Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 147, Issue 3–4, pp 233–270 | Cite as

Models of Solar Wind Structures and Their Interaction with the Earth’s Space Environment

  • J. WatermannEmail author
  • P. Wintoft
  • B. Sanahuja
  • E. Saiz
  • S. Poedts
  • M. Palmroth
  • A. Milillo
  • F.-A. Metallinou
  • C. Jacobs
  • N. Y. Ganushkina
  • I. A. Daglis
  • C. Cid
  • Y. Cerrato
  • G. Balasis
  • A. D. Aylward
  • A. Aran
Article

Abstract

The discipline of “Space Weather” is built on the scientific foundation of solar-terrestrial physics but with a strong orientation toward applied research. Models describing the solar-terrestrial environment are therefore at the heart of this discipline, for both physical understanding of the processes involved and establishing predictive capabilities of the consequences of these processes. Depending on the requirements, purely physical models, semi-empirical or empirical models are considered to be the most appropriate. This review focuses on the interaction of solar wind disturbances with geospace. We cover interplanetary space, the Earth’s magnetosphere (with the exception of radiation belt physics), the ionosphere (with the exception of radio science), the neutral atmosphere and the ground (via electromagnetic induction fields). Space weather relevant state-of-the-art physical and semi-empirical models of the various regions are reviewed. They include models for interplanetary space, its quiet state and the evolution of recurrent and transient solar perturbations (corotating interaction regions, coronal mass ejections, their interplanetary remnants, and solar energetic particle fluxes). Models of coupled large-scale solar wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere processes (global magnetohydrodynamic descriptions) and of inner magnetosphere processes (ring current dynamics) are discussed. Achievements in modeling the coupling between magnetospheric processes and the neutral and ionized upper and middle atmospheres are described. Finally we mention efforts to compile comprehensive and flexible models from selections of existing modules applicable to particular regions and conditions in interplanetary space and geospace.

Keywords

Space weather Scientific modeling Solar wind structures Solar wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere–atmosphere coupling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. W.P. Abbett, Astrophys. J. 665, 1469 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. S. Akasofu, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 35, 751 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. S.I. Akasofu, C.F. Fry, Planet. Space Sci. 34, 77 (1986) ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. H. Alfvén, Arkiv for Matematik Astromoni och Fysik 29B(2), 1 (1942) ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. T. Amari, J.F. Luciani, J.J. Aly, Z. Mikić, J.A. Linker, Astrophys. J. 585, 1073 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. T. Amari, J.F. Luciani, J.J. Aly, Astrophys. J. 615, L165 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. T. Amari, J.J. Aly, Z. Mikic, J. Linker, Astrophys. J. 671, L189 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. E. Amata, G. Pallocchia, G. Consolini, M.F. Marcucci, I. Bertello, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 70, 496 (2008) Google Scholar
  9. S. Antiochos, C. DeVore, J. Klimchuk, Astrophys. J. 510, 485 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. A. Aran, B. Sanahuja, D. Lario, Adv. Space Res. 37(6), 1240 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. A. Aran, Ph.D Thesis. Univ. Barcelona (2007). http://www.am.ub.es/~blai
  12. C.N. Arge, J.G. Luhmann, D. Odstrcil, C.J. Schrijver, Y. Li, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 66, 1295 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. W.I. Axford, C.O. Hines, Can. J. Phys. 39, 1433 (1961) MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  14. D.N. Baker, L.A. Barby, S. Curtis, J.R. Jokipii, W.S. Lewis, J. Miller, W. Schimmerling, H.J. Singer, L.W. Townsend, R.E. Turner, T.H. Zurbuchen, Space radiation hazard and the vision for space exploration: Report of a workshop (The National Academy Press, Washington, 2006) Google Scholar
  15. L. Biermann, Z. Astrophys. 29, 274 (1951) ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. O.M. Boaghe, M.A. Balikhin, S.A. Billings, H. Alleyne, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 30,047 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. F. Boberg, P. Wintoft, H. Lundstedt, Phys. Chem. Earth 25(4), 275 (2000) Google Scholar
  18. P. Bochsler, J. Geiss, S. Kunz, Sol. Phys. 103, 177 (1986) ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. P. Bochsler, J. Geophys. Res. 94, 2365 (1989) ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. J.E. Borovsky, M.H. Denton, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A07S08 (2006) Google Scholar
  21. V. Bothmer, R. Schwenn, Ann. Geophys. 16, 1 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. G.E. Brueckner, R.A. Howard, M.J. Koomen, C.M. Korendyke, D.J. Michels, J.D. Moses, D.G. Socker, K.P. Dere, P.L. Lamy, A. Llebaria, M.V. Bout, R. Schwenn, G.M. Simnett, D.K. Bedford, C.J. Eyles, Sol. Phys. 162, 357 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. L.F. Burlaga, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7217 (1988) ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. L.F. Burlaga, The Physics of the Inner Heliosphere vol. 1 (Springer, New York, 1991) Google Scholar
