Space Science Reviews

, Volume 158, Issue 1, pp 145–166 | Cite as

Low Latitude Ionospheric Electrodynamics

  • Bela G. FejerEmail author


The low latitude ionosphere is strongly affected by several highly variable electrodynamic processes. Over the last two decades ground-based and satellite measurements and global numerical models have been extensively used to study the longitude-dependent climatology of low latitude electric fields and currents. These electrodynamic processes and their ionospheric effects exhibit large ranges of temporal and spatial variations during both geomagnetic quiet and disturbed conditions. Numerous recent studies have investigated the short term response of equatorial electric fields and currents to lower atmospheric transport processes and solar wind-magnetosphere driving mechanisms. This includes the large electric field and current perturbations associated with arctic sudden stratospheric warming events during geomagnetic quiet times and highly variable storm time prompt penetration and ionospheric disturbance dynamo effects. In this review, we initially describe recent experimental and numerical modeling results of the global climatology and short term variability of quiet time low latitude electrodynamic plasma drifts. Then, we examine the present understanding of equatorial electric field and current perturbation fields during periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity.


Electric fields Equatorial ionosphere Ionosphere/magnetosphere interactions Ionospheric dynamics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. M.A. Abdu, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 59, 1505–1519 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. M.A. Abdu, I.S. Batista, G.O. Walker, J.H.A. Sobral, N.B. Trivedi, E.R. de Paula, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 57, 1065–1083 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. M.A. Abdu, T.K. Ramkumar, I.S. Batista, C.G.M. Brum, H. Takahashi, B.W. Reinisch, J.H.A. Sobral, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 509–522 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. M.A. Abdu, T. Maruyama, I.S. Batista, S. Saito, M. Nakamura, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A10306 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2006JA012228 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. P. Alken, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A02308 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013571 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. P. Alken, S. Maus, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 72, 319–326 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D.N. Anderson, A. Anghel, K. Yumoto, O. Veliz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(12), 1596 (2002). doi: 10.1029/2002GL014562 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. D.N. Anderson, A. Anghel, J. Chau, O. Veliz, Space Weather 2, S11001 (2004). doi: 10.1029/2004SW000095 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. S. Basu, Su. Basu, K.M. Groves, H.-C. Yeh, S.-Y. Su, F.J. Rich, P.J. Sultan, M.J. Keskinen, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3577–3580 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Su. Basu, S. Basu, J. Huba, J. Krall, S.E. McDonald, J.J. Makela, E.S. Miller, S. Ray, K. Groves, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A04302 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013899 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. I.S. Batista, I.S.R.T. Medeiros, M.A. Abdu, J.R. de Souza, G.J. Bailey, E.R. de Paula, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10887–10892 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. F. Bertoni, I.S. Batista, M.A. Abdu, B.W. Reinish, E.A. Kherani, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68, 669–678 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. M. Blanc, A.D. Richmond, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 1669–1688 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. P.-R. Chen, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 6343 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. J.L. Chau, R.F. Woodman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L17801 (2004). doi: 10.1029/2004GL020800 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. J.L. Chau, B.G. Fejer, L.P. Goncharenko, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L05101 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2008GL036785 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. W.R. Coley, R.A. Heelis, J. Geophys. Res. 94, 6751–6761 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. W.R. Coley, J.P. McClure, W.B. Hanson, J. Geophys. Res. 95, 21285–21290 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. J.V. Eccles, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26699–26708 (1998a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. J.V. Eccles, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 26709–26708 (1998b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. S.L. England, S. Maus, T.J. Immel, S.B. Mende, Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, L21105 (2006). doi: 10.1029/2006GL027465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. T.-W. Fang, A.D. Richmond, J.-Y. Liu, A. Maute, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A11313 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013513 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. T.-W. Fang, T.-W.H. Kil, G. Milward, A.D. Richmond, J.-Y. Liu, S.-J. Oh, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A01315 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2009JA014460 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. D.T. Farley, E. Bonelli, B.G. Fejer, M.F. Larsen, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 13273–13278 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. B.G. Fejer, in Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling, ed. by Y. Kamide, J.A. Slavin (Terra Sci., Tokyo, 1986), pp. 519–545 Google Scholar
