Space Science Reviews

, Volume 153, Issue 1–4, pp 447–484 | Cite as

Evolution of Icy Satellites

  • G. Schubert
  • H. Hussmann
  • V. Lainey
  • D. L. Matson
  • W. B. McKinnon
  • F. Sohl
  • C. Sotin
  • G. Tobie
  • D. Turrini
  • T. Van Hoolst


Evolutionary scenarios for the major satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Pluto-Charon are discussed. In the Jovian system the challenge is to understand how the present Laplace resonance of Io, Europa, and Ganymede was established and to determine whether the heat being radiated by Io is in balance with the present tidal dissipation in the moon. In the Saturnian system, Enceladus and Titan are the centers of attention. Tidal heating is the likely source of activity at the south pole of Enceladus, although the details of how the heating occurs are not understood. An evolutionary scenario based on accretion and internal differentiation is presented for Titan, whose present substantial orbital eccentricity is not associated with any dynamical resonance. The source and maintenance of methane in Titan’s present atmosphere remain uncertain. Though most attention on the Saturnian moons focuses on Titan and Enceladus, the mid-size satellites Iapetus, Rhea, Tethys, and the irregular satellite Phoebe also draw our interest. An evolutionary scenario for Iapetus is presented in which spin down from an early rapidly rotating state is called upon to explain the satellite’s present oblate shape. The prominent equatorial ridge on Iapetus is unexplained by the spin down scenario. A buckling instability provides another possible explanation for the oblateness and equatorial ridge of Iapetus. Rhea is the only medium-size Saturnian satellite for which there are gravity data at present. The interpretation of these data are uncertain, however, since it is not known if Rhea is in hydrostatic equilibrium. Pluto and Charon are representative of the icy dwarf planets of the Kuiper belt. Did they differentiate as they evolved, and do either of them have a subsurface liquid water ocean? New Horizons might provide some answers when it arrives at these bodies.


Outer planet moons Io Europa Enceladus Dione Titan Iapetus Rhea Tethys Phoebe Pluto Charon Satellite evolution 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. C.B. Agnor, D.P. Hamilton, Nature 441, 192–194 (2006). doi: 10.1038/nature04792 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Y. Amelin, A.N. Krot, I.D. Hutcheon, A.A. Ulyanov, Science 297, 1678–1683 (2002). doi: 10.1126/science.1073950 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. J.D. Anderson, G. Schubert, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L02202 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2006GL028100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. J.D. Anderson, G. Schubert, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 178, 176–182 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. S.K. Atreya, E.Y. Adams, H.B. Niemann, J.E. Demick-Montelara, T.C. Owen, M. Fulchignoni, F. Ferri, E.H. Wilson, Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1177–1187 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2006.05.028 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. A.C. Barr, R.M. Canup, Icarus 198, 163–177 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.07.004 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. C. Béghin, P. Canu, E. Karkoschka, C. Sotin, C. Bertucci, W.S. Kurth, J.J. Berthelier, R. Grad, M. Hamelin, K. Schwingenschuh, F. Simões, Planet. Space Sci. 57, 1872–1888 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2009.04.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. M. Beuthe, Icarus (2010, submitted) Google Scholar
  9. B.G. Bills, F. Nimmo, Icarus 196, 293–297 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.03.002 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. M.E. Brown, W.M. Calvin, Science 287, 107–109 (2000). doi: 10.1126/science.287.5450.107 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. M.E. Brown, K.M. Barkune, D. Ragozzine, E.L. Schaller, Nature 446, 294–296 (2007). doi: 10.1038/nature05619 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. M.W. Buie, W.M. Grundy, E.F. Young, L.A. Young, S.A. Stern, Astron. J. 132, 290–298 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. B.J. Buratti, M.D. Hicks, A. Davies, Icarus 175, 490–495 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.11.024 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. J.A. Burns, D.P. Hamilton, F. Mignard, S. Soter, in Physics, Chemistry, and Dynamics of Interplanetary Dust, ed. by B.A.S. Gustafson, M.S. Hanner. ASP Conference Series, vol. 104 (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1996), pp. 179–182 Google Scholar