  25. L.F. Burlaga, J.H. King, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6633 (1979) ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. L.F. Burlaga, E. Sittler, F. Mariano, R. Schwenn, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 6673 (1981) ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. L.F. Burlaga, K.W. Behannon, Sol. Phys. 81, 181 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. L.F. Burlaga, R.P. Lepping, J.A. Jones, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 58, 373 (1990). AGU, Washington, D.C. Google Scholar
  29. L.F. Burlaga, S.P. Plunkett, O.C. St. Cyr, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1266 (2002) Google Scholar
  30. R.K. Burton, R.L. McPherron, C.T. Russell, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 4204 (1975) ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. H.V. Cane, I.G. Richardson, J. Geophys. Res. 108(A4), 1156 (2003) Google Scholar
  32. E. Chané, B. van der Holst, C. Jacobs, S. Poedts, D. Kimpe, Astron. Astrophys. 447, 727 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Y. Chen, Y.Q. Hu, Sol. Phys. 199, 371 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. T.T. Chiu, Planet. Space Sci. 40, 544 (1975) ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. K.-S. Cho, Y.-J. Moon, M. Dryer, C.D. Fry, Y.-D. Park, K.-S. Kim, J. Geophys. Res. 108(A12), 1445 (2003) Google Scholar
  36. C. Cid, M.A. Hildago, T. Nieves-Chinchilla, J. Sequeiros, A.F. Viñas, Sol. Phys. 207, 187 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. C. Cid, M.A. Hildago, E. Saiz, Y. Cerrato, J. Sequeiros, Sol. Phys. 223, 231 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. C.R. Clauer, T.I. Gombosi, D.L. De Zeeuw, A.J. Ridley, K.G. Powell, B. van Leer, Q.F. Stout, C.P.Y. Groth, T.E. Holzer, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28(6) (2000) Google Scholar
  39. O. Cohen, I.V. Sokolov, I.I. Roussev, C.N. Arge, W.B. Manchester, T.I. Gombosi, R.A. Frazin, H. Park, M.D. Butala, F. Kamalabadi, M. Velli, Astrophys. J. 654, L163 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. O. Cohen, I.V. Sokolov, I.I. Roussev, T.I. Gombosi, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A03104 (2008) Google Scholar
  41. K. Costello, Ph.D. thesis. Houston, Texas (1997) Google Scholar
  42. I.A. Daglis, W.I. Axford, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 5047 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. I.A. Daglis, R.M. Thorne, W. Baumjohann, S. Orsini, Rev. Geophys. 37, 407 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. I.A. Daglis, D. Delcourt, F.-A. Metallinou, Y. Kamide, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 32(4), 1449 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. I.A. Daglis, G. Balasis, N. Ganushkina, F.-A. Metallinou, M. Palmroth, R. Pirjola, I.A. Tsagouri, Acta Geophys. 57(1), 141 (2009) ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. J. De Benedetti, A. Milillo, S. Orsini, A. Mura, E. De Angelis, I.A. Daglis, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 155, 283 (2005). AGU, Washington D.C. Google Scholar
  47. D.C. Delcourt, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 64, 551 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. D.C. Delcourt, J.-A. Sauvaud, J. Geophys. Res. 95(A12), 20,853 (1990) ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. M.H. Denton, J.E. Borovsky, R.M. Skoug, M.F. Thomsen, B. Lavraud, M.G. Henderson, L.R. McPherron, J.C. Zhang, M.W. Liehmohn, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A07S07 (2006) Google Scholar
  50. C.R. DeVore, S.K. Antiochos, Astrophys. J. 680, 740 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. A.L. Dobbin, Ph.D. thesis. Univ. of London, London (2005) Google Scholar
  52. A.L. Dobbin, A.D. Aylward, M.J. Harris, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A07314 (2006a) Google Scholar
  53. A.L. Dobbin, E.M. Griffin, A.D. Aylward, G.H. Millward, Ann. Geophys. 24, 2403 (2006b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. V. Domingo, B. Fleck, A.I. Poland, Sol. Phys. 162, 1 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. M. Dryer, S.F. Smart, Adv. Space Res. 4(7), 291 (1984) ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. M. Dryer, C.-C. Wu, Z.K. Smith, J. Geophys. Res. 102(A7), 14,065 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. M. Dryer, Z. Smith, C.D. Fry, W. Sun, C.S. Deehr, S.-I. Akasofu, Space Weather 2, S09001 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. J.W. Dungey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 6, 47 (1961) ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Y. Ebihara, M. Ejiri, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15,843 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Y. Ebihara, M. Ejiri, H. Nilsson, I. Sandahl, A. Milillo, M. Grande, J.F. Fennel, J.L. Roeder, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(20), 1969 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. E. Echer, W.D. Gonzalez, M.V. Alves, Space Weather 4, S06001 (2006) Google Scholar
