comets. Science 300, 1558–1559 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. A. Bhardwaj, X-Ray Emission from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth: A short review. ArXiv Astrophysics e-prints, 2006 Google Scholar
  16. A. Bhardwaj, R.F. Elsner, J.H.J. Waite, G.R. Gladstone, T.E. Cravens, P.G. Ford, Chandra observation of an X-ray flare at Saturn: evidence of direct solar control on Saturn’s disk X-ray emissions. Astrophys. J. 624, 121 (2005a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. A. Bhardwaj, G. Branduardi-Raymont, R.F. Elsner, G.R. Gladstone, G. Ramsay, P. Rodriguez, R. Soria, J.H. Waite Jr., T.E. Cravens, Solar control on Jupiter’s equatorial X-ray emissions: 26–29 November 2003 XMM-Newton observation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, 3 (2005b) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. A. Bhardwaj, R.F. Elsner, J.H.J. Waite, G.R. Gladstone, T.E. Cravens, P.G. Ford, The discovery of oxygen Kα X-ray emission from the rings of saturn. Astrophys. J. 627, 73–76 (2005c). doi: 10.1086/431933 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. A. Bhardwaj, R.F. Elsner, G.R. Gladstone, J.H. Waite, G. Branduardi-Raymont, T.E. Cravens, P.G. Ford, Low- to middle-latitude X-ray emission from Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), 11225 (2006). doi: 10.1029/2006JA011792 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. A. Bhardwaj, R.F. Elsner, G. Randall Gladstone, T.E. Cravens, C.M. Lisse, K. Dennerl, G. Branduardi-Raymont, B.J. Wargelin, J. Hunter Waite, I. Robertson, N. Østgaard, P. Beiersdorfer, S.L. Snowden, V. Kharchenko, X-rays from solar system objects. Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1135–1189 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2006.11.009 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. L. Biermann, Kometenschweife und solare Korpuskularstrahlung. Z. Astrophys. 29, 274 (1951) ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. L. Biermann, Physical processes in comet tails and their relation to solar activity. Phys. Comètes, Extr. Mem. Soc. R. Sci. Liège, 4 Sér. XIII(I–II), 291 (1953) Google Scholar
  23. R. Bingham, J.M. Dawson, V.D. Shapiro, D.A. Mendis, B.J. Kellett, Generation of X-rays from Comet C/Hyakutake 1996 B2. Science 275, 49–51 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. R. Bingham, J.M. Dawson, V.D. Shapiro, D.A. Mendis, B.J. Kellett, Production of X-rays by comet Hyakutake. Adv. Space Res. 22(7), 1043 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. R.J. Blint, W.D. Watson, R.B. Christensen, Calculation of the cross section for C IV-H charge exchange: significance for interstellar X-rays particles. Astrophys. J. 205, 634–637 (1976). doi: 10.1086/154320 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. D. Bodewits, R. Hoekstra, Electron capture in collisions between O6+ ions and H2O molecules. Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 032703 (2007). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.032703 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. D. Bodewits, R. Hoekstra, B. Seredyuk, R.W. McCullough, G.H. Jones, A.G.G.M. Tielens, Charge exchange emission from solar wind helium ions. Astrophys. J. 642, 593–605 (2006). doi: 10.1086/500731 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. D. Bodewits, D.J. Christian, M. Torney, M. Dryer, C.M. Lisse, K. Dennerl, T.H. Zurbuchen, S.J. Wolk, A.G.G.M. Tielens, R. Hoekstra, Spectral analysis of the Chandra comet survey. Astron. Astrophys. 469, 1183–1195 (2007). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20077410 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. N. Bohr, K. Lindhard, Electron capture and loss by heavy ions penetrating through matter. K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd. 28, 1 (1954) Google Scholar
  30. A. Boileau, M. Von Hellermann, L.D. Horton, J. Spence, H.P. Summers, The deduction of low-Z ion temperature and densities in the JET tokamak using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 31, 779–804 (1989). doi: 10.1088/0741-3335/31/5/006 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. S.N. Borovikov, N.V. Pogorelov, G.P. Zank, I.A. Kryukov, Consequences of the heliopause instability caused by charge exchange. Astrophys. J. 682, 1404–1415 (2008). doi: 10.1086/589634 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. S. Bowyer, A. Vikhlinin, Detection of emission from warm-hot gas in the Universe with XMM? J. Korean Astron. Soc. 37, 579–581 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. G. Branduardi-Raymont, R.F. Elsner, G.R. Gladstone, G. Ramsay, P. Rodriguez, R. Soria, J.H. Waite, First observation of Jupiter by XMM-Newton. Astron. Astrophys. 424, 331–337 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. G. Branduardi-Raymont, A. Bhardwaj, R.F. Elsner, G.R. Gladstone, G. Ramsay, P. Rodriguez, R. Soria, J.H. Waite Jr., T.E. Cravens, XMM-Newton observations of X-ray emission from Jupiter, in The X-ray Universe 2005, ed. by A. Wilson. ESA Special Publication, vol. 604 (2006), pp. 15–20 Google Scholar
  35. G. Branduardi-Raymont, A. Bhardwaj, R.F. Elsner, G.R. Gladstone, G. Ramsay, P. Rodriguez, R. Soria, J.H. Waite Jr., T.E. Cravens, A study of Jupiter’s aurorae with XMM-Newton. Astron. Astrophys. 463, 761–774 (2007a). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20066406 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. G. Branduardi-Raymont, A. Bhardwaj, R.F. Elsner, G.R. Gladstone, G. Ramsay, P. Rodriguez, R. Soria, J.H. Waite, T.E. Cravens, Latest results on Jovian disk X-rays from XMM-Newton. Planet. Space Sci. 55, 1126–1134 (2007b). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2006.11.017 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. G. Branduardi-Raymont, R.F. Elsner, M. Galand, D. Grodent, T.E. Cravens, P. Ford, G.R. Gladstone, J.H. Waite, Spectral morphology of the X-ray emission from Jupiter’s aurorae. J. Geophys. Res. 113(A12), 2202 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2007JA012600 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. G. Branduardi-Raymont, A. Bhardwaj, R.F. Elsner, P. Rodriguez, X-rays from Saturn: a study with XMM-Newton and Chandra over the years 2002–05. Astron. Astrophys. 510(26), 260000 (2010). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913110 Google Scholar
  39. J.N. Bregman, E.J. Lloyd-Davies, On the lack of a soft X-ray excess from clusters of galaxies. Astrophys. J. 644, 167–173 (2006). doi: 10.1086/503551 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. E.J. Bunce, S.W.H. Cowley, T.K. Yeoman, Jovian cusp processes: implications for the polar aurora. J. Geophys. Res. 109(A18), 9 (2004). doi: 10.1029/2003JA010280 Google Scholar
  41. R.W. Bussard, R. Ramaty, K. Omidvar, X-ray and gamma-ray line production by nonthermal ions. Astrophys. J. 220, 353–362 (1978). doi: 10.1086/155913 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. C.D. Cantrell, M.O. Scully, K. Boyer, Review of soft X-ray lasers using charge exchange. NASA STI/Recon Technical Report N 75, 27365 (1974) Google Scholar