  15. R. Canup, Science 307, 546–550 (2005). doi: 10.1126/science.1106818 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. R.M. Canup, W.R. Ward, Astron. J. 124, 3404–3423 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. J.C. Castillo-Rogez, D.L. Matson, C. Sotin, T.V. Johnson, J.I. Lunine, P.C. Thomas, Icarus 190, 179–202 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.02.018 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. J. Castillo-Rogez, T.V. Johnson, M.H. Lee, N.J. Turner, D.L. Matson, J. Lunine, Icarus 204, 658–662 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.07.025 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. S. Chandrasekhar, Ellipsoidal Figures of Equilibrium (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1969) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. E.M.A. Chen, F. Nimmo, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L19203 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2008GL035402 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. M. Choukroun, O. Grasset, G. Tobie, C. Sotin, Icarus 205, 581–593 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. J.C. Cook, S. Desch, T.L. Roush, C.A. Trujillo, T.R. Geballe, Astrophys. J. 663, 1406–1419 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. A. Coustenis et al., Space Sci. Rev. (2010, this issue) Google Scholar
  24. M. Ćuk, B.R. Gladman, Astrophys. J. Lett. 626, L113–L116 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. L. Czechowski, J. Leliwa-Kopystyński, Adv. Space Res. 42, 61–69 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2007.08.008 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. T. Denk, K.D. Matz, T. Roatsch, U. Wolf, R.J. Wagner, G. Neukum, R. Jaumann, Lunar Planet. Sci. 31, 1596 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. T. Denk, G. Neukum, P. Helfenstein, P.C. Thomas, E.P. Turtle, A.S. McEwen, T. Roatsch, J. Veverka, T.V. Johnson, J.E. Perry, W.M. Owen, R.J. Wagner, C.C. Porco, the Cassini ISS Team, Lunar Planet. Sci. 36, 2262 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. T. Denk, G. Neukum, T. Roatsch, C.C. Porco, J.A. Burns, G.G. Galuba, N. Schmedemann, P. Helfenstein, P.C. Thomas, R.J. Wagner, R.A. West, Science (2009). doi: 10.1126/science.1177008 Google Scholar
  29. S.F. Dermott, C.D. Murray, Nature 296, 418–421 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. S.J. Desch, J.C. Cook, T.C. Doggett, S.B. Porter, Icarus 202, 694–714 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2009.03.009 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. A.R. Dobrovolskis, J.J. Lissauer, Icarus 169, 462–473 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.01.006 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. L. Dones, C.R. Chapman, W.B. McKinnon, H.J. Melosh, M.R. Kirchoff, G. Neukum, K.J. Zahnle, in Saturn from Cassini-Huygens, ed. by M.K. Dougherty, L.W. Esposito, S.M. Krimigis (Springer, Dordrecht, 2009), pp. 613–635. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9217-6_19 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. N.S. Duxbury, R.H. Brown, Icarus 125, 83–93 (1997). doi: 10.1006/icar.1996.5554 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. J.L. Elliot, M.J. Person, A.A.S. Gulbis, S.P. Souza, E.R. Adams, B.A. Babcock, J.W. Gangestad, A.E. Jaskot, E.A. Kramer, J.M. Pasachoff, R.E. Pike, C.A. Zuluaga, A.S. Bosh, S.W. Dieters, P.J. Francis, A.B. Giles, J.G. Greenhill, B. Lade, R. Lucas, D.J. Ramm, Astron. J. 134, 1–13 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. S. Engel, J.I. Lunine, D.L. Norton, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 3745–3752 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. H.J. Fischer, T. Spohn, Icarus 83, 39–65 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. A.D. Fortes, P.M. Grindrod, S.K. Trickett, L. Vocadlo, Icarus 188, L1–L3 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. W.C. Fraser, M.E. Brown, Astron. J. 695, 139–153 (2009). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.11.002 Google Scholar
