Space Science Reviews

, Volume 145, Issue 1–2, pp 231–261 | Cite as

Augmented Empirical Models of Plasmaspheric Density and Electric Field Using IMAGE and CLUSTER Data

  • Bodo W. Reinisch
  • Mark B. Moldwin
  • Richard E. Denton
  • Dennis L. Gallagher
  • Hiroshi Matsui
  • Viviane Pierrard
  • Jiannan Tu


Empirical models for the plasma densities in the inner magnetosphere, including plasmasphere and polar magnetosphere, have been in the past derived from in situ measurements. Such empirical models, however, are still in their initial phase compared to magnetospheric magnetic field models. Recent studies using data from CRRES, Polar, and Image have significantly improved empirical models for inner-magnetospheric plasma and mass densities. Comprehensive electric field models in the magnetosphere have been developed using radar and in situ observations at low altitude orbits. To use these models at high altitudes one needs to rely strongly on the assumption of equipotential magnetic field lines. Direct measurements of the electric field by the Cluster mission have been used to derive an equatorial electric field model in which reliance on the equipotential assumption is less. In this paper we review the recent progress in developing empirical models of plasma densities and electric fields in the inner magnetosphere with emphasis on the achievements from the Image and Cluster missions. Recent results from other satellites are also discussed when they are relevant.


Inner magnetosphere Plasmasphere Empirical models Plasma density Electric field Cluster Image 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. A. Balogh, C.M. Carr, M.H. Acuña, M.W. Dunlop, T.J. Beek, P. Brown, K.H. Fornaçon, E. Georgescu, K.H. Glassmeier, J. Harris, G. Musmann, T. Oddy, K. Schwingenschuh, The Cluster Magnetic Field Investigation: overview of in-flight performance and initial results. Ann. Geophys. 19(10–12), 1207–1217 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. R.F. Benson, P.A. Webb, J.L. Green, L. Garcia, B.W. Reinisch, Magnetospheric electron densities inferred from upper-hybrid band emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L20803 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. D. Berube, M.B. Moldwin, S.F. Fung, J.L. Green, A plasmaspheric mass density model and constraints on its heavy ion concentration. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A04212 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. D. Bilitza, International Reference Ionosphere 2000. Radio Sci. 36(2), 261–275 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. J.H. Binsack, Plasmapause observations with the M.I.T. experiment on IMP 2. J. Geophys. Res. 72(21), 5231–5237 (1967) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. A. Boonsiriseth, R. Thorne, G. Lu, V.K. Jordanova, M.F. Thomsen, D.M. Ober, A.J. Ridley, A semiempirical equatorial mapping of AMIE convection electric potentials (MACEP) for the January 10, 1997, magnetic storm. J. Geophys. Res. 106(A7), 12903–12917 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. J.L. Burch, IMAGE mission overview. Space Sci. Rev. 91(1–2), 1–14 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. J.L. Burch, The first two years of image. Space Sci. Rev. 109(1–4), 1–24 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. J.F. Carbary, A K p-based model of auroral boundaries. Space Weather 3(10), 10001 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. D.L. Carpenter, Whistler evidence of a “knee” in the magnetospheric ionization density profile. J. Geophys. Res. 68(6), 1675–1682 (1963) ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. D.L. Carpenter, Whistler studies of the plasmapause in the magnetosphere, 1. Temporal variations in the position of the knee and some evidence on plasma motions near the knee. J. Geophys. Res. 71(3), 693–709 (1966) ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. D.L. Carpenter, Remote sensing the Earth’s plasmasphere. Radio Sci. Bull. 308, 13–29 (2004) Google Scholar
  13. D.L. Carpenter, R.R. Anderson, An ISEE/whistler model of equatorial electron density in the magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 97(A2), 1097–1108 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D.L. Carpenter, J. Lemaire, Erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere in the plasmapause region. Space Sci. Rev. 80(1–2), 153–179 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. C.R. Chappell, K.K. Harris, G.W. Sharp, The dayside of the plasmasphere. J. Geophys. Res. 76(31), 7632–7647 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. M.A. Clilverd, A.J. Smith, N.R. Thomson, The annual variation in quiet time plasmaspheric electron density, determined from whistler mode group delays. Planet. Space Sci. 39(7), 1059–1067 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. P.D. Craven, D.L. Gallagher, R.H. Comfort, Relative concentration of He+ in the inner magnetosphere as observed by the DE 1 retarding ions mass spectrometer. J. Geophys. Res. 102(A2), 2279–2289 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. I. Dandouras, V. Pierrard, J. Goldstein, C. Vallat, G.K. Parks, H. Rème, C. Gouillart, F. Sevestre, M. McCarthy, L.M. Kistler, B. Klecker, A. Korth, M.B. Bavassano-Cattaneo, P. Escoubet, A. Masson, Multipoint observations of ionic structures in the plasmasphere by CLUSTER-CIS and comparisons with IMAGE-EUV observations and with model simulations, in Inner Magnetosphere Interactions: New Perspectives from Imaging, ed. by J.L. Burch, M. Schulz, H. Spence. Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 159 (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 2005), pp. 23–53 Google Scholar
  19. F. Darrouzet, J. De Keyser, P.M.E. Décréau, D.L. Gallagher, V. Pierrard, J.F. Lemaire, B.R. Sandel, I. Dandouras, H. Matsui, M. Dunlop, J. Cabrera, A. Masson, P. Canu, J.G. Trotignon, J.L. Rauch, M. André, Analysis of plasmaspheric plumes: CLUSTER and IMAGE observations. Ann. Geophys. 24(6), 1737–1758 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. J. De Keyser, D.L. Carpenter, F. Darrouzet, D.L. Gallagher, J. Tu, CLUSTER and IMAGE: New ways to study the Earth’s plasmasphere. Space Sci. Rev. (2008), this issue Google Scholar
  21. P.M.E. Décréau, C. Beghin, M. Parrot, Global characteristics of the cold plasma in the equatorial plasmapause region as deduced from the GEOS 1 mutual impedance probe. J. Geophys. Res. 87(A2), 695–712 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. C.F. del Pozo, M. Blanc, Analytical self-consistent model of the large-scale convection electric field. J. Geophys. Res. 99(A3), 4053–4068 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. R.E. Denton, Magneto-seismology using spacecraft observations, in Magnetospheric ULF Waves: Synthesis and New Directions, ed. by K. Takahashi, P.J. Chi, R.E. Denton, R.L. Lysak. Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 169 (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 2006), pp. 307–317 Google Scholar
  24. R.E. Denton, J. Goldstein, J.D. Menietti, Field line dependence of magnetospheric electron density. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(24), 2205 (2002a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. R.E. Denton, J. Goldstein, J.D. Menietti, S.L. Young, Magnetospheric electron density model inferred from Polar plasma wave data. J. Geophys. Res. 107(A11), 1386 (2002b) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. R.E. Denton, J.D. Menietti, J. Goldstein, S.L. Young, R.R. Anderson, Electron density in the magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A09215 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. R.E. Denton, J. Goldstein, D.H. Lee, R.A. King, Z.C. Dent, D.L. Gallagher, D. Berube, K. Takahashi, M. Nose, D. Milling, F. Honary, Realistic magnetospheric density model for 29 August 2000. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 68(6), 615–628 (2006a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. R.E. Denton, K. Takahashi, I.A. Galkin, P.A. Nsumei, X. Huang, B.W. Reinisch, R.R. Anderson, M.K. Sleeper, W.J. Hughes, Distribution of density along magnetospheric field lines. J. Geophys. Res. 111, A04213 (2006b) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. R.E. Denton, P. Décréau, M.J. Engebretson, F. Darrouzet, J.L. Posch, C. Mouikis, L.M. Kistler, C.A. Cattell, K. Takahashi, S. Schäfer, J. Goldstein, Field line distribution of density at L=4.8 inferred from observations by CLUSTER. Ann. Geophys. (2009, in press) Google Scholar
  30. A.J. Dessler, E.N. Parker, Hydromagnetic theory of geomagnetic storms. J. Geophys. Res. 64(12), 2239–2252 (1959) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Y. Ebihara, M. Ejiri, Numerical simulation of the ring current: Review. Space Sci. Rev. 105(1–2), 377–452 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. A.I. Eriksson, M. André, B. Klecker, H. Laakso, P.-A. Lindqvist, F. Mozer, G. Paschmann, A. Pedersen, J. Quinn, R. Torbert, K. Torkar, H. Vaith, Electric field measurements on Cluster: comparing the double-probe and electron drift techniques. Ann. Geophys. 24(1), 275–289 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. C.P. Escoubet, C.T. Russell, R. Schmidt (eds.), The Cluster and Phoenix Missions (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1997), p. 658 Google Scholar
  34. Y.I. Feldstein, A.E. Levitin, D.S. Faermark, R.G. Afonina, B.A. Belov, V.Y. Gaidukov, Electric fields and potential patterns in the high-latitude ionosphere for different situations in interplanetary space. Planet. Space Sci. 32(7), 907–923 (1984) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. J.C. Foster, H.B. Vo, Average characteristics and activity dependence of the subauroral polarization stream. J. Geophys. Res. 107(A12), 1475 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. S.F. Fung, J.L. Green, Modeling of field-aligned guided echoes in the plasmasphere. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A01210 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. S.F. Fung, L.N. Garcia, J.L. Green, D.L. Gallagher, D.L. Carpenter, B.W. Reinisch, I.A. Galkin, G. Khmyrov, B.R. Sandel, Plasmaspheric electron density distributions sampled by Radio Plasma Imager on the IMAGE satellite. Eos Trans. AGU 82(47), SM11A–0771 (2001) Google Scholar
  38. S.F. Fung, R.F. Benson, D.L. Carpenter, J.L. Green, V. Jayanti, I.A. Galkin, B.W. Reinisch, Guided echoes in the magnetosphere: Observations by Radio Plasma Imager on IMAGE. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(11), 1589 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. I. Galkin, B. Reinisch, G. Grinstein, G. Khmyrov, A. Kozlov, X. Huang, S. Fung, Automated exploration of the radio plasma imager data. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A12210 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. D.L. Gallagher, P.D. Craven, R.H. Comfort, A simple model of magnetospheric trough total density. J. Geophys. Res. 103(A5), 9293–9297 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. D.L. Gallagher, P.D. Craven, R.H. Confort, Global core plasma model. J. Geophys. Res. 105(A8), 18819–18833 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. D.L. Gallagher, M.L. Adrian, M.W. Liemohn, Origin and evolution of deep plasmaspheric notches. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A09201 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. J. Goldstein, M. Spasojević, P.H. Reiff, B.R. Sandel, W.T. Forrester, D.L. Gallagher, B.W. Reinisch, Identifying the plasmapause in IMAGE EUV data using IMAGE RPI in situ steep density gradients. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A4), 1147 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. J. Goldstein, J.L. Burch, B.R. Sandel, Magnetospheric model of subauroral polarization stream. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A09222 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. J.M. Grebowsky, Model study of plasmapause motion. J. Geophys. Res. 75(22), 4329–4333 (1970) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. J.L. Green, B.W. Reinisch, An overview of results from RPI on Image. Space Sci. Rev. 109(1–4), 183–210 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. K.I. Gringauz, The structure of the ionized gas envelope of the Earth from direct measurements in the USSR of local charged particle concentrations. Planet. Space Sci. 11(3), 281–296 (1963) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. G. Gustafsson, M. André, T. Carozzi, A.I. Eriksson, C.G. Fälthammar, R. Grard, G. Holmgren, J.A. Holtet, N. Ivchenko, T. Karlsson, Y. Khotyaintsev, S. Klimov, H. Laakso, P.-A. Lindqvist, B. Lybekk, G. Marklund, F. Mozer, K. Mursula, A. Pedersen, B. Popielawska, S. Savin, K. Stasiewicz, P. Tanskanen, A. Vaivads, J.-E. Wahlund, First results of electric field and density observations by Cluster EFW based on initial months of observations. Ann. Geophys. 19(10–12), 1219–1240 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. R.A. Heelis, J.K. Lowell, R.W. Spiro, A model of the high-latitude ionospheric convection pattern. J. Geophys. Res. 87(A8), 6339–6345 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. J.P. Heppner, Empirical models of high-latitude electric fields. J. Geophys. Res. 82(7), 1115–1125 (1977) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. J.P. Heppner, N.C. Maynard, Empirical high-latitude electric field models. J. Geophys. Res. 92(A5), 4467–4489 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. J.M. Holt, R.H. Wand, J.V. Evans, W.L. Oliver, Empirical models for the plasma convection at high latitudes from millstone hill observations. J. Geophys. Res. 92(A1), 203–212 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. J.L. Horwitz, S. Menteer, J. Turnley, J.L. Burch, J.D. Winningham, C.R. Chappell, J.D. Craven, L.A. Frank, D.W. Slater, Plasma boundaries in the inner magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 91(A8), 8861–8882 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. J.L. Horwitz, R.H. Comfort, C.R. Chappell, A statistical characterization of plasmasphere density structure and boundary locations. J. Geophys. Res. 95(A6), 7937–7947 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. C.S. Huang, G.D. Reeves, G. Le, K. Yumoto, Are sawtooth oscillations of energetic plasma particle fluxes caused by periodic substorms or driven by solar wind pressure enhancements? J. Geophys. Res. 110, A07207 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. X. Huang, B.W. Reinisch, Automatic calculation of electron density profiles from digital ionograms 2. True height inversion of topside ionograms with the profile-fitting method. Radio Sci. 17(4), 837–844 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. X. Huang, B.W. Reinisch, P. Song, J.L. Green, D.L. Gallagher, Developing an empirical density model of the plasmasphere using IMAGE/RPI observations. Adv. Space Res. 33(6), 829–832 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. M.T. Johnson, J.R. Wygant, C. Cattell, F.S. Mozer, M. Temerin, J. Scudder, Observations of the seasonal dependence of the thermal plasma density in the southern hemisphere auroral zone and polar cap at 1 R E. J. Geophys. Res. 106(A9), 19023–19033 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. M.T. Johnson, J.R. Wygant, C.A. Cattell, F.S. Mozer, Seasonal variations along auroral field lines: Measurements from the Polar spacecraft. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(6), 1344 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. V.K. Jordanova, L.M. Kistler, C.J. Farrugia, R.B. Torbert, Effects of inner magnetospheric convection on ring current dynamics: March 10–12, 1998. J. Geophys. Res. 106(A12), 29705–29720 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. V.K. Jordanova, A. Boonsiriseth, R.M. Thorne, Y. Dotan, Ring current asymmetry from global simulations using a high-resolution electric field model. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A12), 1443 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. G.V. Khazanov, M.W. Liemohn, T.S. Newman, M.C. Fok, A.J. Ridley, Magnetospheric convection electric field dynamics and stormtime particle energization: case study of the magnetic storm of 4 May 1998. Ann. Geophys. 22(2), 497–510 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. M.G. Kivelson, C.T. Russell (eds.), Introduction to Space Physics (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1995), p. 594 Google Scholar
  64. H. Korth, M.F. Thomsen, K.H. Glassmeier, W.S. Phillips, Particle tomography of the inner magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 107(A9), 1229 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. B.A. Larsen, D.M. Klumpar, C. Gurgiolo, Correlation between plasmapause position and solar wind parameters. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 69(3), 334–340 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. M.J. LeDocq, D.A. Gurnett, R.R. Anderson, Electron number density fluctuations near the plasmapause observed by the CRRES spacecraft. J. Geophys. Res. 99(A12), 23661–23671 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. J.F. Lemaire, K.I. Gringauz, The Earth’s Plasmasphere (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1998), p. 372 Google Scholar
  68. J.F. Lemaire, V. Pierrard, Comparison between two theoretical mechanisms for the formation of the plasmapause and relevant observations. Geomagn. Aeron. 48(5), 553–570 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. M.W. Liemohn, A.J. Ridley, D.L. Gallagher, D.M. Ober, J.U. Kozyra, Dependence of plasmaspheric morphology on the electric field description during the recovery phase of the 17 April 2002 magnetic storm. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A03209 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. T.M. Loto’aniu, C.L. Waters, B.J. Fraser, J.C. Samson, Plasma mass density in the plasmatrough: Comparison using ULF waves and CRRES. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26(21), 3277–3280 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. L.R. Lyons, D.J. Williams (eds.), Quantitative Aspects of Magnetospheric Physics (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1984), p. 231 Google Scholar
  72. H. Matsui, V.K. Jordanova, J.M. Quinn, R.B. Torbert, G. Paschmann, Derivation of electric potential patterns in the inner magnetosphere from Cluster EDI data: Initial results. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A10202 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. H. Matsui, P.A. Puhl-Quinn, V.K. Jordanova, Y. Khotyaintsev, P.-A. Lindqvist, R.B. Torbert, Derivation of inner magnetospheric electric field (UNH-IMEF) model using Cluster data set. Ann. Geophys. 26(9), 2887–2898 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. N.C. Maynard, A.J. Chen, Isolated cold plasma regions: observations and their relation to possible production mechanisms. J. Geophys. Res. 80(7), 1009–1013 (1975) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. D.J. McComas, S.J. Bame, P. Barker, W.C. Feldman, J.L. Phillips, P. Riley, J.W. Griffee, Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) for the Advanced Composition Explorer. Space Sci. Rev. 86(1–4), 563–612 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. C.E. McIlwain, A Kp dependent equatorial electric field model. Adv. Space Res. 6(3), 187–197 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. F.W. Menk, D. Orr, M.A. Clilverd, A.J. Smith, C.L. Waters, D.K. Milling, B.J. Fraser, Monitoring spatial and temporal variations in the dayside plasmasphere using geomagnetic field line resonances. J. Geophys. Res. 104(A9), 19955–19969 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. M.B. Moldwin, M.F. Thomsen, S.J. Bame, D.J. McComas, K.R. Moore, An examination of the structure and dynamics of the outer plasmasphere using multiple geosynchronous satellites. J. Geophys. Res. 99(A6), 11475–11481 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. M.B. Moldwin, L. Downward, H.K. Rassoul, R. Amin, R.R. Anderson, A new model of the location of the plasmapause: CRRES results. J. Geophys. Res. 107(A11), 1339 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. T.E. Moore, W.K. Peterson, C.T. Russell, M.O. Chandler, M.R. Collier, H.L. Collin, P.D. Craven, R. Fitzenreiter, B.L. Giles, C.J. Pollock, Ionospheric mass ejection in response to a CME. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26(15), 2339–2342 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. F.S. Mozer, C.A. Cattell, M. Temerin, R.B. Torbert, S. Von Glinski, M. Woldorff, J. Wygant, The DC and AC electric field, plasma density, plasma temperature, and field-aligned current experiments on the S3-3 satellite. J. Geophys. Res. 84(A10), 5875–5884 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. A. Nishida, Formation of plasmapause, or magnetospheric plasma knee, by the combined action of magnetospheric convection and plasma escape from the tail. J. Geophys. Res. 71(23), 5669–5679 (1966) ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. P.A. Nsumei, X. Huang, B.W. Reinisch, P. Song, V.M. Vasyliunas, J.L. Green, S.F. Fung, R.F. Benson, D.L. Gallagher, Electron density distribution over the northern polar region deduced from IMAGE/radio plasma imager sounding. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A2), 1078 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. P.A. Nsumei, B.W. Reinisch, P. Song, J. Tu, X. Huang, Polar cap electron density distribution from IMAGE radio plasma imager measurements: Empirical model with the effects of solar illumination and geomagnetic activity. J. Geophys. Res. 113, A01217 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. T.P. O’Brien, M.B. Moldwin, Empirical plasmapause models from magnetic indices. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(4), 1152 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. S. Ohtani, H. Korth, P.C. Brandt, L.G. Blomberg, H.J. Singer, M.G. Henderson, E.A. Lucek, H.U. Frey, Q. Zong, J.M. Weygand, Y. Zheng, A.T.Y. Lui, Cluster observations in the inner magnetosphere during the 18 April 2002 sawtooth event: Dipolarization and injection at r=4.6 R E. J. Geophys. Res. 112, A08213 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. V.A. Osherovich, R.F. Benson, J. Fainberg, J.L. Green, L. Garcia, S. Boardsen, N. Tsyganenko, B.W. Reinisch, Enhanced high-altitude polar cap plasma and magnetic field values in response to the interplanetary magnetic cloud that caused the great storm of 31 March 2001: A case study for a new magnetospheric index. J. Geophys. Res. 112, A06247 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. V.O. Papitashvili, B.A. Belov, D.S. Faermark, Y.I. Feldstein, S.A. Golyshev, L.I. Gromova, A.E. Levitin, Electric