  43. P.G. Carolan, B.P. Duval, A.R. Field, S.J. Fielding, N.C. Hawkes, N.J. Peacock, G. Fussmann, G. Janeschitz, J. Hofmann, K.H. Behringer, R.C. Isler, Charge-exchange-excited line radiation in a tokamak (ASDEX) with neutral-particle-beam injection. Phys. Rev. A 35, 3454–3471 (1987). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.35.3454 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. J.A. Carter, S. Sembay, Identifying XMM-Newton observations affected by solar wind charge exchange. Part I. Astron. Astrophys. 489, 837–848 (2008). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:200809997 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. J.A. Carter, S. Sembay, A.M. Read, A high charge state coronal mass ejection seen through solar wind charge exchange emission as detected by XMM-Newton. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 402, 867–878 (2010). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15985.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. J.W. Chamberlain, Excitation in Nebulae: electron-hydrogen inelastic collisions in a radiative H II region. Astrophys. J. 124, 662 (1956). doi: 10.1086/146276 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. J. Chesnel, B. Sulik, H. Merabet, C. Bedouet, F. Frémont, X. Husson, M. Grether, A. Spieler, N. Stolterfoht, Enhancement of dielectronic processes in Ne10+ + He collisions at low keV energies. Phys. Rev. A 57, 3546–3553 (1998). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.57.3546 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. B. Chi, L. Liu, J. Wang, NUCLEAR PHYSICS: Calculations of state-selective differential cross sections for charge transfer in collisions between O3+ and H2. Chin. Phys. B 17, 2890–2896 (2008). doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/17/8/023 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. R.B. Christensen, W.D. Watson, R.J. Blint, Calculation of the cross section for N IV-H charge-exchange significance for the intercloud gas. Astrophys. J. 213, 712–715 (1977). doi: 10.1086/155201 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. D.J. Christian, D. Bodewits, C.M. Lisse, K. Dennerl, S.J. Wolk, H. Hsieh, T.H. Zurbuchen, L. Zhao, Chandra observations of comets 8p/Tuttle and 17p/Holmes during solar minimum. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 187, 447–459 (2010). doi: 10.1088/0067-0049/187/2/447 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. K.R. Cornelius, K. Wojtkowski, R.E. Olson, State-selective cross section scalings for electron capture collisions. J. Phys. B, At. Mol. Phys. 33, 2017–2035 (2000). doi: 10.1088/0953-4075/33/11/304 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. D.P. Cox, Modeling the local bubble, in Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 506 (Springer, Berlin, 1998), pp. 121–131 Google Scholar
  53. T.E. Cravens, Comet Hyakutake X-ray source: Charge transfer of solar wind heavy ions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 105–108 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. T.E. Cravens, Heliospheric X-ray emission associated with charge transfer of the solar wind with interstellar neutrals. Astrophys. J. 532, 153 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. T.E. Cravens, A.N. Maurellis, X-ray emission from scattering and fluorescence of solar X-rays at Venus and Mars. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(15), 3043–3046 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. T.E. Cravens, E. Howell, J.H. Waite, G.R. Gladstone, Auroral oxygen precipitation at Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 17153–17162 (1995). doi: 10.1029/95JA00970 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. T.E. Cravens, I.P. Robertson, S.L. Snowden, Temporal variations of geocoronal and heliospheric X-ray emission associated with the solar wind interaction with neutrals. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24883–24892 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. T.E. Cravens, J.H. Waite, T.I. Gombosi, N. Lugaz, G.R. Gladstone, B.H. Mauk, R.J. MacDowall, Implications of Jovian X-ray emission for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A12), 25-1 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2003JA010050 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. T.E. Cravens, J. Clark, A. Bhardwaj, R. Elsner, J.H. Waite, A.N. Maurellis, G.R. Gladstone, G. Branduardi-Raymont, X-ray emission from the outer planets: Albedo for scattering and fluorescence of solar X rays. J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), 7308 (2006). doi: 10.1029/2005JA011413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. J.A. Crawford, R.P. Kraft, An interpretation of AE Aquarii. Astrophys. J. 123, 44 (1956). doi: 10.1086/146128 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. C.C. Curtis, K.C. Hsieh, Remote sensing of planetary magnetospheres: imaging via energetic neutral atoms, in Outstanding Problems in Solar System Plasma Physics: Theory and Instrumentation (1989), pp. 247–251 Google Scholar
  62. A. Dalgarno, A. Sternberg, Electron temperatures of astrophysical plasmas. Astrophys. J. 257, 87–90 (1982). doi: 10.1086/183814 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. A. Dalgarno, S.E. Butler, T.G. Heil, Charge transfer of doubly charged oxygen ions in helium. J. Geophys. Res. 85, 6047 (1980). doi: 10.1029/JA085iA11p06047 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. J.W. den Herder, A.C. Brinkman, S.M. Kahn, G. Branduardi-Raymont, K. Thomsen, H. Aarts, M. Audard, J.V. Bixler, A.J. den Boggende, J. Cottam, T. Decker, L. Dubbeldam, C. Erd, H. Goulooze, M. Güdel, P. Guttridge, C.J. Hailey, K.A. Janabi, J.S. Kaastra, P.A.J. de Korte, B.J. van Leeuwen, C. Mauche, A.J. McCalden, R. Mewe, A. Naber, F.B. Paerels, J.R. Peterson, A.P. Rasmussen, K. Rees, I. Sakelliou, M. Sako, J. Spodek, M. Stern, T. Tamura, J. Tandy, C.P. de Vries, S. Welch, A. Zehnder, The reflection grating spectrometer on board XMM-Newton. Astron. Astrophys. 365, 7–17 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. J.W. den Herder, R.L. Kelley, K. Mitsuda, L. Piro, S.R. Bandler, P. Bastia, K.R. Boyce, M. Bruin, J.A. Chervenak, L. Colasanti, W.B. Doriese, M. Dipirro, M.E. Eckart, Y. Ezoe, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, L. Ferrari, R. Fujimoto, F. Gatti, K.C. Gendreau, L. Gottardi, R. den Hartog, G.C. Hilton, H. Hoevers, K.D. Irwin, Y. Ishisaki, A. Kashani, C.A. Kilbourne, P. de Korte, J. van der Kuur, C. Macculi, T. Mineo, J.H. Nieland, T. Ohashi, S. Paltani, E. Perinati, F.S. Porter, P.J. Shirron, S.J. Smith, Y. Takei, M. Tashiro, G. Torrioli, M. Tsujimoto, H. van Weers, N.Y. Yamasaki, The X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer onboard of IXO, in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7732 (2010). doi: 10.1117/12.856018 Google Scholar
  66. K. Dennerl, Discovery of X-rays from Mars with Chandra. Astron. Astrophys. 394, 1119 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. K. Dennerl, X-rays from Mars. Space Sci. Rev. 126, 403–433 (2006). doi: 10.1007/s11214-006-9028-7 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. K. Dennerl, X-rays from Venus observed with Chandra. Planet. Space Sci. 56, 1414–1423 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2008.03.008 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. K. Dennerl, X-rays from nonmagnetic planets, in Advances in Geosciences, vol. 15, ed. by A. Bhardwaj et al. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2009), pp. 53–74 Google Scholar
  70. K. Dennerl, J. Englhauser, J. Trümper, Comet C/1990 N1 (Tsuchiya-Kiuchi). IAU Circ. 6404 (1996a) Google Scholar
  71. K. Dennerl, J. Englhauser, J. Trümper, X-ray detections of comets. IAU Circ. 6413 (1996b) Google Scholar
  72. K. Dennerl, J. Englhauser, J. Trümper, Comet C/1991 A2 (Arai). IAU Circ. 6472 (1996c) Google Scholar
  73. K. Dennerl, J. Englhauser, J. Truemper, C. Lisse, Comet C/1996 Q1 (Tabur). IAU Circ. 6495 (1996d) Google Scholar
  74. K. Dennerl, J. Englhauser, J. Trümper, X-ray emissions from comets detected in the Röntgen X-ray satellite all-sky survey. Science 277, 1625–1630 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. K. Dennerl, V. Burwitz, J. Englhauser, C. Lisse, S. Wolk, Discovery of X-rays from Venus with Chandra. Astron. Astrophys. 386, 319 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. K. Dennerl, B. Aschenbach, V. Burwitz, J. Englhauser, C.M. Lisse, P.M. Rodriguez-Pascual, A major step in understanding the X-ray generation in comets: recent progress obtained with XMM-Newton, in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 4851, ed. by J.E. Truemper, H.D. Tananbaum (2003), pp. 277–288. doi: 10.1117/12.461137 Google Scholar