  39. B. Giese, T. Denk, G. Neukum, C.C. Porco, T. Roatsch, R. Wagner, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 37, 728 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. B. Giese, G. Neukum, T. Roatsch, T. Denk, C.C. Porco, Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1156–1166 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2006.05.027 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. B. Giese, R. Wagner, G. Neukum, P. Helfenstein, P.C. Thomas, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L21203 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2007GL031467 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. B. Giese, T. Denk, G. Neukum, T. Roatsch, P. Helfenstein, P.C. Thomas, E.P. Turtle, A. McEwen, C.C. Porco, Icarus 193, 359–371 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.06.005 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. P. Goldreich, S.J. Peale, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 6, 287–320 (1968) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. P. Goldreich, N. Murray, P.Y. Longaretti, D. Banfield, Science 245, 500–504 (1989). doi: 10.1126/science.245.4917.500 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. O. Grasset, J. Pargamin, Planet. Space Sci. 53, 371–384 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2004.09.062 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. O. Grasset, C. Sotin, Icarus 123, 101–112 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. O. Grasset, C. Sotin, F. Deschamps, Planet. Space Sci. 48, 617–636 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S0032-0633(00)00039-8 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. R. Greenberg, in Satellites of Jupiter, ed. by D. Morrison, M.S. Matthews (The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1982), pp. 65–92 Google Scholar
  49. R. Greenberg, Icarus 70, 334–347 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. A.R. Hendrix, C.J. Hansen, Icarus 193, 344–351 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. H. Hussmann, T. Spohn, Icarus 171, 391–410 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.05.020 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. H. Hussmann, F. Sohl, T. Spohn, Icarus 185, 258–273 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.06.005 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. H. Hussmann, G. Choblet, D.L. Matson, C. Sotin, G. Tobie, T. Van Hoolst, Space Sci. Rev. (2010, this issue) Google Scholar
  54. L. Iess, N.J. Rappaport, P. Tortora, J. Lunine, J.W. Armstrong, S.W. Asmar, L. Somenzi, F. Zingoni, Icarus 190, 585–593 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.03.027 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. W.H. Ip, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L16203 (2006). doi: 10.1029/2005GL025386 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. R.A. Jacobson, P.G. Antreasian, J.J. Bordi, K.E. Criddle, R. Ionasescu, J.B. Jones, R.A. Mackenzie, M.C. Meek, D. Parcher, F.J. Pelletier, W.M. Owen, D.C. Roth, I.M. Roundhill, J.R. Stauch, Astron. J. 132, 2520–2526 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. W.M. Kaula, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 999–1008 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. R.L. Kirk, D.J. Stevenson, Icarus 69, 91–134 (1987). doi: 10.1016/0019-1035(87)90009-1 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. R.L. Kirk, L.A. Soderblom, R.H. Brown, S.W. Kieffer, J.S. Kargel, in Neptune and Triton, ed. by D.P. Cruikshank (The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1995), pp. 949–989 Google Scholar
  60. A.V. Krivov, I. Wardinski, F. Spahn, H. Krüger, E. Grün, Icarus 157, 436–455 (2002). doi: 10.1006/icar.2002.6848 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. K. Kuramoto, T. Matsui, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 21183–21200 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. V. Lainey, J.E. Arlot, Ö. Karatekin, T. Van Hoolst, Nature 459, 957–959 (2009). doi: 10.1038/nature08108 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. E. Lellouch, B. Sicardy, C. de Bergh, S. Kassi, H.U. Käufl, A. Campargue, Astron. Astrophys. 495, L17–L21 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. R.D. Lorenz, K.L. Mitchell, R.L. Kirk, A.G. Hayes, O. Aharonson, H.A. Zebker, P. Paillou, J. Radebaugh, J.I. Lunine, M.A. Janssen, S.D. Wall, R.M. Lopes, B. Stiles, S. Ostro, G. Mitri, E.R. Stofan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02206 (2008a). doi: 10.1029/2007GL032118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. R.D. Lorenz, B.W. Stiles, R.L. Kirk, M.D. Allison, P.P. del Marmo, L. Iess, J.I. Lunine, S.J. Ostro, S. Hensley, Science 319, 1649–1651 (2008b). doi: 10.1126/science.1151639 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. J.S. Loveday, R.J. Nelmes, M. Guthrie, S.A. Delmonte, D.R. Allan, D.D. Klug, J.S. Tan, Y.P. Handa, Nature 410, 661–663 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. R.P. Lowell, P.A. Rona, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 (2002). doi: 10.1029/2001GL014411
