Space Science Reviews

, 144:275 | Cite as

Small-Scale Solar Magnetic Fields

  • A. G. de Wijn
  • J. O. Stenflo
  • S. K. Solanki
  • S. Tsuneta
Open Access
Article

Abstract

As we resolve ever smaller structures in the solar atmosphere, it has become clear that magnetism is an important component of those small structures. Small-scale magnetism holds the key to many poorly understood facets of solar magnetism on all scales, such as the existence of a local dynamo, chromospheric heating, and flux emergence, to name a few. Here, we review our knowledge of small-scale photospheric fields, with particular emphasis on quiet-sun field, and discuss the implications of several results obtained recently using new instruments, as well as future prospects in this field of research.

Keywords

Sun Photosphere Magnetism Small scale 

References

  1. W.P. Abbett, Astrophys. J. 665, 1469 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. V.I. Abramenko, Sol. Phys. 228, 29 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. A. Asensio Ramos, M.J. Martínez González, A. López Ariste, J. Trujillo Bueno, M. Collados, Astrophys. J. 659, 829 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. C. Beck, L.R. Bellot Rubio, R. Schlichenmaier, P. Sütterlin, Astron. Astrophys. 472, 607 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. J.M. Beckers, E.H. Schröter, Sol. Phys. 4, 142 (1968) ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. S.V. Berdyugina, D.M. Fluri, Astron. Astrophys. 417, 775 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. T.E. Berger, A.M. Title, Astrophys. J. 463, 365 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. T.E. Berger, A.M. Title, Astrophys. J. 553, 449 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. T.E. Berger, C.J. Schrijver, R.A. Shine et al., Astrophys. J. 454, 531 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. T.E. Berger, M.G. Löfdahl, R.A. Shine, A.M. Title, Astrophys. J. 506, 439 (1998a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. T.E. Berger, M.G. Löfdahl, R.S. Shine, A.M. Title, Astrophys. J. 495, 973 (1998b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. T.E. Berger, L.H.M. Rouppe van der Voort, M.G. Löfdahl et al., Astron. Astrophys. 428, 613 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. T.E. Berger, L. Rouppe van der Voort, M. Löfdahl, Astrophys. J. 661, 1272 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. J. Blanco Rodríguez, O.V. Okunev, K.G. Puschmann, F. Kneer, B. Sánchez-Andrade Nuño, Astron. Astrophys. 474, 251 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. V. Bommier, M. Derouich, E. Landi degl’Innocenti, G. Molodij, S. Sahal-Bréchot, Astron. Astrophys. 432, 295 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. V. Bommier, E. Landi Degl’Innocenti, N. Feautrier, G. Molodij, Astron. Astrophys. 458, 625 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. J.H.M.J. Bruls, S.K. Solanki, Astron. Astrophys. 293, 240 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. M. Carlsson, R.F. Stein, Å. Nordlund, G.B. Scharmer, Astrophys. J. 610, L137 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. F. Cattaneo, Astrophys. J. 515, L39 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. R. Centeno, H. Socas-Navarro, B. Lites et al., Astrophys. J. 666, L137 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. S. Criscuoli, M.P. Rast, I. Ermolli, M. Centrone, Astron. Astrophys. 461, 331 (2007) MATHADSGoogle Scholar
  22. A.G. De Wijn, R.J. Rutten, E.M.W.P. Haverkamp, P. Sütterlin, Astron. Astrophys. 441, 1183 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. A.G. De Wijn, B.W. Lites, T.E. Berger et al., Astrophys. J. 684, 1469–1476 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. J.C. del Toro Iniesta, Introduction to Spectropolarimetry (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003) Google Scholar
  25. M. Derouich, V. Bommier, J.M. Malherbe, E. Landi Degl’Innocenti, Astron. Astrophys. 457, 1047 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. I. Domínguez Cerdeña, F. Kneer, J. Sánchez Almeida, Astrophys. J. 582, L55 (2003a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. I. Domínguez Cerdeña, J. Sánchez Almeida, F. Kneer, Astron. Astrophys. 407, 741 (2003b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. I. Domínguez Cerdeña, J.S. Almeida, F. Kneer, Astrophys. J. 646, 1421 (2006a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. I. Domínguez Cerdeña, J. Sánchez Almeida, F. Kneer, Astrophys. J. 636, 496 (2006b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. R.B. Dunn, J.B. Zirker, Sol. Phys. 33, 281 (1973) ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. D.F. Elmore, B.W. Lites, S. Tomczyk et al., in Proc. SPIE, vol. 1746, Polarization analysis and measurement, ed. D.H. Goldstein, R.A. Chipman (1992), pp. 22–33 Google Scholar