  77. K. Dennerl, C.M. Lisse, A. Bhardwaj, V. Burwitz, J. Englhauser, H. Gunell, M. Holmström, F. Jansen, V. Kharchenko, P.M. Rodríguez-Pascual, First observation of Mars with XMM-Newton: high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with RGS. Astron. Astrophys. 451, 709 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. K. Dennerl et al. (2011, in preparation) Google Scholar
  79. R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, H. Schmidt-Böcking, Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: a ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics. Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0370-1573(99)00109-X ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. K. Ebisawa, S. Yamauchi, Y. Tanaka, K. Koyama, Y. Ezoe, A. Bamba, M. Kokubun, Y. Hyodo, M. Tsujimoto, H. Takahashi, Spectral study of the galactic ridge X-ray emission with Suzaku. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60, 223 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. E. Edgu-Fry, A. Wech, J. Stuhlman, T.G. Lee, C.D. Lin, C.L. Cocke, Cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy studies of capture from atomic and molecular hydrogen by O8+ and Ar8+. Phys. Rev. A 69(5), 052714 (2004). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.69.052714 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. R.F. Elsner, G.R. Gladstone, J.H. Waite, F.J. Crary, R.R. Howell, R.E. Johnson, P.G. Ford, A.E. Metzger, K.C. Hurley, E.D. Feigelson, G.P. Garmire, A. Bhardwaj, D.C. Grodent, T. Majeed, A.F. Tennant, M.C. Weisskopf, Discovery of soft X-ray emission from Io, Europa, and the Io Plasma Torus. Astrophys. J. 572, 1077–1082 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. R.F. Elsner, N. Lugaz, J.H. Waite Jr., T.E. Cravens, G.R. Gladstone, P. Ford, D. Grodent, A. Bhardwaj, R.J. MacDowall, M.D. Desh, T. Majeed, Simultaneous Chandra X ray, Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet, and Ulysses radio observations of Jupiter’s aurora. J. Geophys. Res. 110, 1207 (2005a) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. R.F. Elsner, B.D. Ramsey, J.H. Waite, P. Rehak, R.E. Johnson, J.F. Cooper, D.A. Swartz, X-ray probes of magnetospheric interactions with Jupiter’s auroral zones, the Galilean satellites, and the Io plasma torus. Icarus 178, 417–428 (2005b). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2005.06.006 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. R.C. Elton, R.H. Dixon, J.F. Seely, X-ray laser pumping and charge transfer, in Adaptive Optics and Short Wavelength Sources, ed. by S.F. Jacobs, M. Sargent III, M.O. Scully (1978), pp. 243–265 Google Scholar
  86. H.J. Fahr, Charge-transfer interactions between solar wind protons and neutral particles in the vicinity of the Sun. Nature 219, 473–474 (1968). doi: 10.1038/219473a0 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. G.B. Field, G. Steigman, Charge transfer and ionization equilibrium in the interstellar medium. Astrophys. J. 166, 59 (1971). doi: 10.1086/150941 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. A. Finoguenov, U.G. Briel, J.P. Henry, XMM-Newton discovery of an X-ray filament in Coma. Astron. Astrophys. 410, 777–784 (2003). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20031319 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. L.A. Frank, E.L. Ackerson, J.H. Wolfe, J.D. Mihalov, Observations of Plasmas in the Jovian Magnetosphere, 1975 Google Scholar
  90. M.J. Freyberg, On the zero-level of the soft X-ray background, in Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 506 (Springer, Berlin, 1998), pp. 113–116 Google Scholar
  91. R. Fujimoto, K. Mitsuda, D. McCammon, Y. Takei, M. Bauer, Y. Ishisaki, S.F. Porter, H. Yamaguchi, K. Hayashida, N.Y. Yamasaki, Evidence for solar-wind charge-exchange X-ray emission from the Earth’s magnetosheath. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 59, 133–140 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. H.O. Funsten, F. Allegrini, G.B. Crew, R. DeMajistre, P.C. Frisch, S.A. Fuselier, M. Gruntman, P. Janzen, D.J. McComas, E. Möbius, B. Randol, D.B. Reisenfeld, E.C. Roelof, N.A. Schwadron, Structures and spectral variations of the outer heliosphere in IBEX energetic neutral atom maps. Science 326, 964 (2009). doi: 10.1126/science.1180927 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. S.A. Fuselier, E.G. Shelley, B.E. Goldstein, R. Goldstein, M. Neugebauer, W.H. Ip, H. Balsiger, H. Rème, Observations of solar wind ion charge exchange in the comet Halley coma. Astrophys. J. 379, 734 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. S.A. Fuselier, F. Allegrini, H.O. Funsten, A.G. Ghielmetti, D. Heirtzler, H. Kucharek, O.W. Lennartsson, D.J. McComas, E. Möbius, T.E. Moore, S.M. Petrinec, L.A. Saul, J.A. Scheer, N. Schwadron, P. Wurz, Width and variation of the ENA flux ribbon observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer. Science 326, 962 (2009). doi: 10.1126/science.1180981 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. M. Galeazzi, A. Gupta, K. Covey, E. Ursino, XMM-Newton observations of the diffuse X-ray background. Astrophys. J. 658, 1081–1087 (2007). doi: 10.1086/512032 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. A.A. Galeev, T.E. Cravens, T.I. Gombosi, Solar wind stagnation near comets. Astrophys. J. 289, 807 (1985) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. H. Geiger, E. Marsden, On a diffuse reflection of the α-particles. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, Math. Phys. Sci. 82, 495–500 (1909) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. R. Giacconi, H. Gursky, F.R. Paolini, Evidence for X rays from sources outside the solar system. Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 439 (1962) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. R. Giacconi, Nobel lecture: The dawn of X-ray astronomy. Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(3), 995 (2003). doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.75.995 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. G.R. Gladstone, J.H. Waite, D. Grodent, W.S. Lewis, F.J. Crary, R.F. Elsner, M.C. Weisskopf, T. Majeed, J.M. Jahn, A. Bhardwaj, J.T. Clarke, D.T. Young, M.K. Dougherty, S.A. Espinosa, T.E. Cravens, A pulsating auroral X-ray hot spot on Jupiter. Nature 415, 1000–1003 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. T.I. Gombosi, M. Horanyi, K. Kecskemety, T.E. Cravens, A.F. Nagy, Charge exchange in solar wind-cometary interactions. Astrophys. J. 268, 889–898 (1983). doi: 10.1086/161011 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. J.B. Greenwood, I.D. Williams, S.J. Smith, A. Chutjian, Measurement of charge exchange and X-ray emission cross sections for solar wind-comet interactions. Astrophys. J. 533, 175 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. J.B. Greenwood, I.D. Williams, S.J. Smith, A. Chutjian, Experimental investigation of the processes determining X-ray emission intensities from charge-exchange collisions. Phys. Rev. A 63(6), 062707 (2001). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.63.062707 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. S. Grzedzielski, D. Rucinski, Expected beams of energetic neutral atoms in the outer heliosphere, in Physics of the Outer Heliosphere, ed. by S. Grzedzielski, D.E. Page (1990), pp. 367–370 Google Scholar