  68. J. Lunine, M. Choukroun, D. Stevenson, G. Tobie, in Titan from Cassini-Huygens, ed. by R.H. Brown, J.P. Lebreton, J.H. Waite (Springer, Dordrecht, 2009), pp. 35–59. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9215-2_3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. J.I. Lunine, D.J. Stevenson, Icarus 70, 61–77 (1987). doi: 10.1016/0019-1035(87)90075-3 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. J.I. Lunine, S.K. Atreya, J.B. Pollack, in Origin and Evolution of Planetary and Satellite Atmospheres, vol. 130 (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1989), pp. 605–665 Google Scholar
  71. R.A. Mackenzie, L. Iess, P. Tortora, N.J. Rappaport, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L05204 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2007GL032898 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. R. Malhotra, Icarus 94, 399–412 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. S. Marchi, C. Barbieri, A. Dell’Oro, P. Paolicchi, Astron. Astrophys. 381, 1059–1065 (2002). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011587 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. S. Marchi, C. Barbieri, M. Lazzarin, Planet. Space Sci. 52, 671–677 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2004.02.002 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. F. Marchis, D.L. Mignant, F.H. Chaffee, A.G. Davies, S.H. Kwokb, R. Prangë, I. dePatera, P. Amico, R. Campbell, T. Fusco, R.W. Goodrich, A. Conrad, Icarus 176, 96–122 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. D.L. Matson, T.V. Johnson, G.J. Veeder, D.L. Blaney, A.G. Davies, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 33021–33024 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. D.L. Matson, J.C. Castillo, J. Lunine, T.V. Johnson, Icarus 187, 569–573 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.10.016 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. W.B. McKinnon, Nature 311, 355–358 (1984) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. W.B. McKinnon, Icarus 183, 435–450 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.03.004 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. W.B. McKinnon, A.C. Leith, Icarus 118, 392–413 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. W.B. McKinnon, J.I. Lunine, D. Banfield, in Neptune and Triton, ed. by D.P. Cruikshank (The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1995), pp. 807–877 Google Scholar
  82. W.B. McKinnon, D.P. Simonelli, G. Schubert, in Pluto and Charon, ed. by S.A. Stern, D.J. Tholen (The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1997), pp. 295–343 Google Scholar
  83. W.B. McKinnon, D. Prialnik, S.A. Stern, A. Coradini, in Solar System Beyond Neptune, ed. by M.A. Barucci, H. Boehnhardt, D. Cruikshank, A. Morbidelli (The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2008), pp. 213–241 Google Scholar
  84. H.J. Melosh, F. Nimmo, Lunar Planet. Sci. 40, 2478 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. J. Meyer, J. Wisdom, Icarus 188, 535–539 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.03.001 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. J. Meyer, J. Wisdom, Icarus 198, 178–180 (2008a). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.06.012 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. J. Meyer, J. Wisdom, Icarus 193, 213–223 (2008b). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.09.008 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. G. Mitri, A.P. Showman, Icarus 193, 387–396 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.07.016 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. G. Mitri, A.P. Showman, J.I. Lunine, R.M.C. Lopes, Icarus 196, 216–224 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2008.02.024 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. J. Monteux, N. Coltice, F. Dubuffet, Y. Ricard, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L24201 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2007GL031635 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. W.B. Moore, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5096 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2002JE001943 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. W.B. Moore, H. Hussmann, in Europa, ed. by R.T. Pappalardo, W.B. McKinnon, K. Khurana (The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2009), pp. 369–380 Google Scholar