  62. E. Echer, W.D. Gonzalez, B.T. Tsurutani, A.L.C. Gonzalez, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A05221 (2008) Google Scholar
  63. Y. Fan, S.E. Gibson, Astrophys. J. 668, 1232 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. J.D. Farmer, J.J. Sidorowich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 62 (1987) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  65. C.J. Farrugia, L.F. Burlaga, V.A. Osherovich, R.P. Lepping, Solar Wind 7 (Pergamon, New York, 1992) Google Scholar
  66. Ya.I. Feldstein, A.E. Levitin, J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 38, 1143 (1986) ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. X. Feng, X. Zhao, Sol. Phys. 238(1), 167 (2006) MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  68. H.Q. Feng, D.J. Wu, J.K. Chao, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A07S90 (2006) Google Scholar
  69. X.S. Feng, Y.F. Zhou, S.T. Wu, Astrophys. J. 655, 1110 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. M.-C. Fok, J.U. Kozyra, G.C. Ho, D.C. Hamilton, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9619 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. M.-C. Fok, T.E. Moore, M.E. Greenspan, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 15,311 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. M.-C. Fok, T.E. Moore, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1775 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. M.-C. Fok, T.E. Moore, D.C. Delcourt, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14,557 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. M.-C. Fok, R.A. Wolf, R.W. Spiro, T.E. Moore, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8417 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. T.G. Forbes, J.A. Linker, J. Chen, C. Cid, J. Kóta, M.A. Lee, G. Mann, Z. Mikić, M.S. Potgieter, J.M. Schmidt, G.L. Siscoe, R. Vainio, S.K. Antiochos, P. Riley, Space. Sci. Rev. 123, 251 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. R.J. Forsyth, V. Bothmer, C. Cid, N.U. Crooker, T.S. Horbury, K. Kecskemety, B. Klecker, J.A. Linker, D. Odstrcil, M.J. Renner, I.G. Richardson, J. Rodriguez-Pacheo, J.M. Schmidt, R.F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Space. Sci. Rev. 123, 383 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. C.D. Fry, W. Sun, C.S. Deehr, M. Dryer, Z. Smith, S.-I. Akasofu, M. Tokumaru, M. Kojima, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20,985 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. C.D. Fry, M. Dryer, Z. Smith, W. Sun, C.S. Deehr, S.-I. Akasofu, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1070 (2003) Google Scholar
  79. T.J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, S. Quegan, R.J. Moffett, M.V. Codrescu, G.H. Millward, A coupled thermosphere ionosphere model (CTIM), in: Solar Terrestrial Energy Program (STEP), Handbook of Ionospheric Models (1996) Google Scholar
  80. N.Yu. Ganushkina, T.I. Pulkkinen, V.F. Bashkirov, D.N. Baker, X. Li, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 491 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. N.Y. Ganushkina, T.I. Pulkkinen, T. Fritz, Ann. Geophys. 23, 579 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. N.Y. Ganushkina, T.I. Pulkkinen, A. Milillo, M. Liemohn, J. Geophys. Res. 111(A11), A11S08 (2006) Google Scholar
  83. S.E. Gibson, B.C. Low, Astrophys. J. 493, 460 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. H. Gleisner, J. Watermann, Space Weather 4, S06006 (2006) Google Scholar
  85. G. Gloeckler, F.M. Ipavich, D.C. Hamilton, B. Wilken, W. Stüdemann, G. Kremser, D. Hovestadt, Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 793 (1986) ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. R.E. Gold, S.M. Krimigis, S.E. Hawkins III, D.K. Haggerty, D.A. Lohr, E. Fiore, T.P. Armstrong, G. Holland, L.J. Lanzerotti, Space Sci. Rev. 86, 541 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. N. Gopalswamy, Y. Hanaoka, T. Kosugi, R.P. Lepping, J.T. Steinberg, S. Plunkett, R.A. Howard, B.J. Thompson, J. Gurman, G. Ho, N. Nitta, H.S. Hudson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2485 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. N. Gopalswamy, S. Yashiro, S. Krucker, G. Stenborg, R.A. Howard, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A12105 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. J.T. Gosling, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18,937 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. H. Goldstein, Solar Wind 5. NASA Conf. Publ. 2280, 731 (1983) Google Scholar
  91. K. Hakamada, S.-I. Akasofu, Space Sci. Rev. 31, 3 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. S.M. Han, S.T. Wu, M. Dryer, Comput. Fluids 16(1), 81 (1988) zbMATHADSGoogle Scholar
  93. C. Hanuise, J.C. Cerisier, F. Auchere, K. Bocchialini, S. Bruinsma, N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N. Jakowski, C. Lathuillere, M. Menvielle, J.-J. Valette, N. Vilmer, J. Watermann, P. Yaya, Ann. Geophys. 24, 129 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. M.J. Harris, PhD thesis. Univ. of London, London (2001) Google Scholar
