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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 145, Issue 1–2, pp 231–261 | Cite as

Augmented Empirical Models of Plasmaspheric Density and Electric Field Using IMAGE and CLUSTER Data

  • Bodo W. Reinisch
  • Mark B. Moldwin
  • Richard E. Denton
  • Dennis L. Gallagher
  • Hiroshi Matsui
  • Viviane Pierrard
  • Jiannan Tu
Article

Abstract

Empirical models for the plasma densities in the inner magnetosphere, including plasmasphere and polar magnetosphere, have been in the past derived from in situ measurements. Such empirical models, however, are still in their initial phase compared to magnetospheric magnetic field models. Recent studies using data from CRRES, Polar, and Image have significantly improved empirical models for inner-magnetospheric plasma and mass densities. Comprehensive electric field models in the magnetosphere have been developed using radar and in situ observations at low altitude orbits. To use these models at high altitudes one needs to rely strongly on the assumption of equipotential magnetic field lines. Direct measurements of the electric field by the Cluster mission have been used to derive an equatorial electric field model in which reliance on the equipotential assumption is less. In this paper we review the recent progress in developing empirical models of plasma densities and electric fields in the inner magnetosphere with emphasis on the achievements from the Image and Cluster missions. Recent results from other satellites are also discussed when they are relevant.

Keywords

Inner magnetosphere Plasmasphere Empirical models Plasma density Electric field Cluster Image 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bodo W. Reinisch
    • 1
  • Mark B. Moldwin
    • 2
  • Richard E. Denton
    • 3
  • Dennis L. Gallagher
    • 4
  • Hiroshi Matsui
    • 5
  • Viviane Pierrard
    • 6
  • Jiannan Tu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental, Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of Massachusetts-Lowell (UML)LowellUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP)University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Physics and Astronomy DepartmentDartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA
  4. 4.Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)NASAHuntsvilleUSA
  5. 5.Space Science CenterUniversity of New Hampshire (UNH)DurhamUSA
  6. 6.Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB)BrusselsBelgium

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