  32. M. Faurobert, J. Arnaud, J. Vigneau, H. Frisch, Astron. Astrophys. 378, 627 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. M. Faurobert-Scholl, Astron. Astrophys. 268, 765 (1993) ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. M. Faurobert-Scholl, N. Feautrier, F. Machefert, K. Petrovay, A. Spielfiedel, Astron. Astrophys. 298, 289 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. E.N. Frazier, J.O. Stenflo, Sol. Phys. 27, 330 (1972) ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. A.M. Gandorfer, H.P.P.P. Steiner, F. Aebersold et al., Astron. Astrophys. 422, 703 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. A.M. Gandorfer, S.K. Solanki, P. Barthol et al., in Proc. SPIE, vol. 6267, Ground-based and Airborne Telescopes, ed. L.M. Stepp (2006) Google Scholar
  38. U. Grossmann-Doerth, C.U. Keller, M. Schüssler, Astron. Astrophys. 315, 610 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. U. Grossmann-Doerth, M. Schüssler, O. Steiner, Astron. Astrophys. 337, 928 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. H.J. Hagenaar, Astrophys. J. 555, 448 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. K.L. Harvey, PhD thesis, Univ. Utrecht, 1993 Google Scholar
  42. K.L. Harvey, S.F. Martin, Sol. Phys. 32, 389 (1973) ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. K.L. Harvey, J.W. Harvey, S.F. Martin, Sol. Phys. 40, 87 (1975) ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. J.W. Harvey, D. Branston, C.J. Henney, C.U. Keller, Astrophys. J. 659, L177 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. T. Homann, F. Kneer, V.I. Makarov, Sol. Phys. 175, 81 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. R. Howard, J.O. Stenflo, Sol. Phys. 22, 402 (1972) ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. K. Ichimoto, B. Lites, D. Elmore et al., Sol. Phys. 249, 233 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. R. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneta, Astron. Astrophys. (2009a, in press) Google Scholar
  49. R. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneta, Astron. Astrophys. (2009b, in preparation) Google Scholar
  50. R. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneta, Y. Kitakoshi et al., Astron. Astrophys. 472, 911 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. R. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneta, K. Ichimoto et al., Astron. Astrophys. 481, L25 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. H. Isobe, M.R.E. Proctor, N.O. Weiss, Astrophys. J. 679, L57 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. K. Janßen, A. Vögler, F. Kneer, Astron. Astrophys. 409, 1127 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. H. Jeong, J. Chae, Astrophys. J. 671, 1022 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. S.L. Keil, T.R. Rimmele, C. Keller, F. Hill, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 32, 1433 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. C.U. Keller, Nature 359, 307 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. C.U. Keller, F.-L. Deubner, U. Egger, B. Fleck, H.P. Povel, Astron. Astrophys. 286, 626 (1994) ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. C.U. Keller, M. Schüssler, A. Vögler, V. Zakharov, Astrophys. J. 607, L59 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. E. Khomenko, M. Collados, Astrophys. J. 659, 1726 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. E.V. Khomenko, M. Collados, S.K. Solanki, A. Lagg, J. Trujillo Bueno, Astron. Astrophys. 408, 1115 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. E.V. Khomenko, M.J. Martínez González, M. Collados et al., Astron. Astrophys. 436, L27 (2005a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. E.V. Khomenko, S. Shelyag, S.K. Solanki, A. Vögler, Astron. Astrophys. 442, 1059 (2005b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. D. Kiselman, R.J. Rutten, B. Plez, in IAU Symposium, vol. 203, Recent Insights into the Physics of the Sun and Heliosphere: Highlights from SOHO and Other Space Missions, ed. P. Brekke, B. Fleck, J.B. Gurman (2001), p. 287 Google Scholar
