The Puzzle of the Flyby Anomaly
- 129 Downloads
Close planetary flybys are frequently employed as a technique to place spacecraft on extreme solar system trajectories that would otherwise require much larger booster vehicles or may not even be feasible when relying solely on chemical propulsion. The theoretical description of the flybys, referred to as gravity assists, is well established. However, there seems to be a lack of understanding of the physical processes occurring during these dynamical events. Radio-metric tracking data received from a number of spacecraft that experienced an Earth gravity assist indicate the presence of an unexpected energy change that happened during the flyby and cannot be explained by the standard methods of modern astrodynamics. This puzzling behavior of several spacecraft has become known as the flyby anomaly. We present the summary of the recent anomalous observations and discuss possible ways to resolve this puzzle.
KeywordsFlyby anomaly Gravitational experiments Spacecraft navigation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- J.D. Anderson, M.M. Nieto, in Proc. of the IAU Symposium 261 (2009, to be published). arXiv:0907.2469
- P.G. Antreasian, J.R. Guinn, AIAA Paper No 98-4287 presented at the AIAA/AAS Astrodynamics Specialist Conference and Exhibit, Boston, 10–12 August 1998, and available at http://www.issibern.ch/teams/Pioneer/pa-literature.htm
- J.V. Breakwell, R.W. Gillespie, S. Ross, ARS J. 31, 201–208 (1961) Google Scholar
- C. Edwards et al., Tracking Galileo at Earth-2 Perigee Using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System. Publication 93-0165 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, 1993). Available at http://hdl.handle.net/2014/34792
- C. Edwards et al., Astrodynamics 1993. Advances in the Astronautical Sciences, ed. by A.K. Misra et al. (Univelt, San Diego, 1994), p. 1609 Google Scholar
- L. Euler, Nov. Commun. Acad. Imp. Petropolitanae 10, 207–242 (1760a) Google Scholar
- L. Euler, Nov. Commun. Acad. Imp. Petropolitanae 11, 152–184 (1760b) Google Scholar
- L. Euler, Mém. Acad. Berl. 11, 228–249 (1760c) Google Scholar
- T. Morley, F. Budnik, in Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Space Flight Dynamics 2006, Paper ISTS 2006-d-52 Google Scholar
- M. Soffel, S.A. Klioner, G. Petit, P. Wolf, S.M. Kopeikin, P. Bretagnon, V.A. Brumberg, N. Capitaine, T. Damour, T. Fukushima, B. Guinot, T.-Y. Huang, L. Lindegren, C. Ma, K. Nordtvedt, J.C. Ries, P.K. Seidelmann, D. Vokrouhlický, C.M. Will, C. Xu, Astron. J. 126, 2687–2706 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
- E.T. Whittaker, in A Treatise on the Analytical Dynamics of Particles and Rigid Bodies, with an Introduction to the Problem of Three Bodies, 4th edn. (Dover, New York, 1937), pp. 97–99 Google Scholar