Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, 146:173 | Cite as

IBEX Backgrounds and Signal-to-Noise Ratio

  • P. Wurz
  • S. A. Fuselier
  • E. Möbius
  • H. O. Funsten
  • P. C. Brandt
  • F. Allegrini
  • A. G. Ghielmetti
  • R. Harper
  • E. Hertzberg
  • P. Janzen
  • H. Kucharek
  • D. J. McComas
  • E. C. Roelof
  • L. Saul
  • J. Scheer
  • M. Wieser
  • Y. Zheng
Article

Abstract

The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission will provide maps of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) originating from the boundary region of our heliosphere. On IBEX there are two sensors, IBEX-Lo and IBEX-Hi, covering the energy ranges from 10 to 2000 eV and from 300 to 6000 eV, respectively. The expected ENA signals at 1 AU are low, therefore both sensors feature large geometric factors. In addition, special attention has to be paid to the various sources of background that may interfere with our measurement. Because IBEX orbits the Earth, ion, electron, and ENA populations of the Earth’s magnetosphere are prime background sources. Another potential background source is the magnetosheath and the solar wind plasma when the spacecraft is outside the magnetosphere. UV light from the night sky and the geocorona have to be considered as background sources as well. Finally background sources within each of the sensors must be examined.

Keywords

Interstellar boundary Energetic Neutral Atom ENA Instrumentation 

References

  1. F. Allegrini, G.B. Crew, D. Demkee, H.O. Funsten, D.J. McComas, B. Randol, B. Rodriguez, N.A. Schwadron, P. Valek, S. Weidner, The IBEX-Hi background monitor, Space Sci. Rev. (2009, this issue) Google Scholar
  2. D.J. Baker, G.J. Romick, The Raleigh: Interpretation of the unit in terms of column emission rate or apparent radiance expressed in SI units. Appl. Optics 15, 1966–1968 (1976) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. J. Berkowitz, Atomic and Molecular Photoabsorption (Academic Press, San Diego, 2002) Google Scholar
  4. J.L. Bertaux, E. Kyrölä, E. Quémerais, R. Pellinen, R. Lallement, W. Schmidt, M. Berthé, E. Dimarellis, J.P. Goutail, C. Taulemesse, C. Bernard, G. Leppelmeier, T. Summanen, H. Hannula, H. Huomo, V. Kehlä, S. Korpela, K. KLeppälä, E. Strömmer, J. Torsti, K. Viherkanto, J.F. Hochedez, G. Chretiennot, R. Peyroux, T. Holzer, SWAN: A study of solar wind anisotropies on SOHO with Lyman alpha sky mapping. Sol. Phys. 162, 403–439 (1995) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. P.C. Brandt, R. DeMajistre, E.C. Roelof, D.G. Mitchell, S. Mende, IMAGE/HENA: Global ENA imaging of the plasmasheet and ring current during substorms. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1454 (2002). doi: 10.1029/2002JA009307 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. S.V. Chalov, H.J. Fahr, V.V. Izmodenov, Evolution of pickup proton spectra in the inner heliosheath and their diagnostics by energetic neutral atom fluxes. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A6), 1266 (2003). doi: 10.1029/2002JA009492 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. M.R. Collier, T.E. Moore, K.W. Ogilvie, J.D. Chornay, J.W. Keller, S. Boardsen, J.L. Burch, B. El Marji, M.-C. Fok, S.A. Fuselier, A.G. Ghielmetti, B.L. Giles, D.C. Hamilton, B.L. Peko, J.M. Quinn, T.M. Stephen, G.R. Wilson, P. Wurz, Observations of neutral atoms from the solar wind. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 24893–24906 (2001) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. H.-J. Fahr, K. Scherer, Energetic neutral atom fluxes from the heliosheath varying with the activity phase of the solar cycle. ASTRA Astrophys. Space Sci. Trans. 1, 3–15 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. M.-C. Fok, R.A. Wolf, R.W. Spiro, T.E. Moore, Comprehensive computational model of Earth’s ring current. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8417–8424 (2001) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. M.-C. Fok, T.E. Moore, G.R. Wilson, J.D. Perez, X.X. Zhang, P.C. son Brandt, D.G. Mitchell, E.C. Roelof, J.