  93. I. Mosqueira, P.R. Estrada, Icarus 163, 198–231 (2003). doi: 10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00076-9 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. I. Mosqueira, P. Estrada, D. Turrini, Space Sci. Rev. (2010, this issue). doi: 10.1007/S11214-009-9614-6
  95. S. Mueller, W.B. McKinnon, Icarus 76, 437–464 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. D. Nesvorný, J.L.A. Alvarellos, L. Dones, H.F. Levison, Astron. J. 126, 398–429 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. D. Nesvorný, D. Vokrouhlický, A. Morbidelli, Astron. J. 133, 1962–1976 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. H.B. Niemann, S.K. Atreya, S.J. Bauer, G.R. Carignan, J.E. Demick, R.L. Frost, D. Gautier, J.A. Haberman, D.N. Harpold, D.M. Hunten, G. Israel, J.I. Lunine, W.T. Kasprzak, T.C. Owen, M. Paulkovich, F. Raulin, E. Raaen, S.H. Way, Nature 438, 779–784 (2005). doi: 10.1038/nature04122 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. G.W. Ojakangas, D.J. Stevenson, Icarus 66, 341–358 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. J.P. Osegovic, M.D. Max, J. Geophys. Res. 110, E08004 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2005JE002435 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. S.J. Peale, in Planetary Satellites, ed. by J.A. Burns (The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1977), pp. 87–112 Google Scholar
  102. S.J. Peale, in Satellites, ed. by J.A. Burns, M.S. Matthews (The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1986), pp. 159–223 Google Scholar
  103. S.J. Peale, Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron. 87, 129–155 (2003) zbMATHADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. S.J. Peale, M.H. Lee, Science 298, 593–597 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. S.J. Peale, P. Cassen, R.T. Reynolds, Science 20, 892–894 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. M.J. Person, J.L. Elliott, A.A.S. Gulbis, J.M. Pasachoff, B.A. Babcock, S.P. Souza, J. Gangestad, Astron. J. 132, 1575–1580 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. J.P. Poirier, L. Boloh, P. Chambon, Icarus 55, 218–230 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. C.C. Porco, E. Baker, J. Barbara, K. Beurle, A. Brahic, J.A. Burns, S. Charnoz, N. Cooper, D.D. Dawson, A.D.D. Genio, T. Denk, L. Dones, U. Dyudina, M.W. Evans, B. Giese, K. Grazier, P. Helfenstein, A.P. Ingersoll, R.A. Jacobson, T.V. Johnson, A. McEwen, C.D. Murray, G. Neukum, W.M. Owen, J. Perry, T. Roatsch, J. Spitale, S. Squyres, P.C. Thomas, M. Tiscareno, E. Turtle, A.R. Vasavada, J. Veverka, R. Wagner, R. West, Science 307, 1237–1242 (2005). doi: 10.1126/science.1107981 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. C.C. Porco, P. Helfenstein, P.C. Thomas, A.P. Ingersoll, J. Wisdom, R. West, G. Neukum, T. Denk, R. Wagner, T. Roatsch, S. Kieffer, E. Turtle, A. McEwen, T.V. Johnson, J. Rathbun, J. Veverka, D. Wilson, J. Perry, J. Spitale, A. Brahic, J.A. Burns, A.D. DelGenio, L. Dones, C.D. Murray, S. Squyres, Science 311, 1393–1401 (2006). doi: 10.1126/science.1123013 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. L.M. Prockter, F. Nimmo, R.T. Pappalardo, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L14202 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2005GL022832 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. M. Prockter et al., Space Sci. Rev. (2010, this issue) Google Scholar
  112. D. Ragozzine, M.E. Brown, Astron. J. 137, 4766–4776 (2009). doi: 10.1088/0004-6256/137/6/4766 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. N.J. Rappaport, L. Iess, J. Wahr, J.I. Lunine, J.W. Armstrong, S.W. Asmar, P. Tortora, M. Di Benedetto, P. Racioppa, Icarus 194, 711–720 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.11.024 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. J.H. Roberts, F. Nimmo, Lunar Planet. Sci. 40, 1927 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. M.N. Ross, G. Schubert, Icarus 78, 90–101 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. M.N. Ross, G. Schubert, Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1749–1752 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. D. Sandwell, G. Schubert, Icarus (2010, submitted) Google Scholar
