In-flight Performance and Initial Results of Plasma Energy Angle and Composition Experiment (PACE) on SELENE (Kaguya)
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MAP-PACE (MAgnetic field and Plasma experiment—Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment) on SELENE (Kaguya) has completed its ∼1.5-year observation of low-energy charged particles around the Moon. MAP-PACE consists of 4 sensors: ESA (Electron Spectrum Analyzer)-S1, ESA-S2, IMA (Ion Mass Analyzer), and IEA (Ion Energy Analyzer). ESA-S1 and S2 measured the distribution function of low-energy electrons in the energy range 6 eV–9 keV and 9 eV–16 keV, respectively. IMA and IEA measured the distribution function of low-energy ions in the energy ranges 7 eV/q–28 keV/q and 7 eV/q–29 keV/q. All the sensors performed quite well as expected from the laboratory experiment carried out before launch. Since each sensor has a hemispherical field of view, two electron sensors and two ion sensors installed on the spacecraft panels opposite each other could cover the full 3-dimensional phase space of low-energy electrons and ions. One of the ion sensors IMA is an energy mass spectrometer. IMA measured mass-specific ion energy spectra that have never before been obtained at a 100 km altitude polar orbit around the Moon. The newly observed data show characteristic ion populations around the Moon. Besides the solar wind, MAP-PACE-IMA found four clearly distinguishable ion populations on the dayside of the Moon: (1) Solar wind protons backscattered at the lunar surface, (2) Solar wind protons reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, (3) Reflected/backscattered protons picked-up by the solar wind, and (4) Ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere.
KeywordsMoon Ion Electron Solar wind Plasma
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