  64. M. Knölker, M. Schüssler, Astron. Astrophys. 202, 275 (1988) ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. R.W. Komm, Sol. Phys. 157, 45 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. T. Kosugi, K. Matsuzaki, T. Sakao et al., Sol. Phys. 243, 3 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. J.K. Lawrence, A.C. Cadavid, A.A. Ruzmaikin, Phys. Rev. E 51, 316 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. H. Lin, Astrophys. J. 446, 421 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. H. Lin, T. Rimmele, Astrophys. J. 514, 448 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. H. Lin, J. Varsik, H. Zirin, Sol. Phys. 155, 243 (1994) ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. B.W. Lites, Appl. Opt. 26, 3838 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. B.W. Lites, Sol. Phys. 163, 223 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. B.W. Lites, H. Socas-Navarro, Astrophys. J. 613, 600 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. B.W. Lites, K.D. Leka, A. Skumanich, V. Martinez Pillet, T. Shimizu, Astrophys. J. 460, 1019 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. B.W. Lites, M. Kubo, H. Socas-Navarro et al., Astrophys. J. 672, 1237 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. W. Livingston, J. Harvey, in IAU Symposium, vol. 43, Solar Magnetic Fields, ed. R. Howard (1971), p. 51 Google Scholar
  77. W.C. Livingston, J. Harvey, Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 7, 346 (1975) ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. D. Longcope, C. Beveridge, J. Qiu et al., Sol. Phys. 244, 45 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. A. López Ariste, S. Tomczyk, R. Casini, Astrophys. J. 580, 519 (2002) ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. A. López Ariste, S. Tomczyk, R. Casini, Astron. Astrophys. 454, 663 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. T. Magara, Astrophys. J. 549, 608 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. T. Magara, S. Tsuneta, Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 60, 1181–1189 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. S.F. Martin, Sol. Phys. 117, 243 (1988) ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. M.J. Martínez González, M. Collados, B. Ruiz Cobo, Astron. Astrophys. 456, 1159 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. M.J. Martínez González, M. Collados, B. Ruiz Cobo, S.K. Solanki, Astron. Astrophys. 469, L39 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. M.J. Martínez González, A. Asensio Ramos, A. López Ariste, R. Manso Sainz, Astron. Astrophys. 479, 229 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. V. Martinez Pillet, B.W. Lites, A. Skumanich, Astrophys. J. 474, 810 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. J.P. Mehltretter, Sol. Phys. 38, 43 (1974) ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. N. Meunier, Astrophys. J. 515, 801 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. N. Meunier, Astron. Astrophys. 420, 333 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. N. Meunier, S.K. Solanki, W.C. Livingston, Astron. Astrophys. 331, 771 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. F. Moreno-Insertis, P. Caligari, M. Schüssler, Astrophys. J. 452, 894 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. R. Muller, Sol. Phys. 52, 249 (1977) ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. R. Muller, Sol. Phys. 85, 113 (1983) ADSGoogle Scholar
  95. R. Muller, Sol. Phys. 100, 237 (1985) ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. R. Muller, T. Roudier, Sol. Phys. 94, 33 (1984) ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. D.A.N. Müller, O. Steiner, R. Schlichenmaier, P.N. Brandt, Sol. Phys. 203, 211 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, Y. Suematsu et al., Astrophys. J. 677, L145 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. E. Nesme-Ribes, N. Meunier, B. Collin, Astron. Astrophys. 308, 213 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. P. Nisenson, A.A. van Ballegooijen, A.G. De Wijn, P. Sütterlin, Astrophys. J. 587, 458 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. O.V. Okunev, F. Kneer, Astron. Astrophys. 425, 321 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. D. Orozco Suárez, L.R. Bellot Rubio, J.C. Del Toro Iniesta et al., Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn. 59, 837 (2007a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. D. Orozco Suárez, L.R. Bellot Rubio, J.C. del Toro Iniesta et al., Astrophys. J. 670, L61 (2007b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. E.N. Parker, Astrophys. J. 221, 368 (1978) ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. S.R.O. Ploner, M. Schüssler, S.K. Solanki, A.S. Gadun, in Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 236, Advanced Solar Polarimetry—Theory, Observation, and Instrumentation, ed. M. Sigwarth (2001) p. 363 Google Scholar
  106. G.W. Pneuman, S.K. Solanki, J.O. Stenflo, Astron. Astrophys. 154, 231 (1986) MATHADSGoogle Scholar
  107. H. Povel, Opt. Eng. 34, 1870 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. D. Rabin, Astrophys. J. 390, L103 (1992a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. D. Rabin, Astrophys. J. 391, 832 (1992b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. T. Roudier, R. Muller, Sol. Phys. 107, 11 (1987) ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. T. Roudier, R. Muller, Astron. Astrophys. 419, 757 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. T. Roudier, F. Lignières, M. Rieutord, P.N. Brandt, J.M. Malherbe, Astron. Astrophys. 409, 299 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. L.H.M. Rouppe van der Voort, V.H. Hansteen, M. Carlsson et al., Astron. Astrophys. 435, 327 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  114. I. Rüedi, S.K. Solanki, W. Livingston, J.O. Stenflo, Astron. Astrophys. 263, 323 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. M. Sampoorna, K.N. Nagendra, H. Frisch, J.O. Stenflo, Astron. Astrophys. 485, 275–287 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  116. J. Sánchez Almeida, Astron. Astrophys. 438, 727 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. J. Sanchez Almeida, E. Landi degl’Innocenti, V. Martinez Pillet, B.W. Lites, Astrophys. J. 466, 537 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. J. Sánchez Almeida, A. Asensio Ramos, J. Trujillo Bueno, J. Cernicharo, Astrophys. J. 555, 978 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. J. Sánchez Almeida, I. Domínguez Cerdeña, F. Kneer, Astrophys. J. 597, L177 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. J. Sánchez Almeida, I. Márquez, J.A. Bonet, I. Domínguez Cerdeña, R. Muller, Astrophys. J. 609, L91 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. J. Sánchez Almeida, B. Viticchié, E. Landi Degl’Innocenti, F. Berrilli, Astrophys. J. 675, 906 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. C.J. Schrijver, C. Zwaan, Cambridge Astrophysics Series, vol. 34, Solar and Stellar Magnetic Activity (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000) Google Scholar
  123. C.J. Schrijver, A.M. Title, A.A. van Ballegooijen, H.J. Hagenaar, R.A. Shine, Astrophys. J. 487, 424 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. M. Schüssler, A. Vögler, Astron. Astrophys. 481, L5 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. M. Schüssler, S. Shelyag, S. Berdyugina, A. Vögler, S.K. Solanki, Astrophys. J. 597, L173 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. N.R. Sheeley Jr., Sol. Phys. 1, 171 (1967) ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. N.R. Sheeley Jr., A.G. Nash, Y.-M. Wang, Astrophys. J. 319, 481 (1987) ADSGoogle Scholar
  128. S. Shelyag, M. Schüssler, S.K. Solanki, S.V. Berdyugina, A. Vögler, Astron. Astrophys. 427, 335 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta et al., Sol. Phys. 249, 221 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. H.B. Snodgrass, Astrophys. J. 270, 288 (1983) ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. H. Socas-Navarro, B.W. Lites, Astrophys. J. 616, 587 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. H. Socas-Navarro, J. Sánchez Almeida, Astrophys. J. 593, 581 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. H. Socas-Navarro, V. Martínez Pillet, B.W. Lites, Astrophys. J. 611, 1139 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. H. Socas-Navarro, J.M. Borrero, A. Asensio Ramos et al., Astrophys. J. 674, 596 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. S.K. Solanki, Space Sci. Rev. 63, 1 (1993) ADSGoogle Scholar
  136. S.K. Solanki, J.O. Stenflo, Astron. Astrophys. 140, 185 (1984) ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. S.K. Solanki, C. Keller, J.O. Stenflo, Astron. Astrophys. 188, 183 (1987) ADSGoogle Scholar
  138. S.K. Solanki, D. Zufferey, H. Lin, I. Rüedi, J.R. Kuhn, Astron. Astrophys. 310, L33 (1996) ADSGoogle Scholar
  139. S.K. Solanki, A. Lagg, J. Woch, N. Krupp, M. Collados, Nature 425, 692 (2003) ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. H.C. Spruit, Sol. Phys. 50, 269 (1976) ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. H.C. Spruit, PhD thesis. University of Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1977 Google Scholar
  142. H.C. Spruit, Sol. Phys. 61, 363 (1979) ADSGoogle Scholar
  143. H.C. Spruit, C. Zwaan, Sol. Phys. 70, 207 (1981) ADSGoogle Scholar
  144. H.C. Spruit, E.G. Zweibel, Sol. Phys. 62, 15 (1979) ADSGoogle Scholar
  145. R.F. Stein, Å. Nordlund, Astrophys. J. 642, 1246 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  146. O. Steiner, Astron. Astrophys. 430, 691 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  147. O. Steiner, G.W. Pneuman, J.O. Stenflo, Astron. Astrophys. 170, 126 (1986) MATHADSGoogle Scholar
  148. O. Steiner, U. Grossmann-Doerth, M. Knölker, M. Schüssler, Astrophys. J. 495, 468 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  149. O. Steiner, P.H. Hauschildt, J. Bruls, Astron. Astrophys. 372, L13 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  150. J.O. Stenflo, Arkiv for Astronomi 4, 173 (1966) ADSGoogle Scholar
  151. J.O. Stenflo, Sol. Phys. 32, 41 (1973) ADSGoogle Scholar
  152. J.O. Stenflo, Sol. Phys. 80, 209 (1982) ADSGoogle Scholar
  153. J.O. Stenflo, Sol. Phys. 114, 1 (1987) ADSGoogle Scholar
  154. J.O. Stenflo, Astron. Astrophys. 210, 403 (1989) ADSGoogle Scholar
  155. J.O. Stenflo, Solar Magnetic Fields: Polarized Radiation Diagnostics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1994) Google Scholar
  156. J.O. Stenflo, Nature 430, 304 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  157. J.O. Stenflo, J.W. Harvey, Sol. Phys. 95, 99 (1985) ADSGoogle Scholar
  158. J.O. Stenflo, R. Holzreuter, in ESA Special Publication, vol. 505, SOLMAG, Proceedings of the Magnetic Coupling of the Solar Atmosphere Euroconference, ed. H. Sawaya-Lacoste (2002), pp. 101–104 Google Scholar
  159. J.O. Stenflo, R. Holzreuter, in Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 286, Current Theoretical Models and Future High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, ed. A.A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek (2003), p. 169 Google Scholar
  160. J.O. Stenflo, L. Lindegren, Astron. Astrophys. 59, 367 (1977) ADSGoogle Scholar
  161. J.O. Stenflo, S. Solanki, J.W. Harvey, J.W. Brault, Astron. Astrophys. 131, 333 (1984) ADSGoogle Scholar
  162. J.O. Stenflo, S.K. Solanki, J.W. Harvey, Astron. Astrophys. 173, 167 (1987) ADSGoogle Scholar
  163. J.O. Stenflo, M. Bianda, C.U. Keller, S.K. Solanki, Astron. Astrophys. 322, 985 (1997) ADSGoogle Scholar
  164. J.O. Stenflo, C.U. Keller, A. Gandorfer, Astron. Astrophys. 329, 319 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  165. Y. Suematsu, S. Tsuneta, K. Ichimoto et al., Sol. Phys. 249, 197 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  166. F. Tang, H. Wang, Sol. Phys. 132, 247 (1991) ADSGoogle Scholar
  167. T.D. Tarbell, A.M. Title, S.A. Schoolman, Astrophys. J. 229, 387 (1979) ADSGoogle Scholar
  168. A.M. Title, C.J. Schrijver, in Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 154, Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, ed. R.A. Donahue, J.A. Bookbinder (1998), p. 345 Google Scholar
  169. J. Trujillo Bueno, N. Shchukina, A. Asensio Ramos, Nature 430, 326 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  170. S. Tsuneta, K. Ichimoto, Y. Katsukawa et al., Astrophys. J. 688, 1374 (2008a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  171. S. Tsuneta, K. Ichimoto, Y. Katsukawa et al., Sol. Phys. 249, 167 (2008b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  172. H. Uitenbroek, A. Tritschler, Astrophys. J. 639, 525 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  173. W. Unno, Astrophys. J. 129, 375 (1959) ADSGoogle Scholar
  174. A.A. van Ballegooijen, P. Nisenson, R.W. Noyes et al., Astrophys. J. 509, 435 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  175. P. Venkatakrishnan, Nature 322, 156 (1986) ADSGoogle Scholar
  176. A. Vögler, M. Schüssler, Astron. Astrophys. 465, L43 (2007) Google Scholar
  177. A. Vögler, S. Shelyag, M. Schüssler et al., Astron. Astrophys. 429, 335 (2005) ADSGoogle Scholar
  178. Y.-M. Wang, N.R. Sheeley Jr., Astrophys. J. 430, 399 (1994) ADSGoogle Scholar
  179. J. Wang, H. Wang, F. Tang, J.W. Lee, H. Zirin, Sol. Phys. 160, 277 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  180. E. Wiehr, Astron. Astrophys. 69, 279 (1978) ADSGoogle Scholar
  181. P.R. Wilson, Sol. Phys. 69, 9 (1981) ADSGoogle Scholar
  182. H. Zirin, Sol. Phys. 110, 101 (1987) ADSGoogle Scholar
  183. H. Zirin, B. Popp, Astrophys. J. 340, 571 (1989) ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. G. de Wijn
    • 1
  • J. O. Stenflo
    • 2
  • S. K. Solanki
    • 3
  • S. Tsuneta
    • 4
  1. 1.University Corporation for Atmospheric ResearchBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Institute of AstronomyETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Max-Planck-Institut für SonnensystemforschungKatlenburg-LindauGermany
  4. 4.National Astronomical ObservatoryMitakaJapan

Personalised recommendations