  118. E.L. Schaller, M.E. Brown, Astrophys. J. Lett. 684, L107–L109 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. P. Schenk, M.P.A. Jackson, Geology 21, 299–302 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. P.M. Schenk, J.M. Moore, in Solar System Ices, ed. by B. Schmitt, C. de Bergh, M. Festou (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1998), pp. 551–578 Google Scholar
  121. P.M. Schenk, J.M. Moore, Lunar Planet. Sci. 40, 2465 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. P.M. Schenk, K. Zahnle, Icarus 192, 135–149 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.07.004 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. G. Schubert, D.J. Stevenson, K. Ellsworth, Icarus 47, 46–59 (1981). doi: 10.1016/0019-1035(81)90090-7 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. G. Schubert, D.L. Turcotte, P. Olson, Mantle Convection in the Earth and Planets (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. G. Schubert, J.D. Anderson, T. Spohn, W.B. McKinnon, in Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, ed. by F. Bagenal, T.E. Dowling, W.B. McKinnon (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004), pp. 281–306 Google Scholar
  126. G. Schubert, J.D. Anderson, B.J. Travis, J. Palguta, Icarus 188, 345–355 (2007). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.12.012 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. M. Segatz, T. Spohn, M.N. Ross, G. Schubert, Icarus 75, 187–206 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. H. Senshu, K. Kuramoto, T. Matsui, J. Geophys. Res. 107, E125118 (2002). doi: 10.1029/2001JE001819 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. A.P. Showman, R. Malhotra, Icarus 127, 93–111 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. A.P. Showman, D.J. Stevenson, R. Malhotra, Icarus 129, 367–383 (1997). doi: 10.1006/icar.1997.5778 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. B.A. Smith, L. Soderblum, R. Batson, P. Bridges, J. Inge, H. Masursky, E. Shoemaker, R. Beebe, J. Boyce, G. Briggs, A. Bunker, S.A. Collins, C.J. Hansen, T.V. Johnson, J.L. Mitchell, R.J. Terrile, A.F. Cook, J. Cuzzi, J.B. Pollack, G.E. Danielson, A. Ingersoll, M.E. Davies, G.E. Hunt, D. Morrison, T. Owen, C. Sagan, J. Veverka, R. Strom, V.E. Suomi, Science 215, 505–537 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. F. Sohl, H. Hussmann, B. Schwentker, T. Spohn, R.D. Lorenz, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 5130 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2003JE002044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. F. Sohl et al., Space Sci. Rev. (2010, this issue) Google Scholar
  134. S. Soter, in IAU Colloquium 28, Cornell University, 1974 Google Scholar
  135. C. Sotin, G. Mitri, N. Rappaport, G. Schubert, D. Stevenson, in Titan from Cassini/Huygens, ed. by R.H. Brown, J.P. Lebreton, J.H. Waite (Springer, Dordrecht, 2009), pp. 61–73. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9215-2_4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. J.R. Spencer, T. Denk, Science 10 (2009). doi: 10.1126/science.1177132
  137. J.R. Spencer, J.C. Pearl, M. Segura, F.M. Flasar, A. Mamoutkine, P. Romani, B.J. Buratti, A.R. Hendrix, L.J. Spilker, R.M.C. Lopes, Science 311, 1401–1405 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. S.W. Squyres, R.T. Reynolds, P.M. Cassen, S.J. Peale, Icarus 53, 319–331 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. S.A. Stern, Space Sci. Rev. 140, 3–21 (2008). doi: 10.1007/s11214-007-9295-y ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. S.A. Stern, W.B. McKinnon, Astron. J. 119, 945–952 (2000). doi: 10.1086/301207 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. S.A. Stern, H.A. Weaver, A.J. Steffl, M.J. Mutchler, W.J. Merline, M.W. Buie, E.F. Young, L.A. Young, J.R. Spencer, Nature 439, 946–948 (2006). doi: 10.1038/nature04548 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. B.W. Stiles, R.L. Kirk, R.D. Lorenz, S. Hensley, E. Lee, S.J. Ostro, M.D. Allison, Callahan Ps, Y. Gim, L. Iess, P. Perci del Marmo, G. Hamilton, W.T.K. Johnson, R.D. West, The Cassini RADAR Team, Astron. J. 139, 311 (2010). doi: 10.1088/0004-6256/139/1/311 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. P.C. Thomas, J.W. Armstrong, S.W. Asmar, J.A. Burns, T. Denk, B. Giese, P. Helfenstein, L. Iess, T.V. Johnson, A. McEwen, L. Nicolaisen, C. Porco, N. Rappaport, J. Richardson, L. Somenza, P. Tortora, E.P. Turtle, J. Veverka, Nature 448, 50–53 (2007a). doi: 10.1038/nature05779 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. P.C. Thomas, J.A. Burns, P. Helfenstein, S. Squyres, J. Veverka, C. Porco, E.P. Turtle, A. McEwen, T. Denk, B. Giese, T. Roatsch, T.V. Johnson, R.A. Jacobson, Icarus 190, 573–584 (2007b). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2007.03.012 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. G. Tobie, O. Grasset, J.I. Lunine, A. Mocquet, C. Sotin, Icarus 175, 496–502 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2004.12.007 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. G. Tobie, J.I. Lunine, C. Sotin, Nature 440, 61–64 (2006). doi: 10.1038/nature04497 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. G. Tobie, M. Choukroun, O. Grasset, S. Le Mouélic, J.I. Lunine, C. Sotin, O. Bourgeois, D. Gautier, M. Hirtzig, S. Lebonnois, L. Le Corre, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A 367, 617–631 (2009). doi: 10.1098/rsta.2008.0246 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. G. Tobie et al., Space Sci. Rev. (2010, this issue) Google Scholar
  149. F. Tosi, D. Turrini, A. Coradini, the VIMS team, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2009, in press). arXiv:0902.3591
  150. D. Toublanc, J.P. Parisot, J. Brillet, D. Gautier, F. Raulin, C.P. McKay, Icarus 113, 2–26 (1995). doi: 10.1006/icar.1995.1002 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. D.L. Turcotte, G. Schubert, Geodynamics, 2nd edn. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002) Google Scholar
  152. D. Turrini, F. Marzari, H. Beust, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 391, 1029–1051 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. D. Turrini, F. Marzari, F. Tosi, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 392, 455–474 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. G.J. Veeder, D.L. Matson, T.V. Johnson, D.L. Blaney, J.D. Goguen, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 17095–17162 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. G.J. Veeder, D.L. Matson, T.V. Johnson, A.G. Davies, D.L. Blaney, Icarus 169, 264–270 (2004). doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2003.11.016 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. A.J. Verbiscer, M.F. Skrutskie, D.P. Hamilton, Nature 461, 1098–1100 (2009). doi: 10.1038/nature08515 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. D. Vokrouhlický, D. Nesvorný, H.F. Levison, Astron. J. 136, 1463–1476 (2008). doi: 10.1088/0004-6256/136/4/1463 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. H.A. Weaver, W.C. Gibson, M.B. Tapley, L.A. Young, S.A. Stern, Space Sci. Rev. 140, 75–91 (2008). doi: 10.1007/s11214-008-9376-6 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. C.F. Yoder, Nature 279, 767–770 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. C.F. Yoder, S.J. Peale, Icarus 47, 1–35 (1981) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. L.A. Young, S.A. Stern, H.A. Weaver, F. Bagenal, R.P. Binzel, B. Buratti, A.F. Cheng, D. Cruikshank, G.R. Gladstone, W.M. Grundy, D.P. Hinson, M. Horanyi, D.E. Jennings, I.R. Linscott, D.J. McComas, W.B. McKinnon, R. McNutt, J.M. Moore, S. Murchie, C.B. Olkin, C.C. Porco, H. Reitsema, D.C. Reuter, J.R. Spencer, D.C. Slater, D. Strobel, M.E. Summers, G.L. Tyler, Space Sci. Rev. 140, 93–127 (2008). doi: 10.1007/s11214-008-9462-9 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Y.L. Yung, M. Allen, J.P. Pinto, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 55, 465–506 (1984) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. K. Zahnle, P. Schenk, H. Levison, L. Dones, Icarus 163, 263–289 (2003). doi: 10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00048-4 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. H.A. Zebker, B. Stiles, S. Hensley, R. Lorenz, R.L. Kirk, J. Lunine, Science 324, 921–921 (2009). doi: 10.1126/science.1168905 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Schubert
    • 1
  • H. Hussmann
    • 2
  • V. Lainey
    • 3
  • D. L. Matson
    • 4
  • W. B. McKinnon
    • 5
  • F. Sohl
    • 2
  • C. Sotin
    • 6
  • G. Tobie
    • 7
  • D. Turrini
    • 8
  • T. Van Hoolst
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary PhysicsUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.German Aerospace Center (DLR)Institute of Planetary ResearchBerlinGermany
  3. 3.IMCCE-Observatoire de ParisUMR 8028 du CNRSParisFrance
  4. 4.JPL 183-335PasadenaUSA
  5. 5.Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for the Space SciencesWashington UniversitySaint LouisUSA
  6. 6.JPL/CaltechPasadenaUSA
  7. 7.University of NanteNantesFrance
  8. 8.INAF-IFSIRomeItaly
  9. 9.Royal Observatory of BelgiumBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations