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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 147, Issue 3–4, pp 187–231 | Cite as

Dynamics of the Earth’s Particle Radiation Environment

  • Rami VainioEmail author
  • Laurent Desorgher
  • Daniel Heynderickx
  • Marisa Storini
  • Erwin Flückiger
  • Richard B. Horne
  • Gennady A. Kovaltsov
  • Karel Kudela
  • Monica Laurenza
  • Susan McKenna-Lawlor
  • Hanna Rothkaehl
  • Ilya G. Usoskin
Article

Abstract

The physical processes affecting the dynamics of the Earth’s particle radiation environment are reviewed along with scientific and engineering models developed for its description. The emphasis is on models that are either operational engineering models or models presently under development for this purpose. Three components of the radiation environment, i.e., galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar energetic particles (SEPs) and trapped radiation, are considered separately. In the case of SEP models, we make a distinction between statistical flux/fluence models and those aimed at forecasting events. Models of the effects of particle radiation on the atmosphere are also reviewed. Further, we summarize the main features of the models and discuss the main outstanding issues concerning the models and their possible use in operational space weather forecasting. We emphasize the need for continuing the development of physics-based models of the Earth’s particle radiation environment, and their validation with observational data, until the models are ready to be used for nowcasting and/or forecasting the dynamics of the environment.

Keywords

Radiation environment Solar energetic particles Radiation belts Cosmic rays Radiation effects 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rami Vainio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Laurent Desorgher
    • 2
  • Daniel Heynderickx
    • 3
  • Marisa Storini
    • 8
  • Erwin Flückiger
    • 4
  • Richard B. Horne
    • 5
  • Gennady A. Kovaltsov
    • 6
  • Karel Kudela
    • 7
  • Monica Laurenza
    • 8
  • Susan McKenna-Lawlor
    • 9
  • Hanna Rothkaehl
    • 10
  • Ilya G. Usoskin
    • 11
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.SpaceIT GmbHBernSwitzerland
  3. 3.DH ConsultancyLeuvenBelgium
  4. 4.University of BernBernSwitzerland
  5. 5.British Antarctic SurveyCambridgeUK
  6. 6.Ioffe Physical-Technical InstituteSt. PetersburgRussia
  7. 7.Slovak Academy of SciencesKosiceSlovakia
  8. 8.IFSI-Roma/INAFRomaItaly
  9. 9.Space Technology IrelandNational University of IrelandMaynoothIreland
  10. 10.Polish Academy of SciencesWarsawPoland
  11. 11.Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (Oulu unit)University of OuluOuluFinland

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