  95. R.A. Harrison, C.J. Davis, C.J. Eyles, D. Bewsher, S.R. Crothers, J.A. Davies, R.A. Howard, D.J. Moses, D.G. Socker, J.S. Newmark, J.-P. Halain, J.-M. Defise, E. Mazy, P. Rochus, D.F. Webb, G.M. Simnett, Sol. Phys. 247(1), 171 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. J.P. Heppner, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 1115 (1977) ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. J.P. Heppner, N.C. Maynard, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 4467 (1987) ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. A.M. Heras, B. Sanahuja, D. Lario, Astrophys. J. 445, 497 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. M.A. Hidalgo, C. Cid, A.F. Viñas, J. Sequeiros, J. Geophys. Res. 107(A1), 1002 (2002a) Google Scholar
  100. M.A. Hidalgo, T. Nieves-Chinchilla, C. Cid, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(13), 1637 (2002b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. A. Hilgers, A. Glover, E. Daly, Space Weather—Physics and Effects (Springer, Berlin, 2007), p. 353 Google Scholar
  102. Y.Q. Hu, X.S. Feng, S.T. Wu, W.B. Song, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A03106 (2008) Google Scholar
  103. Q. Hu, B.U.Ö. Sonnerup, J. Geophys. Res. 107(A7), 1142 (2002) Google Scholar
  104. A.J. Hundhausen, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 13,177 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. D.S. Intriligator, M. Dryer, W. Sun, C.D. Fry, C. Deehr, J. Intriligator, Physics of the Outer Heliosphere. AIP Conf. Proc. 719, 117 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  106. D.S. Intriligator, W. Sun, M. Dryer, C.D. Fry, C. Deehr, J. Intriligator, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A09S10 (2005) Google Scholar
  107. C. Jacobs, S. Poedts, B. van der Holst, Astron. Astrophys. 450, 793 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. P. Janhunen, ESA Symposium Proc. ‘Environmental Modelling for Space-based applications’. ESA SP-392, 233 (1996) Google Scholar
  109. P. Janhunen, M. Palmroth, Adv. Space Res. 28, 1685 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. V.K. Jordanova, L.M. Kistler, C.J. Farrugia, R.B. Torbert, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 29,705 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. S.W. Kahler, J. Geophys. Res. 106(A10), 20,947 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. S.W. Kahler, A. Vourlidas, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A12S01 (2005) Google Scholar
  113. M.L. Kaiser, Adv. Space Res. 36(8), 1483 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. O. Khabarova, V. Pilipenko, M.J. Engebretson, E. Rudenchik, Proc. 8th International Conference on Substorms, Canada (2006), p. 127. ISBN 0-88953-312-1 Google Scholar
  115. R.-S. Kim, K.-S. Cho, Y.-J. Moon, Y.-H. Kim, Y. Yi, M. Dryer, S. Bong, Y.-D. Park, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A11104 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  116. L.W. Klein, L.F. Burlaga, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 613 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. J.A. Klimchuk, Space Weather. Geophys. Monogr. Ser., vol. 125 (AGU, Washington, 2001), p. 143 Google Scholar
  118. A. Korth, G. Kremser, A. Roux, S. Perraut, J.-A. Sauvaud, J.-M. Bosqued, A. Pedersen, B. Aparicio, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10(8), 639 (1983) ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. H. Lamy, V. Pierrard, M. Maksimovic, J.F. Lemaire, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1047 (2003) Google Scholar
  120. L.J. Lanzerotti, Space Weather—Physics and Effects, 247 (2007) Google Scholar
  121. D. Lario, Adv. Space Res. 36(12), 2279 (2005) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  122. D. Lario, B. Sanahuja, A.M. Heras, Astrophys. J. 509, 415 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. C. Lathuillère, M. Menvielle, J. Lilensten, T. Amari, S.M. Radicella, Ann. Geophys. 20, 1081 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. M.A. Lee, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 158, 38 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. R.P. Lepping, J.A. Jones, L.F. Burlaga, J. Geophys. Res. 95, 11,957 (1990) ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. R.P. Lepping, D.B. Berdichevsky, C.-C. Wu, A. Szabo, T. Narock, F. Mariani, A.J. Lazarus, A.J. Quivers, Ann. Geophys. 24, 215 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. A.E. Levitin, R.G. Afonina, B.A. Belov, Y.I. Feldstein, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., Ser. A 304, 253 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. Y. Li, J. Luhmann, Astrophys. J. 648, 732 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. M.W. Liemohn, J.U. Kozyra, M.F. Thomsen, J.L. Roeder, G. Lu, J.E. Borovsky, T.E. Cayton, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10,883 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. F.A. Lindemann, Phil. Magazine J. Science 6-38(228), 669 (1919) Google Scholar
  131. J.A. Linker, Z. Mikić, A. Biesecker, R.J. Forsyth, S.E. Gibson, A.J. Lazarus, A. Lecinski, P. Riley, A. Szabo, B.J. Thompson, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 9809 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. J.A. Linker, Z. Mikić, R. Lionello, P. Riley, T. Amari, D. Odstrcil, Phys. Plasma 10, 1971 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. R. Lionello, J.A. Linker, Z. Mikić, Astrophys. J. 546, 542 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. B.C. Low, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 25,141 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. N. Lugaz, W.B. Manchester, T.I. Gombosi, Astrophys. J. 627, 1019 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  136. N. Lugaz, W.B. Manchester, I.I. Roussev, G. Tóth, T.I. Gombosi, Astrophys. J. 659, 788 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. N. Lugaz, A. Vourlidas, I.I. Roussev, C. Jacobs, W.B. Manchester, O. Cohen, Astrophys. J. 684, L111 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  138. S. Lundquist, Ark. Fys. 2, 361 (1950) MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  139. H. Lundstedt, P. Magnusson, Astron. Astrophys. 160, 51 (1987) Google Scholar
  140. H. Lundstedt, H. Gleisner, P. Wintoft, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(24), 2181 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. B.J. Lynch, S.K. Antiochos, C.R. DeVore, J.G. Luhmann, T.H. Zurbuchen, Astrophys. J. 683, 1192 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. J.G. Lyon, J.A. Fedder, C.M. Mobarry, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 66, 1333 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  143. W.B. Manchester, T.I. Gombosi, D.L. DeZeeuw, Astrophys. J. 610, 588 (2004a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. W.B. Manchester, T.I. Gombosi, I.I. Roussev, A. Ridley, D.L. De Zeeuw, I.V. Sokolov, K.G. Powell, G. Tóth, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A02107 (2004b) Google Scholar
  145. W.B. Manchester, A. Vourlidas, G. Tóth, N. Lugaz, I.I. Roussev, I.V. Sokolov, T.I. Gombosi, D.L. De Zeeuw, M. Opher, Astrophys. J. 684, 1448 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  146. K. Marubashi, R.P. Lepping, Ann. Geophys. 25, 2453 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. P.N. Mayaud, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 22, 1 (1980). AGU, Washington D.C. Google Scholar
  148. J.P. McCollough, J.L. Gannon, D.N. Baker, M. Gehmeyr, Space Weather 6, S10001 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  149. D.J. McComas, B.L. Barraclough, H.O. Funsten, J.T. Gosling, E. Santiago-Muñoz, R.M. Skoug, B.E. Goldstein, M. Neugebauer, P. Riley, A. Balogh, J. Geophys. Res. 105(A5), 10,419 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  150. D.J. McComas, H.A. Elliott, J.T. Gosling, D.B. Reisenfeld, R.M. Skoug, B.E. Goldstein, M. Neugebauer, A. Balogh, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1290 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  151. D.J. McComas, H.A. Elliott, N.A. Schwadron, J.T. Gosling, R.M. Skoug, B.E. Goldstein, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1517 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  152. S.M.P. McKenna-Lawlor, M. Dryer, Z. Smith, K. Kecskemety, C.D. Fry, W. Sun, C.S. Deehr, D. Berdichevsky, K. Kudela, G. Zastenker, Ann. Geophys. 20, 917 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  153. S.M.P. McKenna-Lawlor, M. Dryer, M.D. Kartalev, Z. Smith, C.D. Fry, W. Sun, C.S. Deehr, K. Kecskemety, K. Kudela, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A11103 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  154. S.M.P. McKenna-Lawlor, M. Dryer, C.D. Fry, Z.K. Smith, D.S. Intriligator, W.R. Courtney, C.S. Deehr, W. Sun, K. Kecskemety, K. Kudela, J. Balaz, S. Barabash, Y. Futaana, M. Yamauchi, R. Lundin, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A06101 (2008) Google Scholar
  155. C.E. McIlwain, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 3681 (1961) ADSGoogle Scholar
  156. Z. Mikić, J. Linker, Astrophys. J. 430, 898 (1994) ADSGoogle Scholar
  157. A. Milillo, S. Orsini, I.A. Daglis, S. Livi, Phys. Chem. Earth 24(1/3), 209 (1999) Google Scholar
  158. A. Milillo, S. Orsini, I.A. Daglis, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 25,713 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  159. A. Milillo, S. Orsini, D.C. Delcourt, A. Mura, S. Massetti, E. De Angelis, Y. Ebihara, J. Geophys. Res. 108(A5), 1165 (2003) Google Scholar
  160. A. Milillo, S. Orsini, S. Massetti, A. Mura, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A11S13 (2006) Google Scholar
  161. G. Millward, R.J. Moffett, S. Quegan, T.J. Fuller-Rowell, A coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model (CTIP), in Solar Terrestrial Energy Program (STEP). Handbook of Ionospheric Models (1996) Google Scholar
  162. Y.-J. Moon, M. Dryer, Z. Smith, Y.D. Park, K.S. Cho, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(10), 1390 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  163. R.L. Moore, A.C. Sterling, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 165, 43 (2006). AGU, Washington D.C. Google Scholar
  164. P. Morrison, Phys. Rev. 95, 646 (1954) Google Scholar
  165. T. Mulligan, C.T. Russell, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10,581 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  166. C.K. Ng, D.V. Reames, Astrophys. J. Lett. 686, 123 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  167. D. Odstrcil, Adv. Space Res. 32(4), 497 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  168. D. Odstrcil, P. Riley, X.P. Zhao, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A02116 (2004a) Google Scholar
