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Space Science Reviews

, 159:19 | Cite as

An Observational Overview of Solar Flares

  • L. FletcherEmail author
  • B. R. Dennis
  • H. S. Hudson
  • S. Krucker
  • K. Phillips
  • A. Veronig
  • M. Battaglia
  • L. Bone
  • A. Caspi
  • Q. Chen
  • P. Gallagher
  • P. T. Grigis
  • H. Ji
  • W. Liu
  • R. O. Milligan
  • M. Temmer
Article

Abstract

We present an overview of solar flares and associated phenomena, drawing upon a wide range of observational data primarily from the RHESSI era. Following an introductory discussion and overview of the status of observational capabilities, the article is split into topical sections which deal with different areas of flare phenomena (footpoints and ribbons, coronal sources, relationship to coronal mass ejections) and their interconnections. We also discuss flare soft X-ray spectroscopy and the energetics of the process. The emphasis is to describe the observations from multiple points of view, while bearing in mind the models that link them to each other and to theory. The present theoretical and observational understanding of solar flares is far from complete, so we conclude with a brief discussion of models, and a list of missing but important observations.

Keywords

Sun 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Fletcher
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. R. Dennis
    • 2
  • H. S. Hudson
    • 4
  • S. Krucker
    • 4
  • K. Phillips
    • 5
  • A. Veronig
    • 6
  • M. Battaglia
    • 1
  • L. Bone
    • 5
  • A. Caspi
    • 4
  • Q. Chen
    • 8
  • P. Gallagher
    • 9
  • P. T. Grigis
    • 10
  • H. Ji
    • 11
    • 12
  • W. Liu
    • 13
    • 2
  • R. O. Milligan
    • 3
  • M. Temmer
    • 7
  1. 1.School of Physics and Astronomy, Astronomy and Astrophysics GroupUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK
  2. 2.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  3. 3.School of Mathematics and PhysicsQueen’s University BelfastBelfastUK
  4. 4.Space Sciences LaboratoryU.C. BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA
  5. 5.Mullard Space Science LaboratoryDorkingUK
  6. 6.Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics and MeteorologyUniversity of GrazGrazAustria
  7. 7.Institute of PhysicsUniversity of GrazGrazAustria
  8. 8.Stanford University Physics DepartmentStanfordUSA
  9. 9.School of PhysicsTrinity College DublinDublin 2Ireland
  10. 10.Harvard-Smithsonian Center for AstrophysicsCambridgeUSA
  11. 11.Purple Mountain ObservatoryNanjingChina
  12. 12.Big Bear Solar ObservatoryNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyBig Bear CityUSA
  13. 13.Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space ResearchStanfordUSA

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