-M. Jahn, C.J. Pollock, R.A. Wolf, Global ENA image simulations. Space Sci. Rev. 109, 77–103 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. C. Fröhlich, J. Lean, Solar radiative output and its variability: evidence and mechanisms. Astron. Astrophys. 12, 273–320 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. H.O. Funsten, A.A. Guthrie, R.W. Harper, K.H. Kihara, M.P. Manzo, M.J. Fagan, D.J. McComas, S. Weidner, F. Allegrini, D. Everett, B. Rodriguez, G. Dunn, S. Pope, J. Hanley, P. Valek, E. Moebius, J. Nolin, S. Ellis, D. Heirtzler, B. King, H. Kucharek, S. Turco, S. Zaffke, D. Reisenfeld, P. Janzen, S.A. Fuselier, M. Gruntman, E. Roelof, P. Wurz, D. Piazza, L. Saul, P. Bochsler, The interstellar boundary explorer high energy (IBEX-Hi) neutral atom imager. Space Sci. Rev. (2009, this issue) Google Scholar
  13. S.A. Fuselier, A.G. Ghielmetti, E. Hertzberg, A.S. Moore, D. Isaac, J.W. Hamilton, C. Tillier, E. Moebius, M.S. Granoff, D. Heirtzler, B. King, H. Kucharek, S. Longworth, J. Nolin, S. Turco, S. Ellis, J. Googins, F. Kudirka, J. Tyler, M. Vosbury, G. Clark, M. O’Neal, P. Wurz, J.A. Scheer, L.A. Saul, D. Piazza, P. Bochsler, M. Wieser, C. Schlemm, D.J. McComas, J. Scherrer, S. Pope, H.O. Funsten, D. Chornay, J. Lobell, T.E. Moore, P. Rosmarynowski, T. Friedmann, R.J. Nemanich, The IBEX-Lo Sensor. Space Sci. Rev. (2009, this issue) Google Scholar
  14. S. Graf, K. Altwegg, H. Balsiger, P. Bochsler, B. Fiethe, E. Montagnon, Thruster plumes—a source for high pressure and contamination at the payload location. J. Spacecr. Rockets 45, 57–64 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. A. Galli, P. Wurz, H. Lammer, H.I.M. Lichtenegger, R. Lundin, S. Barabash, A. Grigoriev, M. Holmström, H. Gunell, The hydrogen exospheric density profile measured with ASPERA-3/NPD. Space Sci. Rev. 126, 447–467 (2006) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. G. Goeckler, Ubiquitous suprathermal tails on the solar wind and pickup ion distributions, in Proc. Solar Wind X, Am. Inst. Phys., CP679 (2003), pp. 583–588 Google Scholar
  17. J.B. Greenwood, I.A. Chutjian, S.J. Smith, Measurements of the absolute, single charge-echange cross section of H+, He+, and He2+ with H2O and CO2. Astrophys. J. 529, 605–609 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. M. Gruntman, E.C. Roelof, D.G. Mitchell, H.J. Fahr, H.O. Funsten, D.J. McComas, Energetic neutral atom imaging of the heliospheric boundary region. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 15767–15782 (2001) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. D.C. Hamilton, G. Gloeckler, F.M. Ipavich, W. Stüdemann, B. Wilken, G. Kremser, Ring current development during the great geomagnetic storm of February 1986. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14343–14355 (1988) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. J. Heerikhuisen, N.V. Pogorelov, G.P. Zank, V. Florinski, The effects of global heliospheric asymmetries on energetic neutral atom sky maps. Astrophys. J. 655, L53–L56 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. M. Hilchenbach, K.C. Hsieh, D. Hovestadt, B. Klecker, H. Grünwaldt, P. Bochsler, F.M. Ipavich, F. Gliem, W.I. Axford, H. Balsiger, W. Bornemann, A. Bürgi, M.A. Coplan, A.B. Galvin, J. Geiss, G. Gloeckler, S. Hefti, D.L. Judge, R. Kallenbach, P. Laeverenz, M.A. Lee, S. Livi, G.G. Managadze, E. Marsch, E. Möbius, M. Neugebauer, H.S. Ogawa, K.U. Reiche, M. Scholer, M.I. Verigin, B. Wilken, P. Wurz, Detection of 55–80 keV hydrogen atoms of heliospheric origin by CELIAS/HSTOF on SOHO. Astrophys. J. 503, 916–921 (1998) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. R.R. Hodges, E.L. Breig, Ionosphere–Exosphere coupling through charge exchange and momentum transfer in hydrogen-proton collisions. J. Geophys. Res. 96, 7697–7708 (1991) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. K.C. Hsieh, P.C. Frisch, J. Giacalone, J.R. Jokipii, J. Kota, D.E. Larson, R.P. Lin, J.G. Luhmann, L. Wang, A re-interpretation of the STERE/STE observations and its consequences. Astrophys. J. 694, L79–L82 (2009) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. W.F. Huebner, J.J. Keady, S.P. Lyon, Solar photo rates for planetary atmospheres and atmospheric pollutants. Astrophys. Space Sci. 195, 1–294 (1992) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. M. Juda, R.H. Donnelly, K.T. Hole, A.T. Kenter, R.P. Kraft, S.S. Murray, D.O. Pease, C.R.A. Wilton, M.V. Zombeck, Characteristics of the on-orbit background of the Chandra X-ray observatory high resolution camera. Proc. SPIE 4851, 112–123 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. R. Kallenbach, M. Hilchenbach, S.V. Chalov, J.A. Le Roux, K. Bamert, On the “injection problem” at the solar wind termination shock. Astron. Astrophys. 439, 1–22 (2005) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. L.M. Kistler, F.M. Ipavich, D.C. Hamilton, G. Gloeckler, B. Wilken, G. Kremser, W. Stüdemann, Energy spectra of the major ion species in the ring current during geomagnetic storms. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 3579–3599 (1989) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. R. Korde, C. Prince, D. Cunningham, R.E. Vest, E. Gullikson, Present status of radiometric quality silicon photodiodes. Metrologia 40, S145–S149 (2003) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. W.F. Krolikowski, W.E. Spicer, Photoemission studies of the noble metals: II. Gold. Phys. Rev. B 1, 478–487 (1970) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. D. McComas, S.J. Bame, W.C. Feldman, J.T. Gosling, J.L. Phillips, Solar wind Halo electrons from 1–4 AU. Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1291–1294 (1992) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. D.J. McComas, P. Valek, J.L. Burch, C.J. Pollock, R.M. Skoug, M.F. Thomsen, Filling and emptying of the plasma sheet: Remote observations with 1–70 keV energetic neutral atoms. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 2079 (2002). doi: 10.1029/2002GL016153 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. D. McComas, F. Allegrini, P. Bochsler, M. Bzowski, M. Collier, H. Fahr, H. Fichtner, P. Frisch, H. Funsten, S. Fuselier, G. Gloeckler, M. Gruntman, V. Izmodenov, P. Knappenberger, M. Lee, S. Livi, D. Mitchell, E. Moebius, T. Moore, D. Reisenfeld, E. Roelof, N. Schwadron, M. Wieser, M. Witte, P. Wurz, G. Zank, The interstellar boundary explorer (IBEX). AIP Conf. Proc. 719, 162–181 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. D.J. McComas, F. Allegrini, P. Bochsler, M. Bzowski, M. Collier, H. Fahr, H. Fichtner, P. Frisch, H. Funsten, S. Fuselier, G. Gloeckler, M. Gruntman, V. Izmodenov, P. Knappenberger, M. Lee, S. Livi, D. Mitchell, E. Möbius, T. Moore, S. Pope, D. Reisenfeld, E. Roelof, J. Scherrer, N. Schwadron, R. Tyler, M. Wieser, M. Witte, P. Wurz, G. Zank, IBEX – interstellar boundary explorer. Space Sci. Rev. (2009, this issue) Google Scholar
  34. F.B. McDonald, V.S. Ptuskin, Galactic cosmic rays, in The Century of Space Science (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2001), pp. 677–697 Google Scholar
  35. F. Merkt, R. Signorell, H. Plam, A. Osterwalder, M. Sommavilla, Towards resolving the hyperfine structure in ions by photoelectron spectroscopy. Mol. Phys. 95, 1045–1054 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. D.G. Mitchell, S.E. Jaskulek, C.E. Schlemm, E.P. Keath, R.E. Thompson, B.E. Tossman, J.D. Boldt, J.R. Hayes, G.B. Andrews, N. Paschalidis, D.C. Hamilton, R.A. Lundgren, E.O. Tums, P. Wilson IV, H.D. Voss, D. Prentice, K.C. Hsieh, C.C. Curtis, F.R. Powell, High energy neutral atom (HENA) imager for the IMAGE mission. Space Sci. Rev. 91, 67–112 (2000) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. N.P. Paschalidis, E.T. Sarris, S.M. Krimigis, R.W. McEntire, M.D. Levine, I.A. Daglis, G.C. Anagnostopoulos, Energetic ion distributions on both sides of the Earth’s magnetopause. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 8687–8703 (1994) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. W.G. Pilipp, H. Miggenrieder, M.D. Montgomery, K.-H. Mühlhäuser, H. Rosenbauer, R. Schwenn, Characteristics of electron velocity distribution functions in the solar wind derived from the HELIOS plasma experiment. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 1075–1092 (1987) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. E. Quémerais, R. Lallement, S. Ferron, D. Koutroumpa, J.-L. Bertaux, R. Kyrölä, W. Schmidt, Interplanetary hydrogen absolute ionization rates: Retrieving the solar wind mass flux latitude and cycle dependence with SWAN/SOHO maps. J. Geophys. Res. 111, A09114 (2006). doi: 10.1029/2006JA011711 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. T.R. Sanderson, J.P.G. Henrion, K.-P. Wenzel, R.P. Lin, K.A. Anderson, S. Ashford, C.W. Carlson, D. Curtis, R.F. Ergun, D. Larson, J. McFadden, H. Reme, J.M. Bosqued, J. Coutelier, F. Cotin, N. Lormant, C. d’Uston, G.K. Parks, M.P. McCarthy, R.M. Skoug, R.M. Winglee, WIND observations of energetic ions far upstream of the Earth’s bow-shock. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1215–1218 (1996) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. J. Steinberg, Private communication. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA, 2007 Google Scholar
  42. R.G. Tonkyn, R. Wiedmann, E.R. Grant, M.G. White, Rotationally resolved photoionization of H2O. J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7033–7040 (1991) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. J. Vallerga, R. Lallement, M. Lemoine, F. Dalaudier, D. McMullin, Astron. Astrophys. 426, 855–865 (2004) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. L. Wang, R.P. Lin, D.E. Larson, J.G. Luhmann, Domination of heliosheath pressure by shock-accelerated pickup ions from observations of neutral atoms. Nature 454, 81–83 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. M. Wieser, P. Wurz, E. Moebius, S.A. Fuselier, E. Hertzberg, D.J. McComas, The ion-optical prototype of the low energy neutral atom sensor of the interstellar boundary explorer mission (IBEX). Rev. Sci. Instr. 78, 124502-1–124502-14 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. D.J. Williams, D.G. Mitchell, L.A. Frank, T.E. Eastman, Three-dimensional magnetosheath plasma ion distributions from 200 eV to 2 MeV. J. Geophys. Res. 93, 12783–12794 (1988) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. B.E. Wood, V.V. Izmodenov, J.L. Linsky, Y.G. Malama, Lyα Absorption from heliosheath neutrals. Astrophys. J. 657, 609–617 (2007) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. P. Wurz, Detection of energetic neutral particles, in The Outer Heliosphere: Beyond the Planets, ed. by K. Scherer, H. Fichtner, E. Marsch (Copernicus Gesellschaft e.V., Katlenburg-Lindau, 2000), pp. 251–288 Google Scholar
  49. P. Wurz, J. Scheer, M. Wieser, Particle scattering off surfaces: application in space science. e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotechnol. 4, 394–400 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. P. Wurz, A. Galli, S. Barabash, A. Grigoriev, Energetic neutral atoms from the heliosheath. Astrophys. J. 683, 248–254 (2008) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Wurz
    • 1
  • S. A. Fuselier
    • 2
  • E. Möbius
    • 3
  • H. O. Funsten
    • 4
  • P. C. Brandt
    • 6
  • F. Allegrini
    • 7
  • A. G. Ghielmetti
    • 2
  • R. Harper
    • 4
  • E. Hertzberg
    • 2
  • P. Janzen
    • 4
    • 8
  • H. Kucharek
    • 3
  • D. J. McComas
    • 7
  • E. C. Roelof
    • 6
  • L. Saul
    • 1
  • J. Scheer
    • 1
  • M. Wieser
    • 5
  • Y. Zheng
    • 6
  1. 1.Physics InstituteUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Space Physics DepartmentLockheed Martin Advanced Technology CenterPalo AltoUSA
  3. 3.Space Science Center and Department of PhysicsUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  4. 4.Los Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA
  5. 5.Swedish Institute of Space PhysicsKirunaSweden
  6. 6.Applied Physics LaboratoryLaurelUSA
  7. 7.Space Science and Engineering DivisionSouthwest Research InstituteSan AntonioUSA
  8. 8.Department of Physics & AstronomyUniversity of MontanaMissoulaUSA

Personalised recommendations