Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 155, Issue 1–4, pp 29–64 | Cite as

Geomagnetic Observations for Main Field Studies: From Ground to Space

  • J. MatzkaEmail author
  • A. Chulliat
  • M. Mandea
  • C. C. Finlay
  • E. Qamili
Article

Abstract

Direct measurements of the geomagnetic field have been made for more than 400 years, beginning with individual determinations of the angle between geographic and magnetic North. This was followed by the start of continuous time series of full vector measurements at geomagnetic observatories and the beginning of geomagnetic repeat stations surveys in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, true global coverage with geomagnetic field measurements was accomplished by magnetometer payloads on low-Earth-orbiting satellites. This article describes the procedures and instruments for magnetic field measurements on ground and in space and covers geomagnetic observatories, repeat stations, automatic observatories, satellites and historic observations. Special emphasis is laid on the global network of geomagnetic observatories.

Keywords

Geomagnetic field Observations Geomagnetic observatories Magnetic satellite missions 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. M. Alexandrescu, V. Courtillot, J.L. Le Mouël, Geomagnetic field direction in Paris since the mid-sixteenth century. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 98, 321–360 (1996) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. L.R. Alldredge, A proposed automatic standard magnetic observatory. J. Geophys. Res. 65(11), 3777–3786 (1960) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. L.R. Alldredge, I. Saldukas, An automatic standard magnetic observatory. J. Geophys. Res. 69(10), 1963–1970 (1964) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. H.U. Auster, M. Mandea, A. Hemshorn, E. Pulz, M. Korte, Automation of absolute measurements of the geomagnetic field. Earth Planets Space 59(9), 1007–1014 (2007a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. H.U. Auster, M. Mandea, A. Hemshorn, M. Korte, E. Pulz, Gauss: a geomagnetic automated system. Publ. Inst. Geophys. Pol. Acad. Sci. C 99(398), 49–59 (2007b) Google Scholar
  6. G.E. Backus, Non-uniqueness of the external geomagnetic field determined by surface intensity measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 75(31), 6339–6341 (1970) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. O. Baillie, E. Clarke, S. Flower, S. Reay, C. Turbitt, Reporting quasi-definitive observatory data in near real-time. Presentation at the 11th IAGA Assembly, Sopron, 24th August 2009, unpublished Google Scholar
  8. A. Balogh, Planetary magnetic field measurements: mission and instrumentation. Space Sci. Rev. 152, 23–97 (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11214-010-9643-1 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. D. Barraclough, Observations of the Earth’s magnetic field in Edinburgh from 1670 to the present day. Trans. R. Soc. Edinb. Earth Sci. 85, 239–252 (1995) Google Scholar
  10. J. Bartels, The technique of scaling indices K and Q of geomagnetic activity. Ann. Int. Geophys. Year 4, 215–226 (1957) Google Scholar
  11. W. Baumjohann, R. Nakamura, Magnetospheric contributions to the terrestrial magnetic field, in Geomagnetism, ed. by G. Schubert, M. Kono. Treatise on Geophysics, vol. 5 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007), pp. 77–92 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. G. Björnsson, Leirvogur Magnetic Results 2007 (Science Institute, University of Iceland, RH-03-2008, Reykjavik, 2008) Google Scholar
  13. J. Bloxham, D. Gubbins, A. Jackson, Geomagnetic secular variation. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 329, 415–502 (1989) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. D.H. Boteler, Assessment of geomagnetic hazard to power systems in Canada. Nat. Hazards 23, 101–120 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. L. Cafarella, A. De Santis, A. Meloni, Secular variation in Italy from historical geomagnetic field measurements. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 73, 206–221 (1992) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. P.J. Chi, C.T. Russell, Travel-time magnetoseismology: magnetospheric sounding by timing the tremors in space. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, 18108-1010292005023441 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. P.J. Chi, C.T. Russell, S. Ohtani, Substorm onset via traveltime magnetoseismology. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, 08107-1010292008036574 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. A. Chulliat, K. Telali, World monthly means database project. Publ. Inst. Geophys. Pol. Acad. Sci., 268–274 (2007) Google Scholar