  169. D. Odstrcil, V.J. Pizzo, J.A. Linker, P. Riley, R. Lionello, Z. Mikić, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 66, 1311 (2004b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  170. D. Odstrcil, V.J. Pizzo, C.N. Arge, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A02106 (2005) Google Scholar
  171. S. Orsini, A. Milillo, A. Mura, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A11216 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  172. V.A. Osherovich, C.J. Farrugia, L.F. Burlaga, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 13,225 (1993) ADSGoogle Scholar
  173. V.A. Osherovich, C.J. Farrugia, L.F. Burlaga, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 12,307 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  174. V. Osherovich, L.F. Burlaga, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 99, 157 (1997). AGU, Washington D.C. Google Scholar
  175. A. Otto, Lect. Notes Phys. 656, 133 (2005). Springer, Berlin ADSGoogle Scholar
  176. M.J. Owens, C.N. Arge, H.E. Spence, A. Premboke, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A12105 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  177. M.J. Owens, H.E. Spence, S. McGregor, W.J. Hughes, J.M. Quinn, C.N. Arge, P. Riley, J. Linker, D. Odstrcil, Space Weather 6, S08001 (2008) Google Scholar
  178. G. Pallocchia, E. Amata, G. Consolini, M.F. Marcucci, I. Bertello, Ann. Geophys. 24, 989 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. M. Palmroth, P. Janhunen, T.I. Pulkkinen, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 29,435 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  180. M. Palmroth, T.I. Pulkkinen, P. Janhunen, C.-C. Wu, J. Geophys. Res. 108(A1), 1048 (2003) Google Scholar
  181. M. Palmroth, P. Janhunen, T.I. Pulkkinen, H.E.J. Koskinen, Ann. Geophys. 22, 549 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. M. Palmroth, P. Janhunen, T.I. Pulkkinen, A. Aksnes, G. Lu, N. Ostgaard, J. Watermann, G.D. Reeves, G.A. Germany, Ann. Geophys. 23, 2051 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. M. Palmroth, P. Janhunen, G.A. Germany, D. Lummerzheim, K. Liou, D.N. Baker, C. Barth, A.T. Weatherwax, J. Watermann, Ann. Geophys. 24, 861 (2006a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. M. Palmroth, T.V. Laitinen, T.I. Pulkkinen, Ann. Geophys. 24, 3467 (2006b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. M. Palmroth, P. Janhunen, T.I. Pulkkinen, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L03107 (2006c) Google Scholar
  186. V.O. Papitashvili, B.A. Belov, D.S. Faermark, Ya.I. Feldstein, S.A. Golyshev, L.I. Gromova, A.E. Levitin, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 13,251 (1994) ADSGoogle Scholar
  187. V.O. Papitashvili, F.J. Rich, M.A. Heinemann, M.R. Hairston, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 177 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  188. V.O. Papitashvili, F.J. Rich, J. Geophys. Res. 107(8), 1198 (2002) Google Scholar
  189. V.O. Papitashvili, F. Christiansen, T. Neubert, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(14), 1683 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  190. E.N. Parker, Phys. Fluids 1, 171 (1958) zbMATHMathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  191. E.N. Parker, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 1675 (1959) ADSGoogle Scholar
  192. R. Pirjola, Surv. Geoph. 23, 71 (2002) Google Scholar
  193. R. Pirjola, Space Weather—Physics and Effects, 269 (2007) Google Scholar
  194. G.W. Pneuman, R.A. Kopp, Sol. Phys. 18, 258 (1971) ADSGoogle Scholar
  195. G.W. Prölss, Ann. Geophys. 11, 1 (1993) ADSGoogle Scholar
  196. K.G. Powell, P.L. Roe, T.J. Linde, T.I. Gombosi, D.L. DeZeeuw, J. Comput. Phys. 154, 284 (1999) zbMATHMathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  197. J. Raeder, Y.L. Wang, T.J. Fuller-Rowell, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 125, 377 (2001a). AGU, Washington D.C. Google Scholar
  198. J. Raeder, R.L. McPherron, L.A. Frank, S. Kokubun, G. Lu, T. Mukai, W.R. Paterson, J.B. Sigwarth, H.J. Singer, J.A. Slavin, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 381 (2001b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  199. D.V. Reames, Space Sci. Rev. 90, 413 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  200. G.D. Reeves, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(11), 1817 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  201. F.J. Rich, N.C. Maynard, J. Geophys. Res. 94, 3687 (1989) ADSGoogle Scholar
  202. I.G. Richardson, H.V. Cane, E. Cliver, J. Geophys. Res. 107(A8), 1187 (2002) Google Scholar
  203. A.D. Richmond, Y. Kamide, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 5741 (1988) ADSGoogle Scholar
  204. A.D. Richmond, Adv. Space Res. 12(6), 59 (1992) MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  205. A.J. Ridley, D.L. DeZeeuw, W.B. Manchester, K.C. Hansen, Adv. Space. Res. 38, 263 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  206. P. Riley, J.A. Linker, Z. Mikić, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1136 (2002) Google Scholar
  207. L. Rodriguez, A.N. Zhukov, S. Dasso, C.H. Mandrini, H. Cremades, C. Cid, Y. Cerrato, E. Saiz, A. Aran, M. Menvielle, S. Poedts, B. Schmieder, Ann. Geophys. 26, 213 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. J.G. Roederer, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 981 (1967) ADSGoogle Scholar
