Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Distributed Sources in Comets

  • 138 Accesses

  • 41 Citations

Abstract

The distribution of some molecules and radicals (H2CO, CO, HNC, CN, …) in the atmosphere of several comets cannot be explained only by a direct sublimation from the nucleus, or by gas phase processes in the coma. Such molecules are in part the result of a distributed source in the coma, which could be the photo and thermal degradation of dust. We present a review of the degradation processes and discuss possible interpretations of the observations in which the degradation of solid complex organic material in dust particles seems to play a major role. The knowledge of such gas production mechanisms provides important clues on the chemical nature of the refractory organic material contained in comet nuclei.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. M.F. A’Hearn, S. Hoban, P.V. Birch, C. Bowers, R. Martin, D.A. Klinglesmith, Nature 324, 649–651 (1986). doi:10.1038/324649a0

  2. M. Ballauff, S. Rosenfeldt, N. Dingenouts, J. Beck, P. Krieger-Beck, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 43(43), 5843–5846 (2004). doi:10.1002/anie.200460263

  3. M.P. Bernstein, S.A. Sandford, L.J. Allamandola, S. Chang, M.A. Scharberg, Astrophys. J. 454, 327–344 (1995). doi:10.1086/176485

  4. L. Biermann, NASA STI/Recon technical report N 77, 22023 (1976)

  5. N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, J.K. Davies, H.E. Matthews, J.E. Wink et al., Astron. J. 118, 1850–1872 (1999). doi:10.1086/301033

  6. N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, F. Henry, J.K. Davies, H.E. Matthews et al., Astron. J. 120, 1554–1570 (2000). doi:10.1086/301529

  7. N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, P. Colom, J. Crovisier, F. Henry, E. Lellouch et al., Earth Moon Planets 90, 5–14 (2002a). doi:10.1023/A:1021599915018

  8. N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, P. Colom, F. Henry, R. Moreno et al., Earth Moon Planets 90, 323–333 (2002b). doi:10.1023/A:1021530316352

  9. N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, D.C. Lis, R. Moreno, P. Colom et al., Astron. Astrophys. 449, 1255–1270 (2006). doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053849

  10. A.R. Blake, A.F. Hyde, Trans. Faraday Soc. 60, 1775–1782 (1964). doi:10.1039/tf9646001775

  11. D. Bockelee-Morvan, J. Crovisier, Astron. Astrophys. 151, 90–100 (1985)

  12. D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, P. Colom, D. Despois, Astron. Astrophys. 287(2), 647–665 (1994)

  13. D. Bockelée-Morvan, H. Rickman, Earth Moon Planets 79, 55–77 (1997). doi:10.1023/A:1006225030955

  14. D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, Earth Moon Planets 89, 53–71 (2000). doi:10.1023/A:1021530016410

  15. D. Bockelée-Morvan, D.C. Lis, J.E. Wink, D. Despois, J. Crovisier et al., Astron. Astrophys. 353, 1101–1114 (2000)

  16. D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, M.J. Mumma, H.A. Weaver, in Comets II, ed. by M. Festou, H.U. Keller, H.A. Weaver (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2004), p. 391

  17. D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, E. Jehin, A.L. Cochran, H. Wiesemeyer, J. Manfroid et al., Astrophys. J. 679, L49–L52 (2008). doi:10.1086/588781

  18. D.C. Boice, D.W. Naegeli, W.F. Huebner, Physics and mechanics of cometary materials. ESA SP 302, 83–88 (1989)

  19. D.C. Boice, W.F. Huebner, M.J. Sablik, I. Konno, Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1813–1816 (1990). doi:10.1029/GL017i011p01813

  20. J. Boissier, D. Bockelee-Morvan, N. Biver, J. Crovisier, D. Despois, B.G. Marsden et al., Astron. Astrophys. 475, 1131–1144 (2007). doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078380

  21. T.Y. Brooke, H.A. Weaver, G. Chin, D. Bockelée-Morvan, S.J. Kim, L.H. Xu, Icarus 166, 167–187 (2003). doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2003.08.008

  22. D. Brownlee, P. Tsou, Aléon et al., Science 314, 1711–1716 (2006). doi:10.1126/science.1135840 Medline

  23. J.R. Brucato, A.C. Castorina, M.E. Palumbo, M.A. Satorre, G. Strazzulla, Planet. Space Sci. 45(7), 835–840 (1997). doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(97)00071-8

  24. M.V. Canaves, A.A. De Almeida, D.C. Boice, G.C. Sanzovo, Earth Moon Planets 90, 335–347 (2002). doi:10.1023/A:1021582300423

  25. M.V. Canaves, A.A. de Almeida, D.C. Boice, G.C. Sanzovo, Adv. Space Res. 39, 451–457 (2007). doi:10.1016/j.asr.2006.09.040

  26. L. Colangeli, J.R. Brucato, A. Bar-Nun, R.L. Hudson, M.H. Moore, in Comets II, ed. by M. Festou, H.U. Keller, H.A. Weaver (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2004), pp. 695–717

  27. P. Colom, J. Crovisier, D. Bockelee-Morvan, D. Despois, G. Paubert, Astron. Astrophys. 264, 270–281 (1992)

  28. M.R. Combi, A.H. Delsemme, Astrophys. J. 237, 633–640 (1980). doi:10.1086/157909

  29. M.R. Combi, U. Fink, Astrophys. J. 484, 879–890 (1997). doi:10.1086/304349

  30. M.R. Combi, W.M. Harris, W.H. Smyth, in Comets II, ed. by M. Festou, H.U. Keller, H.A. Weaver (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2004), pp. 523–552