  19. A. Chulliat, E. Thébault, Testing IGRF-11 candidate models against CHAMP data and quasi-definitive observatory data. Earth Planets Space (2010). doi: 10.5047/eps.2010.06.004 Google Scholar
  20. A. Chulliat, E. Thébault, G. Hulot, Core field acceleration pulse as a common cause of the 2003 and 2007 geomagnetic jerks. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, 07301 (2010). doi: 10.1029/2009GL042019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. A. Chulliat, J. Savary, K. Telali, X. Lalanne, Acquisition of 1-second data in IPGP magnetic observatories, in Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, ed. by J.J. Love. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1226 (2009a), pp. 54–59 Google Scholar
  22. A. Chulliat, X. Lalanne, L.R. Gaya-Piqué, F. Truong, J. Savary, The new Easter Island magnetic observatory, in Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, ed. by J.J. Love. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1226 (2009c), pp. 47–53 Google Scholar
  23. A. Chulliat, A. Peltier, F. Truong, D. Fouassier, Proposal for a new observatory data product: quasi-definitive data. Presentation at the 11th IAGA Assembly, Sopron, 24th August 2009 (2009b), unpublished Google Scholar
  24. C.G. Constable, S.C. Constable, Satellite magnetic field measurements: applications in studying the deep earth, in The State of the Planet: Frontiers and Challenges in Geophysics, ed. by R.S.J. Sparks, C.J. Hawkesworth (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 2004), pp. 147–160 Google Scholar
  25. S.C. Constable, Geomagnetic induction studies, in Geomagnetism, ed. by G. Schubert, M. Kono. Treatise on Geophysics, vol. 5 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007), pp. 237–276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. V. Courtillot, J.L. Le Mouël, A foundation by Peregrinus and subsequent development of geomagnetism and paleomagnetism. Rev. Geophys. 45, 10-10292006000198 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. V. Courtillot, J. Ducruix, J.L. Le Mouël, Sur une accélération récente de la variation séculaire du champ magnétique terrestre. C. R. Hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci., Ser. D 287, 1095–1098 (1978) Google Scholar
  28. F. Donadini, M. Korte, C.G. Constable, Millennial variations of the geomagnetic field: from data recovery to reconstruction. Space Sci. Rev. (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11214-010-9662-y
  29. M.K. Dougherty, S. Kellock, D.J. Southwood, A. Balogh, E.J. Smith, B.T. Tsurutani, B. Gerlach, K.H. Glassmeier, F. Gleim, C.T. Russell, G. Erdos, F.M. Neubauer, S.W.H. Cowley, The Cassini magnetic field investigation. Space Sci. Rev. 114, 331–383 (2004). doi: 10.1007/s11214-004-1432-2 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. C.C. Finlay, M. Dumberry, A. Chulliat, A. Pais, Short time-scale core dynamics: theory and observations. Space Sci. Rev. (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11214-010-9661-6 Google Scholar
  31. E. Friis-Christensen, H. Lühr, G. Hulot, R. Haagmans, M. Purucker, Geomagnetic research from space. EOS 90(25), 213–215 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. E. Friis-Christensen, H. Lühr, G. Hulot, Swarm: a constellation to study the Earth’s magnetic field. Earth Planets Space 58, 351–358 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Y. Gallet, A. Genevey, V. Courtillot, On the possible occurrence of ‘archeomagnetic jerks’ in the geomagnetic field over the past three millennia. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 214, 237–242 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. C.F. Gauss, Intensitas vis Magneticae Terrestris ad Mensuram Absolutam Revocata (Dieterich, Göttingen, 1833) Google Scholar
  35. N. Gillet, V. Lesur, N. Olsen, Geomagnetic core field secular variation models. Space Sci. Rev. (2010). doi: 10.1007/s11214-009-9586-6
  36. G.A. Good, Geophysical travellers: the magneticians of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. 287, 395–408 (2007b) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. G.A. Good, History of instrumentation, in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, ed. by D. Gubbins, E. Herrero-Bervera (Springer, Heidelberg, 2007a), pp. 434–439 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. O. Gravrand, A. Khokhlov, J.L. Le Mouël, J.M. Leger, On the calibration of a vectorial 4He pumped magnetometer. Earth Planets Space 53, 949–958 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. D. Gubbins, Laplace’s equation, uniqueness of solution, in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, ed. by D. Gubbins, E. Herrero-Bervera (Springer, Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 466–468 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. D. Gubbins, N. Roberts, Use of the frozen flux approximation in the interpretation of archaeomagnetic and palaeomagnetic data. Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 73, 675–687 (1983) Google Scholar
  41. G.V. Haines, Spherical cap analysis. J. Geophys. Res. 90, 2583–2591 (1985) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. A. Hemshorn, E. Pulz, M. Mandea, GAUSS: Improvements to the geomagnetic automated system, in Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition, and Processing, ed. by J.J. Love. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1226 (2009), pp. 100–103 Google Scholar
  43. G. Hulot, T.J. Sabaka, N. Olsen, The present field, in Geomagnetism, ed. by G. Schubert, M. Kono. Treatise on Geophysics, vol. 5 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007), pp. 33–75 Google Scholar
  44. A. Jackson, C.C. Finlay, Geomagnetic secular variation and applications to the core, in Geomagnetism, ed. by G. Schubert, M. Kono. Treatise on Geophysics, vol. 5 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007), pp. 147–193 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. A. Jackson, A.R.T. Jonkers, M.R. Walker, Four centuries of geomagnetic secular variation from historical records. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 358, 957–990 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. J. Jankowski, C. Sucksdorff, IAGA Guide for Magnetic Measurements and Observatory Practice (Inter. Assoc. Geomag. Aeron., Warsaw, 1996) Google Scholar
  47. C.L. Johnson, C.G. Constable, The time-averaged geomagnetic field: global and regional biases for 0–5 ma. Geophys. J. Int. 131, 643–666 (1997) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. A.R.T. Jonkers, A. Jackson, A. Murray, Four centuries of geomagnetic data from historical records. Rev. Geophys. 41, 10-10292002000115 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. A. Khokhlov, G. Hulot, J.L. Le Mouël, On the Backus effect. Geophys. J. Int. 130, 701–703 (1997) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. M. Kono (ed.), Geomagnetism. Treatise on Geophysics, vol. 5 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007) Google Scholar
  51. V. Korepanov, Y. Klymovytch, O. Kuznetsov, A. Pristay, A. Marusenkov, J. Rasson, New INTERMAGNET fluxgate magnetometer. Publ. Inst. Geophys. Pol. Acad. Sci., 291–298 (2007) Google Scholar
  52. M. Korte, V. Haak, Modelling European magnetic repeat station data by SCHA in search of time-varying anomalies. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 122, 205–220 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  53. M. Korte, M. Mandea, Improvements planned for European geomagnetic repeat stations. EOS Trans. AGU (2003). doi: 10.1029/2003EO170006 zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  54. M. Korte, E. Thébault, Geomagnetic repeat station crustal biases and vectorial anomaly maps for Germany. Geophys. J. Int. (2007). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03387.x Google Scholar
  55. M. Korte, M. Mandea, J. Matzka, A historical declination curve for Munich from different data sources. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 177, 161–172 (2009b) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. M. Korte, A. Genevey, C.G. Constable, U. Frank, E. Schnepp, Continuous geomagnetic field models for the past 7 millennia: 1. A new global data compilation. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. (2005). doi: 10.1029/2004GC000800 Google Scholar
  57. M. Korte, M. Mandea, P. Kotzé, E. Nahayo, B. Pretorius, Improved observations at the southern African geomagnetic repeat station network. South Afr. J. Geol. 110, 175–186 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. M. Korte, M. Mandea, H.J. Linthe, A. Hemshorn, P. Kotzé, E. Ricaldi, New geomagnetic field observations in the South Atlantic Anomaly Region. Ann. Geophys. 52(1), 65–82 (2009a) Google Scholar
  59. P. Kotzé, M. Mandea, M. Korte, Modelling the southern African geomagnetic field secular variation using ground survey data for 2005. South Afr. J. Geol. 110, 187–192 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. E. Kring Lauridsen, The QHM. Contributions to the theory and practise of the quartz horizontal magnetometer. Geophysical Papers R-50, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (1977) Google Scholar
  61. E. Kring Lauridsen, Experience with the DI-fluxgate magnetometer inclusive theory of the instrument and comparison with other methods. Geophysical Papers R-71, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (1985) Google Scholar
  62. A. Kuvshinov, 3-D global induction in the oceans and solid Earth: Recent progress in modelling magnetic and electric fields from sources of magnetospheric, ionospheric and oceanic origin. Surv. Geophys. 29(2), 139–186 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. A. Kuvshinov, C. Manoj, N. Olsen, T. Sabaka, On induction effects of geomagnetic daily variations from equatorial electrojet and solar quiet sources at low and middle latitudes. J. Geophys. Res. (2007). doi: 10.1029/2007JB004955 Google Scholar
  64. D.B. La Cour, Le quartz-magnétomètre QHM, Comm. Mag., etc., Pub., vol. 15 (Danske Met. Inst., Copenhagen, 1936) Google Scholar
  65. R.A. Langel, R.H. Estes, The near-Earth magnetic field at 1980 determined from Magsat data. J. Geophys. Res. 90, 2495–2509 (1985) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. R.A. Langel, G.D. Mead, E.R. Lancaster, R.H. Estes, E.B. Fabiano, Initial geomagnetic field model from Magsat vector data. Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 793–796 (1980) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. J.L. Le Mouël, V. Kossobokov, V. Courtillot, On long-term variations of simple geomagnetic indices and slow changes in magnetospheric currents: The emergence of anthropogenic global warming after 1990? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 232, 273–286 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. J.M. Leger, F. Bertrand, T. Jager, M. Le Prado, I. Fratter, J.C. Lalaurie, Swarm absolute scalar and vector magnetometer based on helium 4 optical pumping, in Proceedings of ESA’s Sescond Swarm International Science Meeting, 2009 Google Scholar
  69. J. Love, 1-second operational standard for INTERMAGNET, Minutes of the OPSCOM/EXCON INTERMAGNET meeting, Mexico 2005 (2005), unpublished Google Scholar
  70. J. Love, Magnetic monitoring of Earth and space. Phys. Today 61, 31–37 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. S. Macmillan, Repeat stations, in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, ed. by D. Gubbins, E. Herrero-Bervera (Springer, Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 858–859 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. S. Macmillan, A. Thomson, An examination of observatory biases during Magsat and Ørsted missions. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 135, 97–105 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  73. S.R.C. Malin, E.C. Bullard, The direction of the Earth’s magnetic field at London, 1570–1975. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 299, 357–423 (1981) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. M. Mandea, M. Korte, Ancient sundials and maps reveal historical geomagnetic declination values. EOS 88(31), 310–311 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  75. M. Mandea, B. Langlais, Observatory crustal magnetic biases during Magsat and Ørsted satellite missions. Geophys. Res. Lett. (2002). doi: 10.1029/2001GL03693 Google Scholar
  76. M. Mandea, N. Olsen, Geomagnetic and archeomagnetic jerks: where do we stand? EOS 90(24), 208–209 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  77. M. Mandea, V. Papitashvili, Worldwide geomagnetic data collection and management. EOS 90(45), 409–424 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. M. Mandea, M. Korte, D. Mozzoni, P. Kotzé, The magnetic field changing over the southern African continent: a unique behaviour. South Afr. J. Geol. 110, 193–202 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. M. Mandea, R. Holme, A. Pais, K. Pinheiro, A. Jackson, G. Verbanac, Geomagnetic jerks: rapid core field variations and core dynamics. Space Sci. Rev. (2010a). doi: 10.1007/s11214-010-9663-x Google Scholar
  80. M. Mandea, M. Holschneider, V. Lesur, H. Lühr, The Earth’s magnetic field at the CHAMP satellite epoch, in System Earth via Geodetic-Geophysical Space Techniques, ed. by F.M. Flechtner, T. Gruber, A. Güntner, M. Mandea, M. Rothacher, T. Schöne, J.  Wickert. Advanced Technologies in Earth Sciences (Springer, Heidelberg, 2010b), pp. 475–526 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. J. Matzka, N. Olsen, C. Fox Maule, L.W. Pedersen, A.M. Berarducci, S. Macmillan, Geomagnetic observations on Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean. Ann. Geophys. 52(1), 97–105 (2009) Google Scholar
  82. S. Maus, CHAMP magnetic mission, in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, ed. by D. Gubbins, E. Herrero-Bervera (Springer, Heidelberg, 2007) Google Scholar
  83. H.E. McComb, Magnetic Observatory Manual (U.S. Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, 1952) Google Scholar
  84. R.L. McPherron, The utilization of ground magnetometer data in magnetospheric physics, in Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, ed. by J.J. Love. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1226 (2009), pp. 171–189 Google Scholar
  85. T. Neubert, M. Mandea, G. Hulot, R. von Frese, F. Primdahl, J.L. Jørgensen, E. Friis-Christensen, P. Stauning, N. Olsen, T. Risbo, Ørsted satellite captures high-precision geomagnetic field data. EOS 82(7), 81–88 (2001) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  86. H. Nevanlinna, Historical space climate data from Finland: compilation and analysis. Solar Phys. 224(1), 395–405 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  87. L.R. Newitt, C.E. Barton, J. Bitterly, Guide for Magnetic Repeat Station Surveys (Int. Assoc. Geomagn. Aeron., 1996) Google Scholar
  88. N. Olsen, Ørsted, in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, ed. by D. Gubbins, E. Herrero-Bervera (Springer, Heidelberg, 2007) Google Scholar
  89. N. Olsen, External field contributions in observatory monthly means. Presentation at the EGU General Assembly, Geophysical Research Abstracts, vol. 11, EGU2009-11341 (2009), unpublished Google Scholar
  90. N. Olsen, M. Mandea, Rapidly changing flows in the Earth’s core. Nature Geosci. 1, 390–394 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  91. N. Olsen, K.H. Glassmeier, X. Jia, Separation of the magnetic field into external and internal parts. Space Sci. Rev. 152, 135–157 (2010a) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  92. N. Olsen, G. Hulot, T. Sabaka, Measuring the Earth’s magnetic field from space: concepts of past, present and future missions. Space Sci. Rev. (2010b). doi: 10.1007/s11214-010-9676-5
  93. N. Olsen, L. Tøffner-Clausen, T.J. Sabaka, P. Brauer, J.M.G. Merayo, J.L. Jørgensen, J.M. Léger, O.V. Nielsen, F. Primdahl, T. Risbo, Calibration of the Ørsted vector magnetometer. Earth Planets Space 55, 11–18 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. M. Packard, R. Varian, Free nuclear induction in the Earth’s magnetic field. Phys. Rev. 93, 941 (1954) Google Scholar
  95. E. Pulz, K.H. Jäckel, O. Bronkalla, A quasi absolute optically pumped magnetometer for the permanent recording of the Earth’s magnetic field vector, in Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition, and Processing, ed. by J.J. Love. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1226 (2009), pp. 216–219 Google Scholar
  96. O. Rasmussen, E. Kring Lauridsen, Improving baseline drift in fluxgate magnetometers caused by foundation movements, using band suspended fluxgate sensors. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 59, 78–81 (1990) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  97. J.L. Rasson, Observatories, instrumentation, in Encyclopedia of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, ed. by D. Gubbins, E. Herrero-Bervera (Springer, Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 711–713 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. J.L. Rasson, Testing the time-stamp accuracy of a digital variometer and its data logger, in Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, ed. by J.J. Love. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1226 (2009), pp. 225–231 Google Scholar
  99. J.L. Rasson, S.A. van Loo, N. Berrami, Automatic DIflux measurements with AUTODIF, in Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition, and Processing, ed. by J.J. Love. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1226 (2009), pp. 220–224 Google Scholar
  100. J. Reda, M. Neska, Measurement session during the XII IAGA workshop at Belsk. Publ. Inst. Geophys. Pol. Acad. Sci. C 99(398), 7–19 (2007) Google Scholar
  101. J. Reda, D. Fouassier, A. Isac, H.J. Linthe, J. Matzka, C.W. Turbitt, Improvements in geomagnetic observatory data quality, in Geomagnetic Observations and Models, ed. by M. Mandea, M. Korte. IAGA Special Sopron Book Series, vol. 5 (Springer, Heidelberg, in press) Google Scholar
  102. C. Reigber, H. Lühr, P. Schwintzer, Champ mission status. Adv. Space Res. 30(2), 129–134 (2002) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  103. C. Reigber, H. Lühr, P. Schwintzer (eds.), First CHAMP Mission Results for Gravity, Magnetic and Atmospheric Studies (Springer, Heidelberg, 2003) Google Scholar
  104. T.J. Sabaka, N. Olsen, M. Purucker, Extending comprehensive models of the Earth’s magnetic field with Ørsted and CHAMP data. Geophys. J. Int. 159, 521–547 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  105. W.E. Schröder, Geomagnetism research; past and present, in Proceeding of a Symposium of the Interdivisional Commission on History of IAGA, August 1999 (IAGA publications, Bremen-Rönnebeck, 2000), p. 248 Google Scholar
  106. T.J.G. Shanahan, C.W. Turbitt, Evaluating the noise for a commonly used fluxgate magnetometer—for 1-second data, in Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, ed. by J.J. Love. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1226 (2009), pp. 225–231 Google Scholar
  107. B. St-Louis, Intermagnet Technical Reference Manual, 4.4 edn. (INTERMAGNET, 2008) Google Scholar
  108. D.P. Stern, A millennium of geomagnetism. Rev. Geophys. (2002). doi: 10.1029/2000RG000097 Google Scholar
  109. M. Sugiura, T. Kamei, Equatorial Dst index 1957–1986, in IAGA Bull. 40, ed. by A. Berthelier, M. Menvielle (ISGI Publ. Off., Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, 1991) Google Scholar
  110. L. Svalgaard, Observatory data: a 170 Sun-Earth connection, in Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition, and Processing, ed. by J.J. Love. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1226 (2009), pp. 246–257 Google Scholar
  111. E. Thébault, M. Mandea, J.J. Schott, Modeling the lithospheric magnetic field over France by means of revised spherical cap harmonic analysis (R-SCHA). J. Geophys. Res. (2006). doi: 10.1029/2005JB004110 Google Scholar
  112. E. Thébault, J.J. Schott, M. Mandea, J.P. Hoffbeck, A new proposal for spherical cap harmonic modeling. Geophys. J. Int. 159, 83–103 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  113. H. Toh, Y. Hammano, M. Ichiki, Long-term seafloor geomagnetic station in the northwest pacific: a possible candidate for a seafloor geomagnetic observatory. Earth Planets Space 58, 697–705 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. D.F. Trigg, D.G. Olson, Pendulously suspended magnetometer sensors. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61(10), 2632–2636 (1990) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  115. G.M. Turner, J.L. Rasson, C.V. Reeves, Observation and measurement techniques, in Geomagnetism, ed. by G. Schubert, M. Kono. Treatise on Geophysics, vol. 5 (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007), pp. 93–146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. S.A. van Loo, J.L. Rasson, Development of an automatic declination-inclination magnetometer, in Geomagnetics for Aeronautical Safety, ed. by J.L. Rasson, T. Delipetrov. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C (Springer, Norwell, 2006), pp. 177–186 Google Scholar
  117. S.A. Van Loo, J.L. Rasson, Presentation of the prototype of an automated DI-flux. Publ. Inst. Geophys. Pol. Acad. Sci. C 99(398), 77–86 (2007) Google Scholar
  118. J.M. Vaquero, R.M. Trigo, Results of geomagnetic observations in Central Africa by Portuguese explorers during 1877–1885. Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 157, 8–15 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  119. E.H. Vestine, Report of committee on magnetic secular variation stations, in Transactions of Oslo Meeting Aug. 19–28, ed. by J.W. Joyce (Association of Terrestrial Magnetism and Electricity, Washington, 1950), pp. 298–306 Google Scholar
  120. I. Wardinski, R. Holme, A time-dependent model of the Earth’s magnetic field and its secular variation for the period 1980–2000. J. Geophys. Res. (2006). doi: 10.1029/2006JB004401 Google Scholar
  121. T.C. White, Total field sensor comparison, in Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition, and Processing, ed. by J.J. Love. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1226 (2009), pp. 9–13 Google Scholar
  122. K.A. Wienert, Notes on Geomagnetic Observatory and Survey Practice (UNESCO, Paris, 1970) Google Scholar
  123. E.W. Worthington, E.A. Sauter, J.J. Love, Analysis of USGS one-second data, in Proceedings of the XIIIth IAGA Workshop on Geomagnetic Observatory Instruments, Data Acquisition and Processing, ed. by J.J. Love. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1226 (2009), pp. 262–266 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Matzka
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Chulliat
    • 2
  • M. Mandea
    • 3
    • 4
  • C. C. Finlay
    • 5
  • E. Qamili
    • 6
    • 7
  1. 1.DTU SpaceTechnical University of DenmarkCopenhagenDenmark
  2. 2.Equipe de Géomagnétisme, Institut de Physique du Globe de ParisUniversité Paris-Diderot, INSU/CNRSParisFrance
  3. 3.Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrumPotsdamGermany
  4. 4.Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris—IPGPUniversité Paris-Diderot & CNRSParis Cedex 13France
  5. 5.Institut für GeophysikETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  6. 6.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e VulcanologiaRomaItaly
  7. 7.Scuola di Dottorato in Scienze PolariUniversità degli Studi di SienaSienaItaly

Personalised recommendations