  209. E.P. Romashets, M. Vandas, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 10,615 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  210. I.I. Roussev, T.G. Forbes, T.I. Gombosi, I.V. Sokolov, D.L. DeZeeuw, J. Birn, Astrophys. J. 588, L45 (2003a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  211. I. Roussev, T.I. Gombosi, I.V. Sokolov, M. Velli, W. Manchester IV, D.L. DeZeeuw, P. Liewer, G. Tóth, J. Luhmann, Astrophys. J. 595, L57 (2003b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  212. I.I. Roussev, I.V. Sokolov, T.G. Forbes, T.I. Gombosi, M.A. Lee, J.I. Sakai, Astrophys. J. 605, L73 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  213. I.I. Roussev, I.V. Sokolov, Geophys. Monogr. Ser. 165, 89 (2006). AGU, Washington D.C. Google Scholar
  214. A.P. Rouillard, J.A. Davies, R.J. Forsyth, A. Rees, C.J. Davis, R.A. Harrison, M. Lockwood, D. Bewsher, S.R. Crothers, C.J. Eyles, M. Hapgood, C.H. Perry, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L10110 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  215. D.M. Rust, Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 241 (1994) ADSGoogle Scholar
  216. E. Saiz, J. Gutierrez, Y. Cerrato, J. Plasma Phys. 47, 491 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  217. E.T. Sarris, S.M. Krimigis, T.P. Armstrong, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2341 (1976) ADSGoogle Scholar
  218. T.E. Sarris, X. Li, N. Tsaggas, N. Paschalidis, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1033 (2002) Google Scholar
  219. J. Schmid, P. Bochsler, J. Geiss, Astrophys. J. 329, 956 (1988) ADSGoogle Scholar
  220. M. Schulz, Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment (Springer, Berlin, 2007), p. 156 Google Scholar
  221. D.F. Smart, M.A. Shea, J. Geophys. Res. 90, 183 (1985) ADSGoogle Scholar
  222. Z. Smith, M. Dryer, NOAA Tech. Memo, ERL/SEL-89 (1995) Google Scholar
  223. Z. Smith, M. Dryer, E. Orta, W. Murtagh, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 62, 1265 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  224. Z.K. Smith, T.R. Detman, W. Sun, M. Dryer, C.S. Deehr, C.D. Fry, Space Weather 6, S05006 (2008) Google Scholar
  225. I.V. Sokolov, I.I. Roussev, T.I. Gombosi, M.A. Lee, J. Kóta, T.G. Forbes, W.B. Manchester, J.I. Sakai, Astrophys. J. 616, L171 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  226. N. Srivastava, P. Venkatakrishnan, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1287 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  227. O.C. St. Cyr, R.A. Howard, N.R. Sheeley Jr., S.P. Plunkett, D.J. Michels, S.E. Paswaters, M.J. Koomen, G.M. Simnett, B.J. Thompson, J.B. Gurman, R. Schwenn, D.F. Webb, E. Hildner, P.L. Lamy, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 18169 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  228. D.P. Stern, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 595 (1975) ADSGoogle Scholar
  229. M. Sugiura, T. Kamei, IAGA Bull. 40 (1991). ISGI Publ. Off. Saint Maur Google Scholar
  230. W. Sun, M. Dryer, C.D. Fry, C.S. Deehr, Z. Smith, S.-I. Akasofu, M.D. Kartalev, K.G. Grigorov, Ann. Geophys. 20, 937 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. W. Sun, C.S. Deehr, C.D. Fry, M. Dryer, Z. Smith, S.-I. Akasofu, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 2044 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  232. M. Temerin, X. Li, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A04221 (2006) Google Scholar
  233. V.S. Titov, P. Démoulin, Astron. Astrophys. 351, 707 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  234. V.S. Titov, Z. Mikic, J.A. Linker, R. Lionello, Astrophys. J. 675, 1614 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  235. F.R. Toffoletto, S. Sazykin, R.W. Spiro, R.A. Wolf, Space Sci. Rev. 108, 175 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  236. R. Tousey, Space Research XIII (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1973), p. 713 Google Scholar
  237. G. Tóth, I.V. Sokolov, T.I. Gombosi, D.R. Chesney, C.R. Clauer, D.L. De Zeeuw, K.C. Hansen, K.J. Kane, W.B. Manchester, R.C. Oehmke, K.G. Powell, A.J. Ridley, I.I. Roussev, Q.F. Stout, O. Volberg, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A12226 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  238. N.A. Tsyganenko, Planet. Space Sci. 37, 5 (1989) ADSGoogle Scholar
  239. N.A. Tsyganenko, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 5599 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  240. N.A. Tsyganenko, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1176 (2002) Google Scholar
  241. I. Ugarte-Urra, H.P. Warren, A.R. Winebarger, Astrophys. J. 662, 1293 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  242. A.V. Usmanov, M.L. Goldstein, W.M. Farrell, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3765 (2000a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  243. A.V. Usmanov, M.L. Goldstein, B.P. Besser, J.M. Fritzer, J. Geophys. Res. 105, 12675 (2000b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  244. A.V. Usmanov, M.L. Goldstein, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1354 (2003) Google Scholar
  245. A.V. Usmanov, M.L. Goldstein, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A07101 (2006) Google Scholar
  246. R. Vainio et al., Space Sci. Rev. (2009, this issue) Google Scholar
  247. R. Vainio, T. Laitinen, Astrophys. J. 658, 622 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  248. R. Vainio, T. Laitinen, J. Atm. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 70, 467 (2008) Google Scholar
  249. E. Valtonen, Lect. Notes Phys. 656, 241 (2005). Springer, Berlin ADSGoogle Scholar
  250. E. Valtonen, T. Laitinen, K. Huttunen-Heikinmaa, Adv. Space Res. 36(12), 2295 (2005) Google Scholar
  251. M.S. Vandas, S. Fisher, P. Pelant, A. Geranios, J. Geophys. Res. 98, 11,467 (1993) ADSGoogle Scholar
  252. M. Vandas, D. Odstrčil, S. Watari, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1236 (2002) Google Scholar
  253. M. Vandas, E.P. Romashets, S. Watari, A. Geranios, E. Antoniadou, O. Zacharopoulou, Adv. Space Res. 38, 441 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  254. B. van der Holst, C. Jacobs, S. Poedts, Astrophys. J. 671, L77 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  255. B. van der Holst, R. Keppens, J. Comp. Phys. 226(1), 925 (2007) zbMATHADSGoogle Scholar
  256. H. Volland, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 171 (1973) ADSGoogle Scholar
  257. Y.-M. Wang, N.R. Sheeley Jr., Astrophys. J. 355, 726 (1990) ADSGoogle Scholar
  258. Y.M. Wang, P.Z. Ye, S. Wang, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1370 (2003) Google Scholar
  259. W. Wang, M. Wiltberger, A.G. Burns, S.C. Solomon, T.L. Killeen, N. Maruyama, J.G. Lyon, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 66, 1425 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  260. H. Wang, A.J. Ridley, H. Lühr, Space Weather 6, S03001 (2008) Google Scholar
  261. H.L. Wei, S.A. Billings, M. Balikhin, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A07212 (2004) Google Scholar
  262. D.R. Weimer, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A05306 (2005a) Google Scholar
  263. D.R. Weimer, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A12307 (2005b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  264. H.I. West Jr., R.M. Buck, J.R. Walton, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 1064 (1973) ADSGoogle Scholar
  265. S. Wing, J.R. Johnson, J. Jen, C.I. Meng, D.G. Sibeck, K. Bechtold, J. Freeman, K. Costello, M. Balikhin, K. Takahashi, J. Gephys. Res. 110, A04203 (2005) Google Scholar
  266. P. Wintoft, Ann. Geophys. 23, 1949 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. P. Wintoft, Lj.R. Cander, Phys. Chem. Earth 4(25), 267 (2000) Google Scholar
  268. R.A. Wolf, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4677 (1970) ADSGoogle Scholar
  269. R.A. Wolf, R.W. Spiro, F.J. Rich, J. Atm. Terrest. Phys. 53, 817 (1991) ADSGoogle Scholar
  270. S.T. Wu, M. Dryer, S.M. Han, Sol. Phys. 84, 395 (1983) ADSGoogle Scholar
  271. C.-C. Wu, M. Dryer, S.T. Wu, Ann. Geophys. 14, 383 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  272. C.-C. Wu, M. Dryer, Sol. Phys. 173, 391 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  273. C.-C. Wu, C.D. Fry, D. Berdichevsky, M. Dryer, Z. Smith, T. Detman, Sol. Phys. 227, 371 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  274. C.-C. Wu, X.S. Feng, S.T. Wu, M. Dryer, C.D. Fry, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A12104 (2006a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  275. C.C. Wu, R.P. Lepping, N. Gopalswamy, Sol. Phys. 239, 449 (2006b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  276. C.-C. Wu, C.D. Fry, S.T. Wu, M. Dryer, K. Liou, J. Geophys. Res. 112, A09104 (2007a) Google Scholar
  277. C.-C. Wu, C.D. Fry, M. Dryer, S.T. Wu, B. Thompson, K. Liou, X.S. Feng, Adv. Space Res. 40, 1827 (2007b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  278. E. Yiğit, A.D. Aylward, A.S. Medvedev, J. Geophys. Res. 113, D19106 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  279. J. Zhang, K.P. Dere, R.A. Howard, V. Bothmer, Astrophys. J. 582, 520 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  280. X.P. Zhao, D.F. Webb, J. Geophys. Res. 108, 1234 (2003) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Watermann
    • 1
    Email author
  • P. Wintoft
    • 9
  • B. Sanahuja
    • 8
  • E. Saiz
    • 5
  • S. Poedts
    • 2
  • M. Palmroth
    • 6
  • A. Milillo
    • 7
  • F.-A. Metallinou
    • 4
  • C. Jacobs
    • 2
  • N. Y. Ganushkina
    • 6
  • I. A. Daglis
    • 4
  • C. Cid
    • 5
  • Y. Cerrato
    • 5
  • G. Balasis
    • 4
  • A. D. Aylward
    • 3
  • A. Aran
    • 8
  1. 1.Le Studium and LPC2E/CNRSOrléans cedex 2France
  2. 2.Center for Plasma AstrophysicsRoyal University of LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Atmospheric Physics LaboratoryUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Institute for Space Applications and Remote SensingNOAAthensGreece
  5. 5.Space Research GroupUniversidad de AlcalaAlcala de HenaresSpain
  6. 6.Space Research UnitFinnish Meteorological InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  7. 7.Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio InterplanetarioINAFRomeItaly
  8. 8.Departament d’Astronomia i MeteorologiaUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  9. 9.Swedish Institute of Space PhysicsLundSweden

Personalised recommendations