  26. B.G. Fejer, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 53, 677–693 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. B.G. Fejer, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 1456–1482 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. B.G. Fejer, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 64, 1401–1408 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. B.G. Fejer, L. Scherliess, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 24047–24056 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. B.G. Fejer, L. Scherliess, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 63, 893–897 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. B.G. Fejer, R.W. Spiro, R.A. Wolf, J.C. Foster, Ann. Geophys. 8, 441–454 (1990) ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. B.G. Fejer, E.R. de Paula, R.A. Heelis, W.B. Hanson, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 5769–5776 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. B.G. Fejer, J.R. Souza, A.S. Santos, A.E.C. Perreira, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A12310 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2005JA011324 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. B.G. Fejer, J.W. Jensen, T. Kikuchi, M.A. Abdu, J.L. Chau, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A10304 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2007JA012376 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. B.G. Fejer, J.W. Jensen, S.-Y. Su, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A05354 (2008a). doi: 10.1029/2007JA012801 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. B.G. Fejer, J.W. Jensen, S.-Y. Su, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L20106 (2008b). doi: 10.1029/2008GLJA035584 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. B.G. Fejer, M. Olson, J. Chau, C. Stolle, H. Luhr, L.P. Goncharenko, K. Yumoto, T. Nagatsuma, J. Geophys. Res. 115 (2010). doi: 10.1020/2010JA015273
  38. C.G. Fesen, G. Crowley, R.G. Roble, A.D. Richmond, B.G. Fejer, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1851–1854 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. J.M. Forbes, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 19, 469–504 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. J.M. Forbes, S. Leveroni, Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 981–983 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. T.J. Fuller-Rowell, M.V. Codrescu, R.J. Moffet, S. Quegan, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3893–3914 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. T.J. Fuller-Rowell, M.V. Codrescu, H. Rishbeth, R.J. Moffet, S. Quegan, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 2343–2353 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. T.W. Garner, R.A. Wolf, R.W. Spiro, W.J. Burke, B.G. Fejer, S. Sazykin, J.L. Roeder, M.R. Hairston, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A02214 (2004). doi: 101029/2003JA010208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. C.A. Gonzales, M.C. Kelley, B.G. Fejer, J.F. Vickrey, R.F. Woodman, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 5803–5812 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. S. Gurubaran, T.K. Ramkumar, S. Sridharan, R. Rajaran, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63, 813–821 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. G. Haerendel, J.V. Eccles, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 1181–1192 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. M.E. Hagan, J.M. Forbes, J. Geophys. Res 107, 4754 (2002). doi: 10.1029/2001JD001236 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. M.E. Hagan, J.M. Forbes, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1062 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2002JA009466 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. M.E. Hagan, A. Maute, R.G. Roble, A.D. Richmond, T.J. Immel, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L20109 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2007GL030142 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. W.A. Hartman, R.A. Heelis, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A03305 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2006JA011773 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. R.A. Heelis, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 66, 825–838 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. R.A. Heelis, W.R. Coley, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 19461–19469 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. R.A. Heelis, P.C. Kendall, R.J. Moffet, D.W. Windle, H. Rishbeth, Planet Space Sci. 22, 743–756 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. C.-M. Huang, A.D. Richmond, M.-Q. Chen, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A05312 (2005a). doi: 10.1029/2004JA010994 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. C.-S. Huang, J.C. Foster, M.C. Kelley, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 169, 1135–146 (2005b) Google Scholar
  56. C.-S. Huang, S. Sazykin, J.L. Chau, N. Maruyama, M.C. Kelley, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 69(10), 1135–1146 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. C.-S. Huang, F.J. Rich, O. de La Beaujardiere, R.A. Heelis, J. Geophys. Res. 115, A02305 (2010a). doi: 10.1029/2009JA014503 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. C.-S. Huang, F.J. Rich, W.J. Burke, J. Geophys. Res. 115 (2010b). doi: 10.1029/2009JA015150
  59. J.D. Huba, G. Joyce, J.A. Fedder, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 23035–23053 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. J.D. Huba, G. Joyce, S. Sazykin, R. Wolf, R. Spiro, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L23101 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2005GL024162 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. T.J. Immel, H.G. Frey, S.B. Mende, E. Sagawa, Ann. Geophys. 22, 3099–3107 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. T.J. Immel, E. Sagawa, S.L. England, S.B. Henderson, M.A. Hagan, S.B. Mende, H.U. Frey, C.M. Swenson, L.J. Paxton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L15108 (2006). doi: 10.1029/2006GL026161 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. J.W. Jensen, B.G. Fejer, Ann. Geophys. 25, 2551–2559 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. M.C. Kelley, The Earth’s Ionosphere (Academic, Boston, 2008), pp. 232–233 Google Scholar