potential patterns in the northern and southern polar regions parameterized by the interplanetary magnetic field. J. Geophys. Res. 99(A7), 13251–13262 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. C.G. Park, D.L. Carpenter, D.B. Wiggin, Electron density in the plasmasphere: Whistler data on solar cycle, annual, and diurnal variations. J. Geophys. Res. 83(A7), 3137–3144 (1978) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. G. Paschmann, J.M. Quinn, R.B. Torbert, H. Vaith, C.E. McIlwain, G. Haerendel, O.H. Bauer, T. Bauer, W. Baumjohann, W. Fillius, M. Förster, S. Frey, E. Georgescu, S.S. Kerr, C.A. Kletzing, H. Matsui, P. Puhl-Quinn, E.C. Whipple, The Electron Drift Instrument on Cluster: overview of first results. Ann. Geophys. 19(10–12), 1273–1288 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. A.M. Persoon, D.A. Gurnett, S.D. Shawhan, Polar cap electron densities from DE 1 plasma wave observations. J. Geophys. Res. 88(A12), 10123–10136 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. V. Pierrard, The dynamics of the plasmasphere, in Space Science: New Research, ed. by N.S. Maravell (Nova Science, New York, 2006), pp. 83–96 Google Scholar
  93. V. Pierrard, J. Cabrera, Comparisons between EUV/IMAGE observations and numerical simulations of the plasmapause formation. Ann. Geophys. 23(7), 2635–2646 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. V. Pierrard, J. Cabrera, Dynamical simulations of plasmapause deformations. Space Sci. Rev. 122(1–4), 119–126 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. V. Pierrard, J. Lemaire, Exospheric model of the plasmasphere. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(11), 1261–1265 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. V. Pierrard, K. Stegen, A three-dimensional dynamic kinetic model of the plasmasphere. J. Geophys. Res. 113, A10209 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. V. Pierrard, G.V. Khazanov, J. Cabrera, J. Lemaire, Influence of the convection electric field models on predicted plasmapause positions during magnetic storms. J. Geophys. Res. 113 A08212 (2008a) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. V. Pierrard, J. Goldstein, N. André, V.K. Jordanova, G.A. Kotova, J.F. Lemaire, M.W. Liemohn, H. Matsui, Recent progress in physics-based models of the plasmasphere. Space Sci. Rev. (2008b), this issue Google Scholar
  99. J.H. Pope, An estimate of electron densities in the exosphere by means of Nose Whistlers. J. Geophys. Res. 66(1), 67–75 (1961) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. I.A. Price, C.L. Waters, F.W. Menk, G.J. Bailey, B.J. Fraser, A technique to investigate plasma mass density in the topside ionosphere using ULF waves. J. Geophys. Res. 104(A6), 12723–12732 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. P.A. Puhl-Quinn, H. Matsui, V.K. Jordanova, Y. Khotyaintsev, P.A. Lindqvist, An effort to derive an empirically based, inner-magnetospheric electric field model: Merging Cluster EDI and EFW data. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 70(2–4), 564–573 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. B.W. Reinisch, D.M. Haines, K. Bibl, G. Cheney, I.A. Galkin, X. Huang, S.H. Myers, G.S. Sales, R.F. Benson, S.F. Fung, J.L. Green, S. Boardsen, W.W.L. Taylor, J.L. Bougeret, R. Manning, N. Meyer-Vernet, M. Moncuquet, D.L. Carpenter, D.L. Gallagher, P. Reiff, The Radio Plasma Imager investigation on the IMAGE spacecraft. Space Sci. Rev. 91(1–2), 319–359 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, P. Song, G.S. Sales, S.F. Fung, J.L. Green, D.L. Gallagher, V.M. Vasyliunas, Plasma density distribution along the magnetospheric field: RPI observations from IMAGE. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(24), 4521–4524 (2001a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. B.W. Reinisch, D.M. Haines, R.F. Benson, J.L. Green, G.S. Sales, W.W.L. Taylor, Radio sounding in space: magnetosphere and topside ionosphere. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 63(2–3), 87–98 (2001b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, P. Song, J.L. Green, S.F. Fung, V.M. Vasyliunas, D.L. Gallagher, B.R. Sandel, Plasmaspheric mass loss and refilling as a result of a magnetic storm. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A01202 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. H. Rème, C. Aoustin, J.M. Bosqued, I. Dandouras, B. Lavraud, J.A. Sauvaud, A. Barthe, J. Bouyssou, Th. Camus, O. Coeur-Joly, A. Cros, J. Cuvilo, F. Ducay, Y. Garbarowitz, J.L. Médale, E. Penou, H. Perrier, D. Romefort, J. Rouzaud, C. Vallat, D. Alcaydé, C. Jacquey, C. Mazelle, C. d’Uston, E. Möbius, L.M. Kistler, K. Crocker, M. Granoff, C. Mouikis, M. Popecki, M. Vosbury, B. Klecker, D. Hovestadt, H. Kucharek, E. Kuenneth, G. Paschmann, M. Scholer, N. Sckopke, E. Seidenschwang, C.W. Carlson, D.W. Curtis, C. Ingraham, R.P. Lin, J.P. McFadden, G.K. Parks, T. Phan, V. Formisano, E. Amata, M.B. Bavassano-Cattaneo, P. Baldetti, R. Bruno, G. Chionchio, A. Di Lellis, M.F. Marcucci, G. Pallocchia, A. Korth, P.W. Daly, B. Graeve, H. Rosenbauer, V. Vasyliunas, M. McCarthy, M. Wilber, L. Eliasson, R. Lundin, S. Olsen, E.G. Shelley, S. Fuselier, A.G. Ghielmetti, W. Lennartsson, C.P. Escoubet, H. Balsiger, R. Friedel, J.-B. Cao, R.A. Kovrazhkin, I. Papamastorakis, R. Pellat, J. Scudder, B. Sonnerup, First multi-spacecraft ion measurements in and near the Earth’s magnetosphere with the identical Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) experiment. Ann. Geophys. 19(10–12), 1303–1354 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. A.D. Richmond, Y. Kamide, Mapping electrodynamic features of the high-latitude ionosphere from localized observations: Technique. J. Geophys. Res. 93(A6), 5741–5759 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. J.M. Ruohoniemi, R.A. Greenwald, Dependencies of high-latitude plasma convection: Consideration of interplanetary magnetic field, seasonal, and universal time factors in statistical patterns. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A09204 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. B.R. Sandel, R.A. King, W.T. Forrester, D.L. Gallagher, A.L. Broadfoot, C.C. Curtis, Initial results from the IMAGE Extreme Ultraviolet Imager. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(8), 1439–1442 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. S. Schäfer, K.H. Glassmeier, P.T.I. Eriksson, V. Pierrard, K.H. Fornaçon, L.G. Blomberg, Spatial and temporal characteristics of poloidal waves in the terrestrial plasmasphere: a CLUSTER case study. Ann. Geophys. 25(4), 1011–1024 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. S. Schäfer, K.H. Glassmeier, P.T.I. Eriksson, P.N. Mager, V. Pierrard, K.H. Fornaçon, L.G. Blomberg, Spatio-temporal structure of a poloidal Alfvén wave detected by Cluster adjacent to the dayside plasmapause. Ann. Geophys. 26(7), 1805–1817 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. N. Sckopke, A general relation between the energy of trapped particles and the disturbance field near the earth. J. Geophys. Res. 71(13), 3125–3130 (1966) Google Scholar
  113. B.W. Sheeley, M.B. Moldwin, H.K. Rassoul, R.R. Anderson, An empirical plasmasphere and trough density model: CRRES observations. J. Geophys. Res. 106(A11), 25631–25641 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. N. Singh, J.L. Horwitz, Plasmaspheric refilling: Recent observations and modelling. J. Geophys. Res. 97(A2), 1049–1079 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. G. Siscoe, D. Baker, R. Weigel, J. Hughes, H. Spence, Roles of empirical modeling within CISM. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 66(15–16), 1481–1489 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. C.W. Smith, J. L’Heureux, N.F. Ness, M.H. Acuña, L.F. Burlaga, J. Scheifele, The ACE magnetic fields experiment. Space Sci. Rev. 86(1–4), 613–632 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. R.L. Smith, Properties of the outer ionosphere deduced from nose whistlers. J. Geophys. Res. 66(11), 3709–3716 (1961) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. J.J. Sojka, C.E. Rasmussen, R.W. Schunk, An interplanetary magnetic field dependent model of the ionospheric convection electric field. J. Geophys. Res. 91(A10), 11281–11290 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. P. Song, B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, Magnetospheric active wave measurements. COSPAR Colloq. Ser. 16, 235–246 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. D.P. Stern, The motion of a proton in the equatorial magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 80(4), 595–599 (1975) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. D.P. Stern, Large-scale electric fields in the Earth’s magnetosphere. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 15(2), 156–194 (1977) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. L.R.O. Storey, An investigation of whistling atmospherics. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. (Lond.) A 246, 113–141 (1953) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. K. Takahashi, R.E. Denton, R.R. Anderson, W.J. Hughes, Frequencies of standing Alfén wave harmonics and their implication for plasma mass distribution along geomagnetic field lines: Statistical analysis of CRRES data. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A08202 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. A. Tarantola, Inverse Problem Theory (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), p. 613 zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  125. N.A. Tsyganenko, A model of the near magnetosphere with a dawn-dusk asymmetry 1. Mathematical structure. J. Geophys. Res. 107(A8), 1179 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. N.A. Tsyganenko, D.P. Stern, Modeling the global magnetic field of the large-scale Birkeland current systems. J. Geophys. Res. 101(A12), 27187–27198 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. J. Tu, J.L. Horwitz, T.E. Moore, Simulating the cleft ion fountain at polar perigee altitudes. J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 67(5), 465–477 (2005a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. J. Tu, P. Song, B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, J.L. Green, H.U. Frey, P.H. Reiff, Electron density images of the middle- and high-latitude magnetosphere in response to the solar wind. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A12210 (2005b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. J. Tu, P. Song, B.W. Reinisch, J.L. Green, X. Huang, Empirical specification of field-aligned plasma density profiles for plasmasphere refilling. J. Geophys. Res. 111, A06216 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. J.N. Tu, M. Dhar, P. Song, B.W. Reinisch, J.L. Green, R.F. Benson, A.J. Coster, Extreme polar cap density enhancements along magnetic field lines during an intense geomagnetic storm. J. Geophys. Res. 112, A05201 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. A.F. Viñas, R.L. Mace, R.F. Benson, Dispersion characteristics for plasma resonances of Maxwellian and Kappa distribution plasmas and their comparisons to the IMAGE/RPI observations. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A06202 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. H. Volland, A semiempirical model of large-scale magnetospheric electric fields. J. Geophys. Res. 78(1), 171–180 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. H. Volland, A model of the magnetospheric electric convection field. J. Geophys. Res. 83(A6), 2695–2699 (1978) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. C.L. Waters, F.W. Menk, M.F. Thomsen, C. Foster, F.R. Fenrich, Remote sensing of the magnetosphere using ground-based observations of ULF waves, in Magnetospheric ULF Waves: Synthesis and New Directions, ed. by K. Takahashi, P.J. Chi, R.E. Denton, R.L. Lysak. Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 169 (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 2006), pp. 319–340 Google Scholar
  135. P.A. Webb, R.F. Benson, R.E. Denton, J. Goldstein, L.N. Garcia, B.W. Reinisch, An inner-magnetospheric electron density database determined from IMAGE/RPI passive dynamic spectra. EOS Trans. AGU 88(52), SM12A–04 (2007) Google Scholar
  136. D.R. Weimer, A flexible, IMF dependent model of high-latitude electric potentials having “space weather” applications. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23(18), 2549–2552 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. D.R. Weimer, Improved ionospheric electrodynamic models and application to calculating Joule heating rates. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A05306 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bodo W. Reinisch
    • 1
  • Mark B. Moldwin
    • 2
  • Richard E. Denton
    • 3
  • Dennis L. Gallagher
    • 4
  • Hiroshi Matsui
    • 5
  • Viviane Pierrard
    • 6
  • Jiannan Tu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental, Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of Massachusetts-Lowell (UML)LowellUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP)University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Physics and Astronomy DepartmentDartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA
  4. 4.Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)NASAHuntsvilleUSA
  5. 5.Space Science CenterUniversity of New Hampshire (UNH)DurhamUSA
  6. 6.Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB)BrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations