Space Science Reviews

, Volume 145, Issue 1–2, pp 55–106 | Cite as

Plasmaspheric Density Structures and Dynamics: Properties Observed by the CLUSTER and IMAGE Missions

  • Fabien Darrouzet
  • Dennis L. Gallagher
  • Nicolas André
  • Donald L. Carpenter
  • Iannis Dandouras
  • Pierrette M. E. Décréau
  • Johan De Keyser
  • Richard E. Denton
  • John C. Foster
  • Jerry Goldstein
  • Mark B. Moldwin
  • Bodo W. Reinisch
  • Bill R. Sandel
  • Jiannan Tu


Plasmaspheric density structures have been studied since the discovery of the plasmasphere in the late 1950s. But the advent of the Cluster and Image missions in 2000 has added substantially to our knowledge of density structures, thanks to the new capabilities of those missions: global imaging with Image and four-point in situ measurements with Cluster. The study of plasma sources and losses has given new results on refilling rates and erosion processes. Two-dimensional density images of the plasmasphere have been obtained. The spatial gradient of plasmaspheric density has been computed. The ratios between H+, He+ and O+ have been deduced from different ion measurements. Plasmaspheric plumes have been studied in detail with new tools, which provide information on their morphology, dynamics and occurrence. Density structures at smaller scales have been revealed with those missions, structures that could not be clearly distinguished before the global images from Image and the four-point measurements by Cluster became available. New terms have been given to these structures, like “shoulders”, “channels”, “fingers” and “crenulations”. This paper reviews the most relevant new results about the plasmaspheric plasma obtained since the start of the Cluster and Image missions.


Plasmasphere Cluster Image Plasma Structures 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. S. Abe, H. Kawano, J. Goldstein, S. Ohtani, S.I. Solovyev, D.G. Baishev, K. Yumoto, Simultaneous identification of a plasmaspheric plume by a ground magnetometer pair and IMAGE Extreme Ultraviolet Imager. J. Geophys. Res. 111, A11202 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. M.L. Adrian, D.L. Gallagher, L.A. Avanov, IMAGE EUV observation of radially bifurcated plasmaspheric features: First observations of a possible standing ULF waveform in the inner magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A01203 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. N. André, J.F. Lemaire, Convective instabilities in the plasmasphere. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 68(2), 213–227 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. J.J. Angerami, Whistler duct properties deduced from VLF observations made with the Ogo 3 satellite near the magnetic equator. J. Geophys. Res. 75(31), 6115–6135 (1970) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. M. Blanc, A.D. Richmond, The ionospheric disturbance dynamo. J. Geophys. Res. 85(A4), 1669–1686 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. H.G. Booker, Guidance of radio and hydromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 67(11), 4135–4162 (1962) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. J.E. Borovsky, M.H. Denton, A statistical look at plasmaspheric drainage plumes. J. Geophys. Res. 113, A09221 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. J.E. Borovsky, M.F. Thomsen, D.J. McComas, T.E. Cayton, D.J. Knipp, Magnetospheric dynamics and mass flow during the November 1993 storm. J. Geophys. Res. 103(A11), 26373–26394 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. P.C. Brandt, D.G. Mitchell, Y. Ebihara, B.R. Sandel, E.C. Roelof, J.L. Burch, R. Demajistre, Global IMAGE/HENA observations of the ring current: Examples of rapid response to IMF and ring current-plasmasphere interaction. J. Geophys. Res. 107(A11), 1359 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. K. Bullough, J.L. Sagredo, Longitudinal structure in the plasmapause: VLF goniometer observations of knee-whistlers. Nature 225(5237), 1038–1039 (1970) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. J.L. Burch, IMAGE mission overview. Space Sci. Rev. 91(1–2), 1–14 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. J.L. Burch, S.B. Mende, D.G. Mitchell, T.E. Moore, C.J. Pollock, B.W. Reinisch, B.R. Sandel, S.A. Fuselier, D.L. Gallagher, J.L. Green, J.D. Perez, P.H. Reiff, Views of Earth’s magnetosphere with the IMAGE satellite. Science 291, 619–624 (2001a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. J.L. Burch, D.G. Mitchell, B.R. Sandel, P.C. Brandt, M. Wüest, Global dynamics of the plasmasphere and ring current during magnetic storms. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(6), 1159–1162 (2001b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. J.L. Burch, J. Goldstein, B.R. Sandel, Cause of plasmasphere corotation lag. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L05802 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. P. Canu, P.M.E. Décréau, J.G. Trotignon, J.L. Rauch, H.C. Séran, P. Fergeau, M. Lévêque, P. Martin, F.X. Sené, E. Le Guirriec, H. Alleyne, K. Yearby, Identification of natural plasma emissions observed close to the plasmapause by the Cluster-Whisper relaxation sounder. Ann. Geophys. 19(10–12), 1697–1709 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. D.L. Carpenter, New experimental evidence of the effect of magnetic storms on the magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 67(1), 135–145 (1962) ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. D.L. Carpenter, Whistler evidence of a “knee” in the magnetospheric ionization density profile. J. Geophys. Res. 68(6), 1675–1682 (1963) ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. D.L. Carpenter, Whistler Evidence of the Dynamic Behavior of the Duskside Bulge in the Plasmasphere. J. Geophys. Res. 75(19), 3837–3847 (1970) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. D.L. Carpenter, Some aspects of plasmapause probing by whistlers. Radio Sci. 18(6), 917–925 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. D.L. Carpenter, R.R. Anderson, An ISEE/Whistler model of equatorial electron density in the magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 97(A2), 1097–1108 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. D.L. Carpenter, J. Lemaire, Erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere in the plasmapause region. Space Sci. Rev. 80(1–2), 153–179 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. D.L. Carpenter, J. Lemaire, The plasmasphere boundary layer. Ann. Geophys. 22(12), 4291–4298 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. D.L. Carpenter, B.L. Giles, C.R. Chappell, P.M.E. Décréau, R.R. Anderson, A.M. Persoon, A.J. Smith, Y. Corcuff, P. Canu, Plasmasphere dynamics in the duskside bulge region: A new look at an old topic. J. Geophys. Res. 98(A11), 19243–19271 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. D.L. Carpenter, R.R. Anderson, W. Calvert, M.B. Moldwin, CRRES observations of density cavities inside the plasmasphere. J. Geophys. Res. 105(A10), 23323–23338 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. D.L. Carpenter, M.A. Spasojević, T.F. Bell, U.S. Inan, B.W. Reinisch, I.A. Galkin, R.F. Benson, J.L. Green, S.F. Fung, S.A. Boardsen, Small-scale field-aligned plasmaspheric density structures inferred from the Radio Plasma Imager on IMAGE. J. Geophys. Res. 107(A9), 1258 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. C.R. Chappell, Recent satellite measurements of the morphology and dynamics of the plasmasphere. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 10(4), 951–979 (1972) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. C.R. Chappell, Detached Plasma Regions in the Magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 79(13), 1861–1870 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. C.R. Chappell, K.K. Harris, G.W. Sharp, The morphology of the bulge region of the plasmasphere. J. Geophys. Res. 75(19), 3848–3861 (1970a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. C.R. Chappell, K.K. Harris, G.W. Sharp, A study of the influence of magnetic activity on the location of the plasmapause as measured by OGO 5. J. Geophys. Res. 75(1), 50–56 (1970b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. A.J. Chen, J.M. Grebowsky, Plasma Tail Interpretations of Pronounced Detached Plasma Regions Measured by Ogo 5. J. Geophys. Res. 79(25), 3851–3855 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. S.H. Chen, T.E. Moore, Magnetospheric convection and thermal ions in the dayside outer magnetosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 111, A03215 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. A.J. Chen, R.A. Wolf, Effects on the plasmasphere of a time-varying convection electric field. Planet. Space Sci. 20(4), 483–509 (1972) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. M.A. Clilverd, A.J. Smith, N.R. Thomson, The annual variation in quiet time plasmaspheric electron density, determined from whistler mode group delays. Planet. Space Sci. 39(7), 1059–1067 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. M.A. Clilverd, F.W. Menk, G. Milinevski, B.R. Sandel, J. Goldstein, B.W. Reinisch, C.R. Wilford, M.C. Rose, N.R. Thomson, K.H. Yearby, G.J. Bailey, I.R. Mann, D.L. Carpenter, In-situ and ground-based intercalibration measurements of plasma density at L = 2.5. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A10), 1365 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. M.A. Clilverd, N.P. Meredith, R.B. Horne, S.A. Glauert, R.R. Anderson, N.R. Thomson, F.W. Menk, B.R. Sandel, Longitudinal and seasonal variations in plasmaspheric electron density: Implications for electron precipitation. J. Geophys. Res. 112, A11210 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. K.D. Cole, Formation of field-aligned irregularities in the magnetosphere. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 33, 741–750 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. P.D. Craven, D.L. Gallagher, R.H. Comfort, Relative concentration of He+ in the inner magnetosphere as observed by the DE 1 retarding ions mass spectrometer. J. Geophys. Res. 102(A2), 2279–2289 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. I. Dandouras, Detection of plasmaspheric wind by analysis of ion measurements obtained onboard the Cluster spacecraft. Geophys. Res. Abstr. 10, 5360 (2008) Google Scholar
  39. I. Dandouras, V. Pierrard, J. Goldstein, C. Vallat, G.K. Parks, H. Rème, C. Gouillart, F. Sevestre, M. McCarthy, L.M. Kistler, B. Klecker, A. Korth, M.B. Bavassano-Cattaneo, P. Escoubet, A. Masson, Multipoint observations of ionic structures in the plasmasphere by CLUSTER-CIS and comparisons with IMAGE-EUV observations and with model simulations, in Inner Magnetosphere Interactions: New Perspectives from Imaging, ed. by J. Burch, M. Schulz, H. Spence. Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 159 (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 2005), pp. 23–53 Google Scholar
  40. F. Darrouzet, Etude de la magnétosphère terrestre par l’analyse multipoint des données de la mission CLUSTER. Contributions à la caractérisation des frontières et de la magnétosphère interne. PhD thesis, University of Orléans, France, 2006 Google Scholar
  41. F. Darrouzet, P.M.E. Décréau, J. De Keyser, A. Masson, D.L. Gallagher, O. Santolík, B.R. Sandel, J.G. Trotignon, J.L. Rauch, E. Le Guirriec, P. Canu, F. Sedgemore, M. André, J.F. Lemaire, Density structures inside the plasmasphere: Cluster observations. Ann. Geophys. 22(7), 2577–2585 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. F. Darrouzet, J. De Keyser, P.M.E. Décréau, D.L. Gallagher, V. Pierrard, J.F. Lemaire, B.R. Sandel, I. Dandouras, H. Matsui, M. Dunlop, J. Cabrera, A. Masson, P. Canu, J.G. Trotignon, J.L. Rauch, M. André, Analysis of plasmaspheric plumes: CLUSTER and IMAGE observations. Ann. Geophys. 24(6), 1737–1758 (2006a) ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. F. Darrouzet, J. De Keyser, P.M.E. Décréau, J.F. Lemaire, M.W. Dunlop, Spatial gradients in the plasmasphere from Cluster. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L08105 (2006b) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. F. Darrouzet, J. De Keyser, P.M.E. Décréau, F. El Lemdani-Mazouz, X. Vallières, Statistical analysis of plasmaspheric plumes with CLUSTER/WHISPER observations. Ann. Geophys. 26(8), 2403–2417 (2008) ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. J. De Keyser, F. Darrouzet, M.W. Dunlop, P.M.E. Décréau, Least-squares gradient calculation from multi-point observations of scalar and vector fields: Methodology and applications with cluster in the plasmasphere. Ann. Geophys. 25(4), 971–987 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. J. De Keyser, D.L. Carpenter, F. Darrouzet, D.L. Gallagher, J. Tu, CLUSTER and IMAGE: New ways to study the Earth’s plasmasphere. Space Sci. Rev. (2008, this issue) Google Scholar
  47. P.M.E. Décréau, D. Carpenter, C.R. Chappell, R.H. Comfort, J. Green, R.C. Olsen, J.H. Waite Jr., Latitudinal plasma distribution in the dusk plasmaspheric bulge: Refilling phase and quasi-equilibrium state. J. Geophys. Res. 91(A6), 6929–6943 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. P.M.E. Décréau, P. Fergeau, V. Krasnosels’kikh, M. Lévêque, Ph. Martin, O. Randriamboarison, F.X. Sené, J.G. Trotignon, P. Canu, P.B. Mögensen, Whisper Investigators, WHISPER, a resonance sounder and wave analyser: Performances and perspectives for the Cluster mission. Space Sci. Rev. 79(1–2), 157–193 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. P.M.E. Décréau, P. Fergeau, V. Krasnosels’kikh, E. Le Guirriec, M. Lévêque, P. Martin, O. Randriamboarison, J.L. Rauch, F.X. Sené, H.C. Séran, J.G. Trotignon, P. Canu, N. Cornilleau, H. de Féraudy, H. Alleyne, K. Yearby, P.B. Mögensen, G. Gustafsson, M. André, D.A. Gurnett, F. Darrouzet, J. Lemaire, C.C. Harvey, P. Travnicek, Whisper experimenters, Early results from the Whisper instrument on Cluster: an overview. Ann. Geophys. 19(10–12), 1241–1258 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. P.M.E. Décréau, C. Ducoin, G. Le Rouzic, O. Randriamboarison, J.L. Rauch, X. Trotignon, J.G. Vallières, P. Canu, F. Darrouzet, M.P. Gough, A.M. Buckley, T.D. Carozzi, Observation of continuum radiations from the CLUSTER fleet: First results from direction finding. Ann. Geophys. 22(7), 2607–2624 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. P.M.E. Décréau, E. Le Guirriec, J.L. Rauch, J.G. Trotignon, P. Canu, F. Darrouzet, J. Lemaire, A. Masson, F. Sedgemore, M. André, Density irregularities in the plasmasphere boundary player: Cluster observations in the dusk sector. Adv. Space Res. 36(10), 1964–1969 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Z.C. Dent, I.R. Mann, F.W. Menk, J. Goldstein, C.R. Wilford, M.A. Clilverd, L.G. Ozeke, A coordinated ground-based and IMAGE satellite study of quiet-time plasmaspheric density profiles. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(12), 1600 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. R.E. Denton, Magneto-seismology using spacecraft observations, in Magnetospheric ULF Waves: Synthesis and New Directions, ed. by K. Takahashi, P.J. Chi, R.E. Denton, R.L. Lysak. Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 169 (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 2006), pp. 307–317 Google Scholar
  54. R.E. Denton, P. Décréau, M.J. Engebretson, F. Darrouzet, J.L. Posch, C. Mouikis, L.M. Kistler, C.A. Cattell, K. Takahashi, S. Schäfer, J. Goldstein, Field line distribution of density at L=4.8 inferred from observations by CLUSTER. Ann. Geophys. (2008, submitted) Google Scholar
  55. F. El-Lemdani Mazouz, J.L. Rauch, P.M.E. Décréau, J.G. Trotignon, X. Vallières, F. Darrouzet, P. Canu, X. Suraud, Wave emissions at half electron gyroharmonics in the equatorial plasmasphere region: CLUSTER observations and statistics. Adv. Space Res. (2008, in press) Google Scholar
  56. R.C. Elphic, L.A. Weiss, M.F. Thomsen, D.J. McComas, M.B. Moldwin, Evolution of plasmaspheric ions at geosynchronous orbit during times of high geomagnetic activity. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23(16), 2189–2192 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. C.P. Escoubet, C.T. Russell, R. Schmidt (eds.), The Cluster and Phoenix Missions (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1997) Google Scholar
  58. J.C. Foster, P.J. Erickson, A.J. Coster, J. Goldstein, F.J. Rich, Ionospheric signatures of plasmaspheric tails. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(13), 1623 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. J.C. Foster, A.J. Coster, P.J. Erickson, W. Rideout, F.J. Rich, T.J. Immel, B.R. Sandel, Redistribution of the stormtime ionosphere and the formation of the plasmaspheric bulge, in Inner Magnetosphere Interactions: New Perspectives from Imaging, ed. by J.L. Burch, M. Schulz, H. Spence. Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 159 (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 2005), pp. 277–289 Google Scholar
  60. B.J. Fraser, J.L. Horwitz, J.A. Slavin, Z.C. Dent, I.R. Mann, Heavy ion mass loading of the geomagnetic field near the plasmapause and ULF wave implications. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L04102 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. S.F. Fung, R.F. Benson, D.L. Carpenter, B.W. Reinisch, D.L. Gallagher, Investigations of irregularities in remote plasma regions by radio sounding: applications of the radio plasma imager on image. Space Sci. Rev. 91(1–2), 391–419 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. D.L. Gallagher, M.L. Adrian, Two-dimensional drift velocities from the IMAGE EUV plasmaspheric imager. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 69(3), 341–350 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. D.L. Gallagher, P.D. Craven, R.H. Confort, Global core plasma model. J. Geophys. Res. 105(A8), 18819–18833 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. D.L. Gallagher, M.L. Adrian, M.W. Liemohn, Origin and evolution of deep plasmaspheric notches. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A09201 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Y.I. Galperin, V.S. Soloviev, K. Torkar, J.C. Foster, M.V. Veselov, Predicting plasmaspheric radial density profiles. J. Geophys. Res. 102(A2), 2079–2091 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. D.A. Galvan, M.B. Moldwin, B.R. Sandel, Diurnal variation in plasmaspheric He+ inferred from extreme ultraviolet images. J. Geophys. Res. 113, A09216 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. L.N. Garcia, S.F. Fung, J.L. Green, S.A. Boardsen, B.R. Sandel, B.W. Reinisch, Observations of the latitudinal structure of plasmaspheric convection plumes by IMAGE-RPI and EUV. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A8), 1321 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. J. Goldstein, Plasmasphere response: Tutorial and review of recent imaging results. Space Sci. Rev. 124(1–4), 203–216 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. J. Goldstein, B.R. Sandel, The global pattern of evolution of plasmaspheric drainage plumes, in Inner Magnetosphere Interactions: New Perspectives from Imaging, ed. by J.L. Burch, M. Schulz, H. Spence. Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 159 (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 2005), pp. 1–22 Google Scholar
  70. J. Goldstein, R.W. Spiro, P.H. Reiff, R.A. Wolf, B.R. Sandel, J.W. Freeman, R.L. Lambour, IMF-driven overshielding electric field and the origin of the plasmaspheric shoulder of May 24, 2000. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(16), 1819 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. J. Goldstein, B.R. Sandel, W.T. Forrester, P.H. Reiff, IMF-driven plasmasphere erosion of 10 July 2000. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(3), 1146 (2003a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. J. Goldstein, M. Spasojević, P.H. Reiff, B.R. Sandel, W.T. Forrester, D.L. Gallagher, B.W. Reinisch, Identifying the plasmapause in IMAGE EUV data using IMAGE RPI in situ steep density gradients. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A4), 1147 (2003b) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. J. Goldstein, B.R. Sandel, M.R. Hairston, S.B. Mende, Plasmapause undulation of 17 April 2002. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L15801 (2004a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. J. Goldstein, B.R. Sandel, M.F. Thomsen, M. Spasojević, P.H. Reiff, Simultaneous remote sensing and in situ observations of plasmaspheric drainage plumes. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A03202 (2004b) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. J. Goldstein, J.L. Burch, B.R. Sandel, S.B. Mende, P.C. Brandt, M.R. Hairston, Coupled response of the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere on 17 April 2002. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A03205 (2005a) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. J. Goldstein, B.R. Sandel, W.T. Forrester, M.F. Thomsen, M.R. Hairston, Global plasmasphere evolution 22-23 April 2001. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A12218 (2005b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. J. Goldstein, B.R. Sandel, H.U. Frey, S.B. Mende, Multiple plasmapause undulations observed by the IMAGE satellite on 20 March 2001. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 69(3), 322–333 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. J.M. Grebowsky, Model study of plasmapause motion. J. Geophys. Res. 75(22), 4329–4333 (1970) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. J.L. Green, S. Boardsen, S.F. Fung, H. Matsumoto, K. Hashimoto, R.R. Anderson, B.R. Sandel, B.W. Reinisch, Association of kilometric continuum radiation with plasmaspheric structures. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A03203 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. R.S. Grew, F.W. Menk, M.A. Clilverd, B.R. Sandel, Mass and electron densities in the inner magnetosphere during a prolonged disturbed interval. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L02108 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. K.I. Gringauz, V.V. Bezrukikh, V.D. Ozerov, R.E. Rybechinsky, The study of the interplanetary ionized gas, high-energy electrons and corpuscular radiation of the Sun, employing threeelectrode charged particle traps on the second Soviet space rocket. Sov. Phys. Dokl. 5, 361–364 (1960). Published again in (1962) in Planet. Space Sci., 9, 103–107 ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. G. Gustafsson, M. André, T. Carozzi, A.I. Eriksson, C.G. Fälthammar, R. Grard, G. Holmgren, J.A. Holtet, N. Ivchenko, T. Karlsson, Y. Khotyaintsev, S. Klimov, H. Laakso, P.A. Lindqvist, B. Lybekk, G. Marklund, F. Mozer, K. Mursula, A. Pedersen, B. Popielawska, S. Savin, K. Stasiewicz, P. Tanskanen, A. Vaivads, J.E. Wahlund, First results of electric field and density observations by Cluster EFW based on initial months of observations. Ann. Geophys. 19(10–12), 1219–1240 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. A. Hasegawa, Drift-wave instability at the plasmapause. J. Geophys. Res. 76(22), 5361–5364 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. M. Hayakawa, Association of whistlers with lightning discharges on the Earth and on Jupiter. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 57(5), 525–535 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. R.A. Helliwell, Whistlers and Associated Ionospheric Phenomena (Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1965) Google Scholar
  86. T.W. Hill, Inertial limit on corotation. J. Geophys. Res. 84(A11), 6554–6558 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. J.L. Horwitz, R.H. Comfort, C.R. Chappell, A statistical characterization of plasmasphere density structure and boundary locations. J. Geophys. Res. 95(A6), 7937–7947 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. M.C. Kelley, The Earth’s Ionosphere: Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics (Academic Press, San Diego, 1989) Google Scholar
  89. K.H. Kim, J. Goldstein, D. Berube, Plasmaspheric drainage plume observed by the Polar satellite in the prenoon sector and the IMAGE satellite during the magnetic storm of 11 April 2001. J. Geophys. Res. 112, A06237 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. H.C. Koons, Observations of large-amplitude, Whistler mode wave ducts in the outer plasmasphere. J. Geophys. Res. 94(A11), 15393–15397 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. J. Krall, J.D. Huba, J.A. Fedder, Simulation of H+ and He+ dynamics during plasmasphere refilling. Eos Trans. AGU 88(52), SM21A–0303 (2007) Google Scholar
  92. R.L. Lambour, L.A. Weiss, R.C. Elphic, M.F. Thomsen, Global modeling of the plasmasphere following storm sudden commencements. J. Geophys. Res. 102(A11), 24351–24368 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. M.J. LeDocq, D.A. Gurnett, R.R. Anderson, Electron Number Density Fluctuations near the Plasmapause Observed by the CRRES Spacecraft. J. Geophys. Res. 99(A12), 23661–23671 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. J.F. Lemaire, The “Roche-limit” of ionospheric plasma and the formation of the plasmapause. Planet. Space Sci. 22(5), 757–766 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. J.F. Lemaire, The mechanisms of formation of the plasmapause. Ann. Geophys. 31, 175–190 (1975) Google Scholar
  96. J.F. Lemaire, Frontiers of the Plasmasphere. Aeronomica Acta, vol. 298. (Editions Cabay, Louvain–la–Neuve, 1985). ISBN 2-87077-310-2 Google Scholar
  97. J.F. Lemaire, Plasma distribution models in a rotating magnetic dipole and refilling plasmaspheric flux tubes. Phys. Fluids B 1(7), 1519–1525 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. J.F. Lemaire, The formation plasmaspheric tails. Phys. Chem. Earth (C) 25, 9–17 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. J.F. Lemaire, The formation of the light-ion-trough and peeling off the plasmasphere. J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 63(11), 1285–1291 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. J.F. Lemaire, K.I. Gringauz, The Earth’s Plasmasphere (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1998) Google Scholar
  101. J.F. Lemaire, R.W. Schunk, Plasmaspheric wind. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 54(3–4), 467–477 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. J.F. Lemaire, R.W. Schunk, Plasmaspheric convection with non-closed streamlines. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 56(12), 1629–1633 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. B.T. Loftus, T.E. Van Zandt, W. Calvert, Observations of conjugate ducting by the fixed-frequency topside-sounder satellite. Ann. Geophys. 22(4), 530–537 (1966) Google Scholar
  104. A. Masson, O. Santolík, D.L. Carpenter, F. Darrouzet, P.M.E. Décréau, F. El-Lemdani Mazouz, J.L. Green, S. Grimald, F. El-Lemdani Mazouz, M.B. Moldwin, F. Němec, Advances in Plasmaspheric Wave Research with CLUSTER and IMAGE Observations. Space Sci. Rev. (2008). This issue Google Scholar
  105. C.E. McIlwain, Coordinates for Mapping the Distribution of Magnetically Trapped Particles. J. Geophys. Res. 66(11), 3681–3691 (1961) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. E.V. Mishin, W.J. Burke, Stormtime coupling of the ring current, plasmasphere, and topside ionosphere: Electromagnetic and plasma disturbances. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A07209 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. M.B. Moldwin, M.F. Thomsen, S.J. Bame, D.J. McComas, K.R. Moore, An examination of the structure and dynamics of the outer plasmasphere using multiple geosynchronous satellites. J. Geophys. Res. 99(A6), 11475–11481 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. M.B. Moldwin, M.F. Thomsen, S.J. Bame, D. McComas, G.D. Reeves, The fine-scale structure of the outer plasmasphere. J. Geophys. Res. 100(A5), 8021–8029 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. M.B. Moldwin, J. Howard, J. Sanny, J.D. Bocchicchio, H.K. Rassoul, R.R. Anderson, Plasmaspheric plumes: CRRES observations of enhanced density beyond the plasmapause. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A05202 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. D.B. Muldrew, Radio propagation along magnetic field-aligned sheets of ionization observed by the Alouette topside sounder. J. Geophys. Res. 68(19), 5355–5370 (1963) ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. G. Murakami, M. Hirai, I. Yoshikawa, The plasmapause response to the southward turning of the IMF derived from sequential EUV images. J. Geophys. Res. 112, A06217 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. A. Nishida, Formation of plasmapause, or magnetospheric plasma knee, by the combined action of magnetospheric convection and plasma escape from the tail. J. Geophys. Res. 71(23), 5669–5679 (1966) ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. P.A. Nsumei, X. Huang, B.W. Reinisch, P. Song, V.M. Vasyliunas, J.L. Green, S.F. Fung, R.F. Benson, D.L. Gallagher, Electron density distribution over the northern polar region deduced from IMAGE/radio plasma imager sounding. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A2), 1078 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. P.A. Nsumei, B.W. Reinisch, P. Song, J. Tu, X. Huang, Polar cap electron density distribution from IMAGE radio plasma imager measurements: Empirical model with the effects of solar illumination and geomagnetic activity. J. Geophys. Res. 113, A01217 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. D.M. Ober, J.L. Horwitz, M.F. Thomsen, R.C. Elphic, D.J. McComas, R.D. Belian, M.B. Moldwin, Premidnight plasmaspheric “plumes”. J. Geophys. Res. 102(A6), 11325–11334 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. C.G. Park, Whistler observations of the interchange of ionization between the ionosphere and the protonosphere. J. Geophys. Res. 75(22), 4249–4260 (1970) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. C.G. Park, D.L. Carpenter, Whistler evidence of large-scale electron-density irregularities in the plasmasphere. J. Geophys. Res. 75(19), 3825–3836 (1970) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. C.G. Park, R.A. Helliwell, The formation by electric fields of field-aligned irregularities in the magnetosphere. Radio Sci. 6(6), 299–304 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. G. Paschmann, J.M. Quinn, R.B. Torbert, H. Vaith, C.E. McIlwain, G. Haerendel, O.H. Bauer, T. Bauer, W. Baumjohann, W. Fillius, M. Förster, S. Frey, E. Georgescu, S.S. Kerr, C.A. Kletzing, H. Matsui, P. Puhl-Quinn, E.C. Whipple, The electron drift instrument on cluster: Overview of first results. Ann. Geophys. 19(10–12), 1273–1288 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. V. Pierrard, J. Cabrera, Comparisons between EUV/IMAGE observations and numerical simulations of the plasmapause formation. Ann. Geophys. 23(7), 2635–2646 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. V. Pierrard, J.F. Lemaire, Development of shoulders and plumes in the frame of the interchange instability mechanism for plasmapause formation. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L05809 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. V. Pierrard, J. Goldstein, N. André, V.K. Jordanova, G.A. Kotova, J.F. Lemaire, M.W. Liemohn, H. Matsui, Physics-based models of the plasmasphere. Space Sci. Rev. (2008, this issue) Google Scholar
  123. I.G. Platt, P.L. Dyson, MF and HF propagation characteristics of ionospheric ducts. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 51, 759–774 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. B.W. Reinisch, D.M. Haines, K. Bibl, G. Cheney, I.A. Galkin, X. Huang, S.H. Myers, G.S. Sales, R.F. Benson, S.F. Fung, J.L. Green, S. Boardsen, W.W.L. Taylor, J.L. Bougeret, R. Manning, N. Meyer-Vernet, M. Moncuquet, D.L. Carpenter, D.L. Gallagher, P. Reiff, The Radio Plasma Imager Investigation on the IMAGE Spacecraft. Space Sci. Rev. 91(1–2), 319–359 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, P. Song, G.S. Sales, S.F. Fung, J.L. Green, D.L. Gallagher, V.M. Vasyliunas, Plasma density distribution along the magnetospheric field: RPI observations from IMAGE. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(24), 4521–4524 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, P. Song, J.L. Green, S.F. Fung, V.M. Vasyliunas, D.L. Gallagher, B.R. Sandel, Plasmaspheric mass loss and refilling as a result of a magnetic storm. J. Geophys. Res. 109, A01202 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. H. Rème, C. Aoustin, J.M. Bosqued, I. Dandouras, B. Lavraud, J.A. Sauvaud, A. Barthe, J. Bouyssou, Th. Camus, O. Coeur-Joly, A. Cros, J. Cuvilo, F. Ducay, Y. Garbarowitz, J.L. Médale, E. Penou, H. Perrier, D. Romefort, J. Rouzaud, C. Vallat, D. Alcaydé, C. Jacquey, C. Mazelle, C. d’Uston, E. Möbius, L.M. Kistler, K. Crocker, M. Granoff, C. Mouikis, M. Popecki, M. Vosbury, B. Klecker, D. Hovestadt, H. Kucharek, E. Kuenneth, G. Paschmann, M. Scholer, N. Sckopke, E. Seidenschwang, C.W. Carlson, D.W. Curtis, C. Ingraham, R.P. Lin, J.P. McFadden, G.K. Parks, T. Phan, V. Formisano, E. Amata, M.B. Bavassano-Cattaneo, P. Baldetti, R. Bruno, G. Chionchio, A. Di Lellis, M.F. Marcucci, G. Pallocchia, A. Korth, P.W. Daly, B. Graeve, H. Rosenbauer, V. Vasyliunas, M. McCarthy, M. Wilber, L. Eliasson, R. Lundin, S. Olsen, E.G. Shelley, S. Fuselier, A.G. Ghielmetti, W. Lennartsson, C.P. Escoubet, H. Balsiger, R. Friedel, J.-B. Cao, R.A. Kovrazhkin, I. Papamastorakis, R. Pellat, J. Scudder, B. Sonnerup, First multi-spacecraft ion measurements in and near the Earth’s magnetosphere with the identical Cluster Ion Spectrometry (CIS) experiment. Ann. Geophys. 19(10–12), 1303–1354 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. M.A. Reynolds, G. Ganguli, Y.-J. Su, M.F. Thomsen, The local-time variation of the quiet plasmasphere: Geosynchronous observations and kinetic theory. Ann. Geophys. 21(11), 2147–2154 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. A.D. Richmond, Self-induced motions of thermal plasma in the magnetosphere and the stability of the plasmapause. Radio Sci. 8(11), 1019–1027 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. B.R. Sandel, M.H. Denton, Global view of refilling of the plasmasphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L17102 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. B.R. Sandel, A.L. Broadfoot, C.C. Curtis, R.A. King, T.C. Stone, R.H. Hill, J. Chen, O.H.W. Siegmund, R. Raffanti, D.D. Allred, R.S. Turley, D.L. Gallagher, The extreme ultraviolet imager investigation for the IMAGE mission. Space Sci. Rev. 91(1–2), 197–242 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. B.R. Sandel, R.A. King, W.T. Forrester, D.L. Gallagher, A.L. Broadfoot, C.C. Curtis, Initial results from the IMAGE extreme ultraviolet imager. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(8), 1439–1442 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. B.R. Sandel, J. Goldstein, D.L. Gallagher, M. Spasojević, Extreme ultraviolet imager observations of the structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere. Space Sci. Rev. 109(1–4), 25–46 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. N. Singh, Refilling of a plasmaspheric flux tube: microscopic plasma processes, in Modeling Magnetospheric Plasma, ed. by T.E. Moore, J.H. Waite. Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 44 (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 1988), pp. 87–99 Google Scholar
  135. N. Singh, J.L. Horwitz, Plasmaspheric refilling: Recent observations and modelling. J. Geophys. Res. 97(A2), 1049–1079 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. R.L. Smith, Propagation characteristics of whistlers trapped in field-aligned columns of enhanced ionization. J. Geophys. Res. 66(11), 3699–3707 (1961) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. M. Spasojević, J. Goldstein, D.L. Carpenter, U.S. Inan, B.R. Sandel, M.B. Moldwin, B.W. Reinisch, Global response of the plasmasphere to a geomagnetic disturbance. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A9), 1340 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. M. Spasojević, H.U. Frey, M.F. Thomsen, S.A. Fuselier, S.P. Gary, B.R. Sandel, U.S. Inan, The link between a detached subauroral proton arc and a plasmaspheric plume. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04803 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. R.W. Spiro, M. Harel, R.A. Wolf, P.H. Reiff, Quantitative simulation of a magnetospheric substorm. 3. Plasmaspheric electric fields and evolution of the plasmapause. J. Geophys. Res. 86(A4), 2261–2272 (1981) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. L.R.O. Storey, An investigation of whistling atmospherics. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. (Lond.) 246A, 113–141 (1953) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. H.J. Strangeways, M.J. Rycroft, Trapping of whistler-waves through the side of ducts. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 42, 983–994 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Y. Su, M.F. Thomsen, J.E. Borovsky, J.C. Foster, A linkage between polar patches and plasmaspheric drainage plumes. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(1), 111–113 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. D. Summers, B. Ni, N.P. Meredith, R.B. Horne, R.M. Thorne, M.B. Moldwin, R.R. Anderson, Electron scattering by whistler-mode ELF hiss in plasmaspheric plumes, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A04219 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. G. Tarcsai, Ionosphere-plasmasphere electron fluxes at middle latitudes obtained from whistlers. Adv. Space Res. 5(4), 155–158 (1985) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. H.A. Taylor Jr., J.M. Grebowsky, W.J. Walsh, Structured variations of the plasmapause: Evidence of a corotating plasma tail. J. Geophys. Res. 76(28), 6806–6814 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. R.J. Thomson, The formation and lifetime of whistler ducts. Planet. Space Sci. 26(5), 423–430 (1978) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. J.G. Trotignon, P.M.E. Décréau, J.L. Rauch, E. Le Guirriec, P. Canu, F. Darrouzet, The whisper relaxation sounder onboard cluster: A powerful tool for space plasma diagnosis around the Earth. Cosm. Res. 41(4), 369–372 (2003) Google Scholar
  148. N.A. Tsyganenko, D.P. Stern, Modeling the global magnetic field of the large-scale Birkeland current systems. J. Geophys. Res. 101(A12), 27187–27198 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. J. Tu, P. Song, B.W. Reinisch, X. Huang, J.L. Green, H.U. Frey, P.H. Reiff, Electron density images of the middle- and high-latitude magnetosphere in response to the solar wind. J. Geophys. Res. 110, A12210 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. J. Tu, P. Song, B.W. Reinisch, J.L. Green, X. Huang, Empirical specification of field-aligned plasma density profiles for plasmasphere refilling. J. Geophys. Res. 111, A06216 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. J. Tu, P. Song, B.W. Reinisch, J.L. Green, Smooth electron density transition from plasmasphere to the subauroral region. J. Geophys. Res. 112, A05227 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. C.L. Waters, F.W. Menk, M.F. Thomsen, C. Foster, F.R. Fenrich, Remote sensing of the magnetosphere using ground-based observations of ULF waves, in Magnetospheric ULF Waves: Synthesis and New Directions, ed. by K. Takahashi, P.J. Chi, R.E. Denton, R.L. Lysak. Geophysical Monograph Series, vol. 169 (American Geophysical Union, Washington, 2006), pp. 319–340 Google Scholar
  153. G.R. Wilson, J.L. Horwitz, J. Lin, A semikinetic model for early stage plasmasphere refilling. 1. Effects of coulomb collisions. J. Geophys. Res. 97(A2), 1109–1119 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. E. Yizengaw, M.B. Moldwin, The altitude extension of the mid-latitude trough and its correlation with plasmapause position. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L09105 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. E. Yizengaw, H. Wei, M.B. Moldwin, D. Galvan, L. Mandrake, A. Mannucci, X. Pi, The correlation between mid-latitude trough and the plasmapause. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L10102 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. E. Yizengaw, M.B. Moldwin, D.A. Galvan, Ionospheric signatures of a plasmaspheric plume over Europe. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L17103 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. E. Yizengaw, J. Dewar, J. MacNeil, M.B. Moldwin, D. Galvan, J. Sanny, D. Berube, B. Sandel, The occurrence of ionospheric signatures of plasmaspheric plumes over different longitudinal sectors. J. Geophys. Res. 113, A08318 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. I. Yoshikawa, A. Yamazaki, K. Yamashita, Y. Takizawa, M. Nakamura, Which is a significant contributor for outside of the plasmapause, an ionospheric filling or leakage of plasmaspheric materials?: Comparison of He II (304 Å) images. J. Geophys. Res. 108(A2), 1080 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabien Darrouzet
    • 1
  • Dennis L. Gallagher
    • 2
  • Nicolas André
    • 3
  • Donald L. Carpenter
    • 4
  • Iannis Dandouras
    • 5
  • Pierrette M. E. Décréau
    • 6
  • Johan De Keyser
    • 1
  • Richard E. Denton
    • 7
  • John C. Foster
    • 8
  • Jerry Goldstein
    • 9
  • Mark B. Moldwin
    • 10
  • Bodo W. Reinisch
    • 11
  • Bill R. Sandel
    • 12
  • Jiannan Tu
    • 11
  1. 1.Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (IASB-BIRA)BrusselsBelgium
  2. 2.Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)NASAHuntsvilleUSA
  3. 3.Research and Scientific Support Department (RSSD)ESANoordwijkThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Space, Telecommunications and Radioscience Laboratory (STAR)Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  5. 5.Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (CESR)CNRS/Université de ToulouseToulouseFrance
  6. 6.Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l’Environnement (LPCE)CNRS/Université d’OrléansOrléansFrance
  7. 7.Physics and Astronomy DepartmentDartmouth CollegeHanoverUSA
  8. 8.Haystack ObservatoryMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)WestfordUSA
  9. 9.Southwest Research Institute (SwRI)San AntonioUSA
  10. 10.Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP)University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  11. 11.Center for Atmospheric ResearchUniversity of Massachusetts-Lowell (UML)LowellUSA
  12. 12.Lunar and Planetary Laboratory (LPL)University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations