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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 156, Issue 1–4, pp 89–134 | Cite as

Magnetic Turbulence in the Geospace Environment

  • G. ZimbardoEmail author
  • A. Greco
  • L. Sorriso-Valvo
  • S. Perri
  • Z. Vörös
  • G. Aburjania
  • K. Chargazia
  • O. Alexandrova
Article

Abstract

Magnetic turbulence is found in most space plasmas, including the Earth’s magnetosphere, and the interaction region between the magnetosphere and the solar wind. Recent spacecraft observations of magnetic turbulence in the ion foreshock, in the magnetosheath, in the polar cusp regions, in the magnetotail, and in the high latitude ionosphere are reviewed. It is found that: 1. A large share of magnetic turbulence in the geospace environment is generated locally, as due for instance to the reflected ion beams in the ion foreshock, to temperature anisotropy in the magnetosheath and the polar cusp regions, to velocity shear in the magnetosheath and magnetotail, and to magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause and in the magnetotail. 2. Spectral indices close to the Kolmogorov value can be recovered for low frequency turbulence when long enough intervals at relatively constant flow speed are analyzed in the magnetotail, or when fluctuations in the magnetosheath are considered far downstream from the bow shock. 3. For high frequency turbulence, a spectral index α≃2.3 or larger is observed in most geospace regions, in agreement with what is observed in the solar wind. 4. More studies are needed to gain an understanding of turbulence dissipation in the geospace environment, also keeping in mind that the strong temperature anisotropies which are observed show that wave particle interactions can be a source of wave emission rather than of turbulence dissipation. 5. Several spacecraft observations show the existence of vortices in the magnetosheath, on the magnetopause, in the magnetotail, and in the ionosphere, so that they may have a primary role in the turbulent injection and evolution. The influence of such a turbulence on the plasma transport, dynamics, and energization will be described, also using the results of numerical simulations.

Keywords

Magnetosphere Turbulence Wave-particle interaction 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Zimbardo
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Greco
    • 1
  • L. Sorriso-Valvo
    • 2
  • S. Perri
    • 3
  • Z. Vörös
    • 4
    • 5
  • G. Aburjania
    • 6
  • K. Chargazia
    • 6
  • O. Alexandrova
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of CalabriaRendeItaly
  2. 2.LICRYL LaboratoryIPCF-CNRRendeItaly
  3. 3.International Space Science InstituteBernSwitzerland
  4. 4.Institute of Atmospheric ResearchPragueCzech Republic
  5. 5.Institute of Astro- and Particle PhysicsUniversity of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  6. 6.I. Vekua Institute of Applied Mathematics, M. Nodia Institute of GeophysicsTbilisi State UniversityTbilisiGeorgia
  7. 7.LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMCUniversité Paris DiderotMeudonFrance

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