Space Science Reviews

, Volume 139, Issue 1–4, pp 399–436 | Cite as

Atmospheric Escape and Evolution of Terrestrial Planets and Satellites

  • Helmut Lammer
  • James F. Kasting
  • Eric Chassefière
  • Robert E. Johnson
  • Yuri N. Kulikov
  • Feng Tian
Article

Abstract

The origin and evolution of Venus’, Earth’s, Mars’ and Titan’s atmospheres are discussed from the time when the active young Sun arrived at the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence. We show that the high EUV flux of the young Sun, depending on the thermospheric composition, the amount of IR-coolers and the mass and size of the planet, could have been responsible that hydrostatic equilibrium was not always maintained and hydrodynamic flow and expansion of the upper atmosphere resulting in adiabatic cooling of the exobase temperature could develop. Furthermore, thermal and various nonthermal atmospheric escape processes influenced the evolution and isotope fractionation of the atmospheres and water inventories of the terrestrial planets and Saturn’s large satellite Titan efficiently.

Keywords

Atmosphere evolution Young Sun/stars Isotope anomalies Escape Magnetic protection Terrestrial planets 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut Lammer
    • 1
  • James F. Kasting
    • 2
  • Eric Chassefière
    • 3
  • Robert E. Johnson
    • 4
  • Yuri N. Kulikov
    • 5
  • Feng Tian
    • 6
  1. 1.Space Research InstituteAustrian Academy of SciencesGrazAustria
  2. 2.Department of GeosciencesPenn State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.SA/IPSL Université P. & M. CurieParis Cedex 05France
  4. 4.Engineering PhysicsUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  5. 5.Polar Geophysical Institute (PGI)Russian Academy of SciencesMurmanskRussia
  6. 6.National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)High Altitude Observatory (HAO)BoulderUSA

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