  65. M.C. Kelley, B.G. Fejer, C.A. Gonzales, Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 301–304 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. M.C. Kelley, J.J. Makela, J.L. Chau, M.J. Nichols, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2002GL016321
  67. T. Kikuchi, H. Lühr, K. Schlegel, H. Tachihara, M. Shinihara, T.-I. Kitamura, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 23251–23261 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. T. Kikuchi, K.K. Hashimoto, T.-I. Kitamura, H. Tachihara, B.G. Fejer, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1406 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2003JA009915 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. H. Kil, S.-J. Oh, M.C. Kelley, L.J. Paxton, S.L. England, E. Talaat, K.-W. Min, S.-Y. Su, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L14110 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2007GL030018 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. H. Kil, E.R. Taalat, S.-J. Oh, L.J. Paxton, S.L. England, S.-Y. Su, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A09312 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2007JA0130106 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. E. Kudeki, S. Bhattacharyya, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 28163–28170 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. E. Kudeki, B.G. Fejer, D.T. Farley, H.M. Ierkic, Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 377–380 (1981) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. E. Kudeki, S. Bhattacharyya, R.F. Woodman, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 28145–28162 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. K. Labitzke, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9665–9678 (1981) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. H. Lühr, S. Maus, M. Rother, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A01303 (2004). doi: 10.1027/2002JA009656 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. H. Lühr, R. Rother, K. Hausler, P. Alken, S. Maus, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A08313 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. H.-L. Liu, R.G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4695 (2002). doi: 10.1029/2001JD001533 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. H.L. Liu, W. Wang, A.D. Richmond, R.G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 115, A00G01 (2010). doi: 10.1029/2009JA015188 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. A.J. Mannucci, B.T. Tsurutani, B.A. Iijima, A. Komjathy, A. Sato, W.D. Gonzalez, F.L. Guarnieri, J.U. Kozyra, S. Skoug, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L12S02 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2004GL021467 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. A.J. Mannucci, B.T. Tsurutani, M.C. Kelley, B.A. Iijima, A. Komjathy, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A10308 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2004JA014043 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. C. Manoj, S. Maus, H. Luhr, P. Alken, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A12310 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013381 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. N. Maruyama, A.D. Richmond, T.J. Fuller-Rowell, M.V. Codrescu, S. Sazykin, F.R. Toffoleto, R.W. Spiro, G.G. Millward, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L17105 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2004GL021467 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. N. Maruyama, S. Sazykin, R.W. Spiro, R.A. Wolf, D. Anderson, A. Anghel, F.R. Toffoletto, T.J. Fuller-Rowell, M.V. Codrescu, G.H. Millward, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68 (2006). doi: 1016j.jastp2006.08.020
  84. T. Matsuno, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1479–1494 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. P.N. Mayaud, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 39, 1055–1070 (1977) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. C.G. Millward, I.C.F. Muller-Wodarg, A.D. Aylward, T.J. Fuller-Rowell, A.D. Richmond, R.J. Moffet, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24733–24744 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. J.A. Murphy, R.A. Heelis, Planet. Space Sci. 34, 645–655 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. A. Nishida, N. Iwasaki, T. Nagata, Ann. Geophys. 22, 478–484 (1966) Google Scholar
  89. J. Oberheide, J.Q. Wu, T.L. Killeen, M.E. Hagan, R.G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A10S03 (2006). doi: 10.1029/2005JA011491 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. H.F. Parish, J.M. Forbes, F. Kamalabadi, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 355–368 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. A.K. Patra, N.V. Rao, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A09301 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2006JA012204 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. N.M. Pedatella, J.M. Forbes, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A12316 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2009JA014494 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. C. Peymirat, A.D. Richmond, A.T. Kobea, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 22991 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. J.E. Pingree, B.G. Fejer, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4763–4766 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. R.G. Rastogi, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 1503–1512 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Z. Ren, W. Wan, L. Liu, J. Xiong, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A05308 (2009a). doi: 10.1029/2009JA014060 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Z. Ren, W. Wan, L. Liu, R.A. Heelis, B. Zhao, Y. Wei, X. Yue, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A03305 (2009b). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013675 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. A.D. Richmond, in The Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere, ed. by R.M. Johnson, T.L. Killeen (Am. Geophys. Union, Washington, 1994), pp. 49–65 Google Scholar
  99. A.D. Richmond, in Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, ed. by H. Volland, vol. 2 (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995), pp. 249–290 Google Scholar
  100. A.D. Richmond, C. Peymirat, R.G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1118 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2002JA009758 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. H. Rishbeth, Planet. Space Sci. 19, 357–369 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. E. Sagawa, T.J. Immel, H.U. Frey, S.B. Mende, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A11302 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2004JA010848 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. J.H. Sastri, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 2445–2452 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. L. Scherliess, B.G. Fejer, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 24037–24046 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. L. Scherliess, B.G. Fejer, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 6829–6842 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. L. Scherliess, D.C. Thompson, R.W. Schunk, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A01311 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2007JA012580 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. C. Senior, M. Blanc, J. Geophys. Res. 89, 261–284 (1984) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. R.E. Sheehan, C.E. Valladares, Ann. Geophys. 22, 3177–3193 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. E.B. Shume, E.R. de Paula, S. Maus, D.L. Hysell, F.S. Rodrigues, A. Bekele, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A06305 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2009JA014158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. J.H.A. Sobral, M.A. Abdu, H. Takahashi, H. Savant, C.J. Zamlutti, G.L. Borba, Adv. Space Res. 24, 1507–1510 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. J.H.A. Sobral, M.A. Abdu, T.R. Petersen, V.M. Castillo, D.C.S. Arruda, M.T.A.H. Muella, I.S. Batista, M. Mascarenchas, E.R. de Paula, P.M. Kitner, E.A. Kherani, A.F. Medeiros, R.A. Buruti, H. Takahashi, N.J. Shuch, C.M. Denardini, C.J. Zamlutti, A.A. Pimenta, J.R. de Souza, F.C.P. Bertoni, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A04309 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013896 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. R.W. Spiro, R.A. Wolf, B.G. Fejer, Ann. Geophys. 6, 39–50 (1988) ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. S. Sridharan, S. Sathihkumar, S. Gurubaran, Ann. Geophys. 27, 4125–4130 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. R.J. Stening, B.G. Fejer, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 221–226 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. R.J. Stening, C.E. Meek, A.H. Manson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3243–3246 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. R.J. Stening, J.M. Forbes, M.E. Hagan, A.D. Richmond, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13465–13471 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. S.-Y. Su, C.K. Chao, H.C. Yeh, R.A. Heelis, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 11310 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2002JA009752 Google Scholar
  118. S.-Y. Su, H.C. Yeh, C.K. Chao, R.A. Heelis, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1404 (2002). doi: 10.1029/2001JA007552 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. P.M. Terra, J.H.A. Sobral, M.A. Abdu, H. Takahashi, Ann. Geophys. 6, 39–50 (2004) Google Scholar
  120. S. Tsunomura, Ann. Geophys. 17, 692–706 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. B.T. Tsurutani, A. Mannucci, B. Iijima, M.A. Abdu, J.H.A. Sobral, W. Gonzalez, F. Guarnieri, T. Tsuda, A. Saito, K. Yumoto, B.G. Fejer, T.J. Fuller-Rowell, J. Kozyra, J.C. Foster, A. Coster, V. Vasyliunas, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A08302 (2004). doi: 10.1029/2003JA010342 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. C.E. Valladares, R.A. Sheehan, S. Basu, H. Kuenzler, J. Espinoza, Geophys. Res. 101, 26839–26850 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. R.H. Varney, M.C. Kelley, E. Kudeki, J. Geophys. Res. 114, A02394 (2009). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013733 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. B. Veenadhari, S. Alex, T. Kikuchi, A. Shinbori, R. Singh, E. Chandrasekar, J. Geophys. Res. 115, A03305 (2010). doi: 10.1029/2009JA014562 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. G. Vichare, A.D. Richmond, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A05304 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2004JA010720 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. C. Vineeth, T. Kumar Pant, R. Sridharan, Ann. Geophys. 27, 3147–3153 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Y. Wei, M. Hong, A. Du, Z. Pu, M.F. Thomsen, Z. Ren, G.D. Reeves, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L15109 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2008GL033972 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. R.A. Wolf, R.W. Spiro, G.-H. Voigt, P.H. Reiff, C.K. Chen, M. Harel, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5949–5962 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. R.A. Wolf, R.W. Spiro, S. Sazykin, F.R. Toffoleto, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 69, 288–302 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. R.F. Woodman, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 6249–6259 (1970) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. R.F. Woodman, T. Hagfors, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 1205–1212 (1969) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. B. Zhao, W. Wan, K. Tschu, K. Igarashi, T. Kikuchi, K. Nozaki, S. Watari, G. Li, L.J. Paxton, L. Liu, B. Ning, J.-Y. Liu, S.-Y. Su, H.P. Bulanon, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A000A04 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2008JA013054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Atmospheric and Space SciencesUtah State UniversityLoganUSA

Personalised recommendations