  105. H. Gunell, E. Kallio, R. Jarvinen, P. Janhunen, M. Holmström, K. Dennerl, Simulations of solar wind charge exchange X-ray emissions at Venus. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, 3107 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2006GL028602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. A. Gupta, M. Galeazzi, D. Koutroumpa, R. Smith, R. Lallement, Properties of the diffuse X-ray background toward MBM20 with Suzaku. Astrophys. J. 707, 644–651 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/707/1/644 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. J.P. Halpern, J.E. Grindlay, X-ray photoionized nebulae. Astrophys. J. 242, 1041–1055 (1980). doi: 10.1086/158535 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. M. Harwit, F. Hoyle, Plasma dynamics in comets. II. Influence of magnetic fields. Astrophys. J. 135, 875 (1962). doi: 10.1086/147331 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. A.A. Hasan, F. Eissa, R. Ali, D.R. Schultz, P.C. Stancil, State-selective charge transfer studies relevant to solar wind-comet interactions. Astrophys. J. 560, 201 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. L. Haser, Distribution d’intensite dans la tete d’une comete. Bull. Soc. R. Sci. Liège 43, 740–750 (1957) MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  111. D.B. Henley, R.L. Shelton, Comparing Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations of the soft X-ray background: evidence for solar wind charge exchange emission. Astrophys. J. 676, 335–350 (2008). doi: 10.1086/528924 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. M. Holmström, S. Barabash, E. Kallio, X-ray imaging of the solar wind-Mars interaction. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(7), 1287–1290 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. M. Holmström, S. Barabash, E. Kallio, The solar wind interaction with Venus and Mars: Energetic neutral atom and X-ray imaging, in 34th COSPAR Scientific Assembly. COSPAR, Plenary Meeting, vol. 34 (2002) Google Scholar
  114. M. Horanyi, T.E. Cravens, J.H. Waite Jr., The precipitation of energetic heavy ions into the upper atmosphere of Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7251–7271 (1988). doi: 10.1029/JA093iA07p07251 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. K.C. Hsieh, C.C. Curtis, A model for the spatial and energy distributions of energetic neutral atoms produced within the Saturn/Titan plasma system. Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 772–775 (1988). doi: 10.1029/GL015i008p00772 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. K.C. Hsieh, K. Shih, D.J. McComas, S.T. Wu, C.C. Wu, Forecasting the arrival of fast coronal-mass ejecta at Earth by the detection of 2–20 keV neutral atoms, in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, ed. by S. Chakrabarti. Presented at the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference, vol. 1744 (1992a), pp. 72-78 Google Scholar
  117. K.C. Hsieh, K.L. Shih, J.R. Jokipii, S. Grzedzielski, Probing the heliosphere with energetic hydrogen atoms. Astrophys. J. 393, 756–763 (1992b). doi: 10.1086/171543 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. H.S. Hudson, W.H. Ip, D.A. Mendis, An Einstein search for X-ray emission from comet Bradfield (1979l). Planet. Space Sci. 29, 1373 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Y. Hui, D.R. Schultz, V.A. Kharchenko, P.C. Stancil, T.E. Cravens, C.M. Lisse, A. Dalgarno, The ion-induced charge-exchange X-ray emission of the Jovian Auroras: magnetospheric or solar wind origin? Astrophys. J. 702, 158–162 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/702/2/L158 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. A.J. Hundhausen, H.E. Gilbert, S.J. Bame, The state of ionization of oxygen in the solar wind. Astrophys. J. 152, 3 (1968). doi: 10.1086/180165 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. S. Ibadov, On the efficiency of X-ray generation in impacts of cometary and zodiacal dust particles. Icarus 86, 283–288 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. S. Ibadov, Interplanetary dust interaction with comets: production of X-rays. Adv. Space Res. 17, 1293 (1996) Google Scholar
  123. W. Ip, On the charge exchange loss of energetic charged particles in the Jovian magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 11246–11250 (1981). doi: 10.1029/JA086iA13p11246 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. W.H. Ip, On charge exchange effect in the vicinity of the cometopause of comet Halley. Astrophys. J. 343, 946 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. W.H. Ip, V.W. Chow, NOTE. On Hypervelocity Impact phenomena of microdust and nano X-ray flares in cometary comae. Icarus 130, 217 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. R.C. Isler, An overview of charge-exchange spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 36, 171–208 (1994). doi: 10.1088/0741-3335/36/2/001 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. J.S. Kaastra, R. Lieu, T. Tamura, F.B.S. Paerels, J.W. den Herder, XMM-Newton confirmation of soft X-ray excess emission in clusters of galaxies—The discovery of O VII emission from an extended warm baryonic component. Astron. Astrophys. 397, 445–462 (2003). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021514 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. T.R. Kallman, R. McCray, X-ray nebular models. Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 50, 263 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. T.R. Kallman, P. Palmeri, Atomic data for X-ray astrophysics. Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 79–133 (2007). doi: 10.1103/RevModPhys.79.79 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. E.P. Keath, G.B. Andrews, A.F. Cheng, S.M. Krimigis, B.H. Mauk, D.G. Mitchell, D.J. Williams, Instrumentation for energetic neutral atom imaging of magnetospheres, in Outstanding Problems in Solar System Plasma Physics: Theory and Instrumentation (1989), pp. 165–170 Google Scholar
  131. J. Kerp, J. Pietz, P.M.W. Kalberla, W.B. Burton, R. Egger, M.J. Freyberg, D. Hartmann, U. Mebold, High-velocity clouds and their soft X-ray emission, in IAU Colloq. 166: The Local Bubble and Beyond, ed. by D. Breitschwerdt, M.J. Freyberg, J. Truemper. Lecture Notes in Physics, vol. 506 (Springer, Berlin, 1998), pp. 457–466 Google Scholar
  132. V. Kharchenko, Charge-exchange mechanism of X-ray emission, in X-ray Diagnostics of Astrophysical Plasmas: Theory, Experiment, and Observation, vol. 774, ed. by R.K. Smith (2005), p. 271 Google Scholar
  133. V. Kharchenko, A. Dalgarno, Spectra of cometary X rays induced by solar wind ions. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 18351–18360 (2000). doi: 10.1029/1999JA000203 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. V. Kharchenko, A. Dalgarno, Variability of cometary X-ray emission induced by solar wind ions. Astrophys. J. 554, 99 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. V. Kharchenko, M. Rigazio, A. Dalgarno, V.A. Krasnopolsky, Charge abundances of the solar wind ions inferred from cometary X-ray spectra. Astrophys. J. 585, 73–75 (2003). doi: 10.1086/374209 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. V. Kharchenko, A. Bhardwaj, A. Dalgarno, D.R. Schultz, P.C. Stancil, Modeling spectra of the north and south Jovian X-ray auroras. J. Geophys. Res. 113(A12), 8229 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. E. Kirsch, S.M. Krimigis, W. Ip, G. Gloeckler, X-ray and energetic neutral particle emission from Saturn’s magnetosphere. Nature 292, 718–721 (1981). doi: 10.1038/292718a0 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. D. Koutroumpa, F. Acero, R. Lallement, J. Ballet, V. Kharchenko, O VII and O VIII line emission in the diffuse soft X-ray background: heliospheric and galactic contributions. Astron. Astrophys. 475, 901–914 (2007). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20078271 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. D. Koutroumpa, R. Lallement, V. Kharchenko, A. Dalgarno, The solar wind charge-exchange contribution to the local soft X-ray background. Space Sci. Rev. 87 (2008). doi: 10.1007/s11214-008-9381-9
  140. D. Koutroumpa, R. Lallement, J.C. Raymond, V. Kharchenko, The solar wind charge-transfer X-ray emission in the 1/4 keV energy range: inferences on local bubble hot gas at low Z. Astrophys. J. 696, 1517–1525 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-637X/696/2/1517 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. K. Koyama, X-ray observations of the Galactic Center with Suzaku. Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 169, 103–108 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. S.S. Krasilnikov, A means of obtaining population inversion at the resonant transition of an ion. Pis ma Z. Tekhn. Fiz. 1, 574–578 (1975) Google Scholar
  143. V. Krasnopolsky, On the nature of soft X-ray radiation in Comets. Icarus 128, 368 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. V.A. Krasnopolsky, Production of cometary X rays by electron impact and Bremsstrahlung processes. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18741–18750 (2001). doi: 10.1029/2001JA000018 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. V.A. Krasnopolsky, X rays and solar wind composition in four comets observed with Chandra X-Ray Observatory. J. Geophys. Res. 111(A10), 12102 (2006). doi: 10.1029/2006JA012003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. V.A. Krasnopolsky, M.J. Mumma, Spectroscopy of comet Hyakutake at 80–700 A: first detection of solar wind charge transfer emissions. Astrophys. J. 549, 629 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. V.A. Krasnopolsky, M.J. Mumma, M. Abbott, B.C. Flynn, K.J. Meech, D.K. Yeomans, P.D. Feldman, C.B. Cosmovici, Detection of soft X-rays and a sensitive search for noble gases in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1). Science 277, 1488–1491 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. V.A. Krasnopolsky, M.J. Mumma, M.J. Abbott, EUVE search for X-rays from comets Encke, Mueller (C/1993 A1), Borrelly, and Postperihelion Hale-Bopp. Icarus 146, 152–160 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. V.A. Krasnopolsky, D.J. Christian, V. Kharchenko, A. Dalgarno, S.J. Wolk, C.M. Lisse, S.A. Stern, X-ray emission from comet McNaught-Hartley (C/1999 T1). Icarus 160, 437–447 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. V.A. Krasnopolsky, J.B. Greenwood, P.C. Stancil, X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission from comets. Space Sci. Rev. 113, 271 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  151. S.M. Krimigis, D.G. Mitchell, E.C. Roelof, K.C. Hsieh, D.J. McComas, Imaging the interaction of the heliosphere with the interstellar medium from Saturn with Cassini. Science 326, 971 (2009). doi: 10.1126/science.1181079 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. R. Lallement, On the contribution of charge-exchange induced X-ray emission in the ISM and ICM. Astron. Astrophys. 422, 391–400 (2004a). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20035625 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. R. Lallement, The heliospheric soft X-ray emission pattern during the ROSAT survey: inferences on local bubble hot gas. Astron. Astrophys. 418, 143–150 (2004b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. R. Lallement, Some observations related to the origin and evolution of the Local Bubble/Local ISM. Space Sci. Rev. 143, 427–436 (2009). doi: 10.1007/s11214-008-9428-y ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. L. Landau, On the theory of stars. Phys. Z. Sowjetunion 1, 285 (1932) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  156. L.J. Lanzerotti, C.G. Maclennan, T.P. Armstrong, S.M. Krimigis, R.P. Lepping, N.F. Ness, Ion and electron angular distributions in the Io torus region of the Jovian magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 86, 8491–8496 (1981). doi: 10.1029/JA086iA10p08491 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. C. Lisse, M. Mumma, R. Petre, K. Dennerl, J. Schmitt, J. Englhauser, J. Trümper, Comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). IAU Circ. 6373 (1996a) Google Scholar
  158. C.M. Lisse, K. Dennerl, J. Englhauser, M. Harden, F.E. Marshall, M.J. Mumma, R. Petre, J.P. Pye, M.J. Ricketts, J. Schmitt, J. Trümper, R.G. West, Discovery of X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission from comet C/Hyakutake 1996 B2. Science 274, 205–209 (1996b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. C. Lisse, M. Mumma, R. Petre, K. Dennerl, J. Englhauser, J. Schmitt, J. Truemper, Comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). IAU Circ. 6433 (1996c) Google Scholar
  160. C.M. Lisse, D. Christian, K. Dennerl, J. Englhauser, J. Trümper, M. Desch, F.E. Marshall, R. Petre, S. Snowden, X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission from comet P/Encke 1997. Icarus 141, 316–330 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. C.M. Lisse, D.J. Christian, K. Dennerl, K.J. Meech, R. Petre, H.A. Weaver, S.J. Wolk, Charge exchange-induced X-ray emission from comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). Science 292, 1343–1348 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. C.M. Lisse, T.E. Cravens, K. Dennerl, X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission from comets. Comets II, 631–643 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  163. J. Liu, Q.D. Wang, Z. Li, J.R. Peterson, X-ray spectroscopy of the hot gas in the M31 bulge. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404, 1879–1885 (2010). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16404.x ADSGoogle Scholar
  164. W.H. Louisell, W.B. McKnight, M.O. Scully, Analysis of a soft-X-ray laser with charge-exchange excitation. Phys. Rev. A 11, 989–1000 (1975). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.11.989 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. S. Machida, A. Nishida, Thermal structure of the Jovian plasmasphere. Planet. Space Sci. 26, 745–752 (1978). doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(78)90005-3 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. H.S.W. Massey, E.H.S. Burhop, Electronic and Ionic Impact Phenomena, vol. VIII.6 (Oxford University Press, London, 1952) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  167. H.S.W. Massey, R.A. Smith, The passage of positive ions through gases. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, Math. Phys. Sci. 142, 142–172 (1933) ADSzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. A.N. Maurellis, T.E. Cravens, G.R. Gladstone, J.H. Waite, L.W. Acton, Jovian X-ray emission from solar X-ray scattering. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27(9), 1339–1342 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. R.J. Mawhorter, A. Chutjian, T.E. Cravens, N. Djurić, S. Hossain, C.M. Lisse, J.A. Macaskill, S.J. Smith, J. Simcic, I.D. Williams, Absolute single and multiple charge exchange cross sections for highly charged C, O, and Ne ions on H2O, CO, and CO2. Phys. Rev. A 75(3), 032704 (2007). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.032704 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. D. McCammon, R. Almy, E. Apodaca, W. Bergmann Tiest, W. Cui, S. Deiker, M. Galeazzi, M. Juda, A. Lesser, T. Mihara, J.P. Morgenthaler, W.T. Sanders, J. Zhang, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, R.L. Kelley, S.H. Moseley, R.F. Mushotzky, F.S. Porter, C.K. Stahle, A.E. Szymkowiak, A high spectral resolution observation of the soft X-ray diffuse background with thermal detectors. Astrophys. J. 576, 188–203 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. D.J. McComas, H.A. Elliott, N.A. Schwadron, J.T. Gosling, R.M. Skoug, B.E. Goldstein, The three-dimensional solar wind around solar maximum. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(10), 100000-1 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2003GL017136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. D.J. McComas, F. Allegrini, P. Bochsler, M. Bzowski, E.R. Christian, G.B. Crew, R. DeMajistre, H. Fahr, H. Fichtner, P.C. Frisch, H.O. Funsten, S.A. Fuselier, G. Gloeckler, M. Gruntman, J. Heerikhuisen, V. Izmodenov, P. Janzen, P. Knappenberger, S. Krimigis, H. Kucharek, M. Lee, G. Livadiotis, S. Livi, R.J. MacDowall, D. Mitchell, E. Möbius, T. Moore, N.V. Pogorelov, D. Reisenfeld, E. Roelof, L. Saul, N.A. Schwadron, P.W. Valek, R. Vanderspek, P. Wurz, G.P. Zank, Global observations of the interstellar interaction from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Science 326, 959 (2009). doi: 10.1126/science.1180906 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. A.E. Metzger, D.A. Gilman, J.L. Luthey, K.C. Hurley, H.W. Schnopper, F.D. Seward, J.D. Sullivan, The detection of X-rays from Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 7731 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. G. Metzner, Data acquisition and -evaluation electronics for the Rosat PSPCs. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A, Accel. Spectrom. Detect. Assoc. Equip. 242, 493–500 (1986). doi: 10.1016/0168-9002(86)90453-5 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. E.D. Miller, T. Hiroshi, M.W. Bautz, D. McCammon, R. Fujimoto, J.P. Hughes, S. Katsuda, M. Kokubun, K. Mitsuda, F.S. Porter, Y. Takei, Y. Tsuboi, N.Y. Yamasaki, Suzaku observations of the North Polar Spur: evidence for nitrogen enhancement. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60, 95 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  176. K. Mitsuda, R.L. Kelley, K.R. Boyce, G.V. Brown, E. Costantini, M.J. Dipirro, Y. Ezoe, R. Fujimoto, K.C. Gendreau, J. den Herder, A. Hoshino, Y. Ishisaki, C.A. Kilbourne, S. Kitamoto, D. McCammon, M. Murakami, H. Murakami, M. Ogawa, T. Ohashi, A. Okamoto, S. Paltani, M. Pohl, F.S. Porter, Y. Sato, K. Shinozaki, P.J. Shirron, G.A. Sneiderman, H. Sugita, A. Szymkowiak, Y. Takei, T. Tamagawa, M. Tashiro, Y. Terada, M. Tsujimoto, C. de Vries, H. Yamaguchi, N.Y. Yamasaki, The high-resolution X-ray microcalorimeter spectrometer system for the SXS on ASTRO-H, in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, vol. 7732 (2010). doi: 10.1117/12.856778 Google Scholar
  177. E. Möbius, P. Bochsler, M. Bzowski, G.B. Crew, H.O. Funsten, S.A. Fuselier, A. Ghielmetti, D. Heirtzler, V.V. Izmodenov, M. Kubiak, H. Kucharek, M.A. Lee, T. Leonard, D.J. McComas, L. Petersen, L. Saul, J.A. Scheer, N. Schwadron, M. Witte, P. Wurz, Direct observations of interstellar H, He, and O by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer. Science 326, 969 (2009). doi: 10.1126/science.1180971 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. R.S. Mulliken, Intensities of electronic transitions in molecular spectra II. Charge-transfer spectra. J. Chem. Phys. 7, 20–34 (1939). doi: 10.1063/1.1750319 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. M.J. Mumma, V.A. Krasnopolsky, M.J. Abbott, Soft X-rays from four comets observed with EUVE. Astrophys. J. 491, 125 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. J.U. Ness, J.H.M.M. Schmitt, J. Robrade, Detection of Saturnian X-ray emission with XMM-Newton. Astron. Astrophys. 414, 49–52 (2004a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. J.U. Ness, J.H.M.M. Schmitt, S.J. Wolk, K. Dennerl, V. Burwitz, X-ray emission from Saturn. Astron. Astrophys. 418, 337–345 (2004b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. J. Nevalainen, M. Bonamente, J. Kaastra, Revisiting the soft X-ray excess emission in clusters of galaxies observed with XMM-Newton. Astrophys. J. 656, 733–738 (2007). doi: 10.1086/510325 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. T.G. Northrop, NOTE. The spectrum of X-rays from comet Hyakutake. Icarus 128, 480 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. T.G. Northrop, C.M. Lisse, M.J. Mumma, M.D. Desch, NOTE. A possible source of the X-rays from comet Hyakutake. Icarus 127, 246 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. S. Orsini, I.A. Daglis, M. Candidi, K.C. Hsieh, S. Livi, B. Wilken, Model calculation of energetic neutral atoms precipitation at low altitudes. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 13489 (1994). doi: 10.1029/93JA03270 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. S. Otranto, R.E. Olson, Charge exchange and X-ray emission cross sections for multiply charged ions colliding with H2O. Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 022709 (2008). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.77.022709 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. S. Otranto, R.E. Olson, P. Beiersdorfer, X-ray emission cross sections following charge exchange by multiply charged ions of astrophysical interest. Phys. Rev. A 73(2), 022723 (2006). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.022723 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. S. Otranto, R.E. Olson, P. Beiersdorfer, Cometary X-ray emission: theoretical cross sections following charge exchange by multiply charged ions of astrophysical interest. Can. J. Phys. 86, 171–174 (2008). doi: 10.1139/P07-127 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. A. Owens, A.N. Parmar, T. Oosterbroek, A. Orr, L.A. Antonelli, F. Fiore, R. Schulz, G.P. Tozzi, M.C. Maccarone, L. Piro, Evidence for dust-related X-ray emission from comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Astrophys. J. 493, 47 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. A. Owens, T. Oosterbroek, A. Orr, A.N. Parmar, R. Schulz, L.A. Antonelli, F. Fiore, G.P. Tozzi, M.C. Maccarone, L. Piro, BeppoSAX LECS detection of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Nucl. Phys. B, Proc. Suppl. 69, 735–738 (1999a). doi: 10.1016/S0920-5632(98)00277-1 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. A. Owens, T. Oosterbroek, A. Orr, A.N. Parmar, R. Schulz, Detection of soft X-ray emission from comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). Earth Moon Planets 77, 293–298 (1999b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. R. Pepino, V. Kharchenko, A. Dalgarno, R. Lallement, Spectra of the X-ray emission induced in the interaction between the solar wind and the heliospheric gas. Astrophys. J. 617, 1347 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. D. Pequignot, Charge transfer reactions in some astrophysical situations. Astron. Astrophys. 81, 356–358 (1980a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  194. D. Pequignot, Charge transfer reactions. II—A photoionization model of the planetary nebula NGC 7662. Astron. Astrophys. 83, 52–57 (1980b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  195. D. Pequignot, M. Dennefeld, The Crab nebula. Astron. Astrophys. 120, 249–262 (1983) ADSGoogle Scholar
  196. D. Pequignot, G. Stasińska, S.M.V. Aldrovandi, Charge transfer reactions—A consistent model of the planetary nebula NGC 7027. Astron. Astrophys. 63, 313–324 (1978) ADSGoogle Scholar
  197. E. Pfeffermann, U. Briel, Development and performance of a position sensitive proportional counter for the ROSAT project. Adv. Space Res. 2(4), 255 (1983) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. P.P. Plucinsky, S.L. Snowden, U.G. Briel, G. Hasinger, E. Pfeffermann, An updated calibration of the ROSAT PSPC particle background for the analysis of diffuse and extended sources. Astrophys. J. 418, 519 (1993). doi: 10.1086/173414 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. A.M.T. Pollock, A new paradigm for the X-ray emission of O stars from XMM-Newton observations of the O9.7 supergiant ζ Orionis. Astron. Astrophys. 463, 1111–1123 (2007). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20053838 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. A.K. Pradhan, Recombination-cascade X-ray spectra of highly charged helium-like ions. Astrophys. J. 288, 824 (1985) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. L.P. Presniakov, A.P. Shevelko, Intense X-ray emission in the interaction of a laser plasma with a solid surface. ZhETF Pisma Redaktsiiu 36, 38–40 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  202. P. Ranalli, A. Comastri, L. Origlia, R. Maiolino, A deep X-ray observation of M82 with XMM-Newton. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 386, 1464–1480 (2008). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13128.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. M. Revnivtsev, S. Sazonov, M. Gilfanov, E. Churazov, R. Sunyaev, Origin of the galactic ridge X-ray emission. Astron. Astrophys. 452, 169–178 (2006). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20054268 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. M. Revnivtsev, S. Sazonov, E. Churazov, W. Forman, A. Vikhlinin, R. Sunyaev, Discrete sources as the origin of the galactic X-ray ridge emission. Nature 458, 1142–1144 (2009). doi: 10.1038/nature07946 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. J.E. Rice, E.S. Marmar, J.L. Terry, E. Kaline, J. Kaline, Observation of charge-transfer population of high-n levels in Ar16+ from neutral hydrogen in the ground and excited states in a tokamak plasma. Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 50–53 (1986). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.50 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. M. Rigazio, V. Kharchenko, A. Dalgarno, X-ray emission spectra induced by hydrogenic ions in charge transfer collisions. Phys. Rev. A 66, 064701-1 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. I.P. Robertson, T.E. Cravens, Spatial maps of heliospheric and geocoronal X-ray intensities due to the charge exchange of the solar wind with neutrals. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 6-1 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2003JA009873 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. I.P. Robertson, T.E. Cravens, S. Snowden, T. Linde, Temporal and spatial variations of heliospheric X-ray emissions associated with charge transfer of the solar wind with interstellar neutrals. Space Sci. Rev. 97, 401 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  209. I.P. Robertson, K.D. Kuntz, M.R. Collier, T.E. Cravens, S.L. Snowden, The heliospheric contribution to the soft X-ray background emission, in American Institute of Physics Conference Series, ed. by R.K. Smith, S.L. Snowden, K.D. Kuntz, vol. 1156 (2009), pp. 52–61. doi: 10.1063/1.3211834 Google Scholar
  210. E.C. Roelof, Energetic neutral atom image of a storm-time ring current. Geophys. Res. Lett. 14, 652–655 (1987). doi: 10.1029/GL014i006p00652 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. E.C. Roelof, Imaging heliospheric shocks using energetic neutral atoms, in Solar Wind Seven Colloquium, ed. by E. Marsch, R. Schwenn (1992), pp. 385–390 Google Scholar
  212. E.C. Roelof, D.G. Mitchell, D.J. Williams, Energetic neutral atoms (E∼50 keV) from the ring current—IMP 7/8 and ISEE 1. J. Geophys. Res. 90, 10991 (1985). doi: 10.1029/JA090iA11p10991 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. E. Rüchardt, Handbuch der Physik, vol. 22.2 (1933) Google Scholar
  214. D.W. Rule, K. Omidvar, Charge equilibrium and radiation of low-energy cosmic rays passing through interstellar medium. Astrophys. J. 229, 1198–1210 (1979). doi: 10.1086/157054 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. E. Rutherford, LXXIX. The scattering of α and β particles by matter and the structure of the atom. Philos. Mag., Ser. 6 21.125, 669–688 (1911). doi: 10.1080/14786440508637080 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. H. Ryufuku, K. Sasaki, T. Watanabe, Oscillatory behavior of charge transfer cross sections as a function of the charge of projectiles in low-energy collisions. Phys. Rev. A 21, 745–750 (1980). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.21.745 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. J.H.M.M. Schmitt, S.L. Snowden, B. Aschenbach, G. Hasinger, E. Pfeffermann, P. Predehl, J. Trümper, A soft X-ray image of the Moon. Nature 349, 583 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. R. Schulz, J.A. Stüwe, G.P. Tozzi, A. Owens, Optical analysis of an activity outburst in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and its connection to an X-ray outburst. Astron. Astrophys. 361, 359 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  219. N.A. Schwadron, T.E. Cravens, Implications of solar wind composition for cometary X-rays. Astrophys. J. 544, 558 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. N.A. Schwadron, M. Bzowski, G.B. Crew, M. Gruntman, H. Fahr, H. Fichtner, P.C. Frisch, H.O. Funsten, S. Fuselier, J. Heerikhuisen, V. Izmodenov, H. Kucharek, M. Lee, G. Livadiotis, D.J. McComas, E. Moebius, T. Moore, J. Mukherjee, N.V. Pogorelov, C. Prested, D. Reisenfeld, E. Roelof, G.P. Zank, Comparison of Interstellar Boundary Explorer observations with 3D global heliospheric models. Science 326, 966 (2009). doi: 10.1126/science.1180986 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. M. Scully, W. Louisell, W. McKnight, A soft X-ray laser utilizing charge exchange. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 727–728 (1974). doi: 10.1109/JQE.1974.1068348 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. B. Seredyuk, R.W. McCullough, H.B. Gilbody, One-electron capture mechanisms in collisions of He-like O and C ions with molecules of astrophysical interest. Phys. Rev. A 72(2), 022710 (2005). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.72.022710 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. P.J. Serlemitsos, E.A. Boldt, S.S. Holt, R. Ramaty, A.F. Brisken, X-ray spectrum of Cassiopeia A: evidence for iron line emission. Astrophys. J. 184, 1 (1973). doi: 10.1086/181275 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. V.D. Shapiro, R. Bingham, J.M. Dawson, Z. Dobe, B.J. Kellett, D.A. Mendis, Energetic electrons produced by lower hybrid waves in the cometary environment and soft X-ray emission: Bremsstrahlung and k shell radiation. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 2537–2554 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. E.G. Shelley, S.A. Fuselier, H. Balsiger, J.F. Drake, J. Geiss, B.E. Goldstein, R. Goldstein, W.H. Ip, A.J. Lazarus, M. Neugebauer, Charge exchange of solar wind ions in the coma of comet P/Halley. Astron. Astrophys. 187, 304 (1987) ADSGoogle Scholar
  226. R.L. Shelton, The local bubble debate. Space Sci. Rev. 69 (2008). doi: 10.1007/s11214-008-9359-7
  227. R.L. Shelton, Revising the local bubble model due to solar wind charge exchange X-ray emission. Space Sci. Rev. 143, 231–239 (2009). doi: 10.1007/s11214-008-9358-8 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. G.A. Shields, A. Dalgarno, A. Sternberg, Line emission from charge transfer with atomic hydrogen at thermal energies. Phys. Rev. A 28, 2137–2140 (1983). doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.28.2137 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. R.K. Smith, N.S. Brickhouse, D.A. Liedahl, J.C. Raymond, Collisional plasma models with APEC/APED: emission-line diagnostics of hydrogen-like and helium-like ions. Astrophys. J. 556, 91 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. R.K. Smith, R.J. Edgar, P.P. Plucinsky, B.J. Wargelin, P.E. Freeman, B.A. Biller, Chandra observations of MBM 12 and models of the local bubble. Astrophys. J. 623, 225–234 (2005). doi: 10.1086/428568 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. R.K. Smith, M.W. Bautz, R.J. Edgar, R. Fujimoto, K. Hamaguchi, J.P. Hughes, M. Ishida, R. Kelley, C.A. Kilbourne, K.D. Kuntz, D. McCammon, E. Miller, K. Mitsuda, K. Mukai, P.P. Plucinsky, F.S. Porter, S.L. Snowden, Y. Takei, Y. Terada, Y. Tsuboi, N.Y. Yamasaki, Suzaku observations of the local and distant hot ISM. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 59, 141–150 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  232. S.L. Snowden, D. McCammon, D.N. Burrows, J.A. Mendenhall, Analysis procedures for ROSAT XRT/PSPC observations of extended objects and the diffuse background. Astrophys. J. 424, 714–728 (1994). doi: 10.1086/173925 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. S.L. Snowden, M.R. Collier, K.D. Kuntz, XMM-Newton observation of solar wind charge exchange emission. Astrophys. J. 610, 1182 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. S.L. Snowden, R.F. Mushotzky, K.D. Kuntz, D.S. Davis, A catalog of galaxy clusters observed by XMM-Newton. Astron. Astrophys. 478, 615–658 (2008). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20077930 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. A.A. Suchkov, Y.A. Shchekinov, The ion composition of interstellar gas at 104–105 K. Astron. Z. 60, 883 (1983) ADSGoogle Scholar
  236. Y. Tanaka, ASCA observation of X-ray emission from the Galactic ridge. Astron. Astrophys. 382, 1052–1060 (2002). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011678 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Y. Tanaka, T. Miyaji, G. Hasinger, Origin of the galactic ridge X-ray emission. Astron. Nachr. 320, 181 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. C.B. Tarter, J.C. Weisheit, A. Dalgarno, Double-charge transfer processes in gaseous nebulae. Astron. Astrophys. 71, 366–368 (1979) ADSGoogle Scholar
  239. M. Torney, R. Bingham, J.M. Dawson, B.J. Kellett, V.D. Shapiro, H. Summers, Modelling X-ray line and continuum emission from comets. Phys. Scr. T 98, 168–171 (2001). doi: 10.1238/Physica.Topical.098a00168 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. J. Trümper, The ROSAT mission. Adv. Space Res. 2, 241–249 (1982). doi: 10.1016/0273-1177(82)90070-9 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. T.G. Tsuru, M. Ozawa, Y. Hyodo, H. Matsumoto, K. Koyama, H. Awaki, R. Fujimoto, R. Griffiths, C. Kilbourne, K. Matsushita, K. Mitsuda, A. Ptak, P. Ranalli, N.Y. Yamasaki, X-ray spectral study of the extended emission, ‘the cap’, located 11.6 kpc above the disk of M82. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 59, 269–282 (2007) Google Scholar
  242. W.H. Tucker, R.J. Gould, Radiation from a low-density plasma at 106 deg –108deg  K. Astrophys. J. 144, 244 (1966). doi: 10.1086/148601 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. M. Uchida, M. Morikawa, H. Kubotani, H. Mouri, X-ray spectra of comets. Astrophys. J. 498, 863 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. A. Vikhlinin, M. Markevitch, W. Forman, C. Jones, Zooming in on the coma cluster with Chandra: compressed warm gas in the brightest cluster galaxies. Astrophys. J. 555, 87–90 (2001). doi: 10.1086/323181 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. W. Voges, B. Aschenbach, T. Boller, H. Brauninger, U. Briel, W. Burkert, K. Dennerl, J. Englhauser, R. Gruber, F. Haberl, G. Hartner, G. Hasinger, E. Pfeffermann, W. Pietsch, P. Predehl, J. Schmitt, J. Trumper, U. Zimmermann, Rosat all-sky survey faint source catalogue. IAU Circ. 7432 (2000) Google Scholar
  246. J.H. Waite Jr., F. Bagenal, F. Seward, C. Na, G.R. Gladstone, T.E. Cravens, K.C. Hurley, J.T. Clarke, R. Elsner, S.A. Stern, ROSAT observations of the Jupiter aurora. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 14799 (1994). doi: 10.1029/94JA01005 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. J.H. Waite, G.R. Gladstone, W.S. Lewis, P. Drossart, T.E. Cravens, A.N. Maurellis, B.H. Mauk, S. Miller, Equatorial X-ray emissions: implications for Jupiter’s high exospheric temperatures. Science 276, 104–108 (1997). doi: 10.1126/science.276.5309.104 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. J.H. Waite, G.R. Gladstone, W.S. Lewis, R. Goldstein, D.J. McComas, P. Riley, R.J. Walker, P. Robertson, S. Desai, J.T. Clarke, D.T. Young, An auroral flare at Jupiter. Nature 410, 787–789 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. M.K. Wallis, Weakly-shocked flows of the solar wind plasma through atmospheres of comets and planets. Planet. Space Sci. 21, 1647–1660 (1973). doi: 10.1016/0032-0633(73)90156-6 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. B.J. Wargelin, J.J. Drake, Observability of stellar winds from late-type dwarfs via charge exchange X-ray emission. Astrophys. J. 546, 57 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. B.J. Wargelin, J.J. Drake, Stringent X-ray constraints on mass loss from Proxima Centauri. Astrophys. J. 578, 503–514 (2002). doi: 10.1086/342270 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. B.J. Wargelin, M. Markevitch, M. Juda, V. Kharchenko, R. Edgar, A. Dalgarno, Chandra observations of the “dark” Moon and geocoronal solar wind charge transfer. Astrophys. J. 607, 596 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. B.J. Wargelin, P. Beiersdorfer, P.A. Neill, R.E. Olson, J.H. Scofield, Charge-exchange spectra of hydrogenic and He-like iron. Astrophys. J. 634, 687–697 (2005). doi: 10.1086/496874 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. B.J. Wargelin, P. Beiersdorfer, G.V. Brown, EBIT charge-exchange measurements and astrophysical applications. Can. J. Phys. 86, 151–169 (2008). doi: 10.1139/P07-125 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. W.D. Watson, Production of galactic X-rays following charge exchange by cosmic-ray nuclei. Astrophys. J. 206, 842–846 (1976). doi: 10.1086/154447 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. R. Wegmann, K. Dennerl, X-ray tomography of a cometary bow shock. Astron. Astrophys. 430, 33–36 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. R. Wegmann, H.U. Schmidt, C.M. Lisse, K. Dennerl, J. Englhauser, X-rays from comets generated by energetic solar wind particles. Planet. Space Sci. 46.5, 603 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. R. Wegmann, K. Dennerl, C.M. Lisse, The morphology of cometary X-ray emission. Astron. Astrophys. 428, 647–661 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. N.C. Wickramasinghe, F. Hoyle, Very small dust particles (VDSP’s) in comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 239, 121 (1996) Google Scholar
  260. R.E. Williams, The ionization structure of planetary nebulae—X. The contribution of charge exchange and optically thick condensations to [O I] radiation. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 164, 111–119 (1973) ADSGoogle Scholar
  261. R. Willingale, A.D.P. Hands, R.S. Warwick, S.L. Snowden, D.N. Burrows, The X-ray spectrum of the North Polar Spur. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 343, 995–1001 (2003). doi: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06741.x ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. M.W. Wise, C.L. Sarazin, Charge transfer and X-ray emission from supernova remnants. Astrophys. J. 345, 384–392 (1989). doi: 10.1086/167913 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. T. Yoshino, K. Mitsuda, N.Y. Yamasaki, Y. Takei, T. Hagihara, K. Masui, M. Bauer, D. McCammon, R. Fujimoto, Q.D. Wang, Y. Yao, Energy spectra of the soft X-ray diffuse emission in fourteen fields observed with Suzaku. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 61, 805 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische PhysikGarchingGermany

Personalised recommendations