  31. H. Cottin, M.C. Gazeau, J.F. Doussin, F. Raulin, Phys. Chem. Earth 24, 597–602 (1999)

  32. H. Cottin, M.-C. Gazeau, J.-F. Doussin, F. Raulin, J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 135(1), 53–64 (2000). doi:10.1016/S1010-6030(00)00274-4

  33. H. Cottin, C. Szopa, M.H. Moore, Astrophys. J. Lett. 561(1), L139–L142 (2001). doi:10.1086/324575

  34. H. Cottin, S. Bachir, F. Raulin, M.C. Gazeau, Adv. Space Res. 30(6), 1481–1488 (2002). doi:10.1016/S0273-1177(02)00508-2

  35. H. Cottin, Y. Bénilan, M.-C. Gazeau, F. Raulin, Icarus 167, 397–416 (2004). doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2003.10.009

  36. J. Crovisier, T. Encrenaz, M. Combes, Nature 353, 610 (1991). doi:10.1038/353610a0 Medline

  37. J. Crovisier, J. Geophys. Res. 99(E2), 3777–3781 (1994). doi:10.1029/93JE02088

  38. N. Dello Russo, M.A. Disanti, M.J. Mumma, K. Magee-Sauer, T.W. Rettig, Icarus 135, 377–388 (1998). doi:10.1006/icar.1998.5990

  39. D. Despois, H. Cottin, in Lectures in Astrobiology, ed. by M. Gargaud, B. Barbier, H. Martin, J. Reisse (Springer, Berlin, 2005), pp. 289–352

  40. M.A. Disanti, M.J. Mumma, N. dello Russo, K. Magee-Sauer, R. Novak, T.W. Rettig, Nature 399, 662 (1999). doi:10.1038/21378 Medline

  41. M.A. Disanti, M.J. Mumma, N. Dello Russo, K. Magee-Sauer, Icarus 153, 361–390 (2001). doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6695

  42. M.A. DiSanti, M.J. Mumma, N. Dello Russo, K. Magee-Sauer, D.M. Griep, J. Geophys. Res. Planets 108f, 15–11 (2003)

  43. P. Eberhardt, D. Krankowsky, Schulte et al., Astron. Astrophys. 187, 481–484 (1987)

  44. P. Eberhardt, Space Sci. Rev. 90(1/2), 45–52 (1999). doi:10.1023/A:1005221309219

  45. M.C. Festou, Space Sci. Rev. 90, 53–67 (1999). doi:10.1023/A:1005225426057

  46. M.C. Festou, H.U. Keller, H.A. Weaver, Comets II (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2004)

  47. N. Fray, PhD thesis. Université Paris 12 (2004)

  48. N. Fray, Y. Bénilan, H. Cottin, M.-C. Gazeau, J. Geophys. Res. Planets 109, E07S12 (2004a). doi:10.1029/2003JE002191

  49. N. Fray, Y. Bénilan, H. Cottin, M.-C. Gazeau, R.D. Minard, F. Raulin, Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 39, 4 (2004b)

  50. N. Fray, Y. Bénilan, H. Cottin, M.C. Gazeau, J. Crovisier, Planet. Space Sci. 53, 1243–1262 (2005). doi:10.1016/j.pss.2005.06.005

  51. N. Fray, Y. Bénilan, N. Biver, D. Bockelée-Morvan, H. Cottin, J. Crovisier et al., Icarus 184(1), 239–254 (2006). doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.04.014

  52. P.A. Gerakines, M.H. Moore, Icarus 154(2), 372–380 (2001). doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6711

  53. P.A. Gerakines, M.H. Moore, R.L. Hudson, Icarus 170, 202–213 (2004). doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.02.005

  54. J.M. Greenberg, in Comets, ed. by L.L. Wilkening (University of Arizona Press, Tuscon, 1982), pp. 131–163

  55. M. Gunnarsson, H. Rickman, M.C. Festou, A. Winnberg, G. Tancredi, Icarus 157, 309–322 (2002). doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6839

  56. M. Gunnarsson, D. Bockelée-Morvan, A. Winnberg et al., Astron. Astrophys. 402, 383–393 (2003) doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20030178

  57. M. Gunnarsson, D. Bockelée-Morvan, N. Biver, J. Crovisier, H. Rickman, Astron. Astrophys. 484, 537–546 (2008)

  58. L. Haser, Bulletin de l’académie royale de Belgique 43, 740–750 (1957)

  59. J. Helbert, H. Rauer, D.C. Boice, W.F. Huebner, Astron. Astrophys. 442, 1107–1120 (2005). doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041571

  60. F. Henry, D. Bockelée-Morvan, J. Crovisier, J. Wink, Earth Moon Planets 90, 57–60 (2002). doi:10.1023/A:1021508216836

  61. W.F. Huebner, Science 237(August), 628–630 (1987). doi:10.1126/science.237.4815.628 Medline

  62. W.F. Huebner, J.J. Keady, S.P. Lyon, Astrophys. Space Sci. 195, 1–294 (1992). doi:10.1007/BF00644558

  63. W.T. Huntress Jr., M. Allen, M. Delitsky, Nature 352, 316–318 (1991). doi:10.1038/352316a0

  64. D. Hutsemékers, J. Manfroid, E. Jehin, C. Arpigny, A. Cochran, R. Schulz et al., Astron. Astrophys. 440, L21–L24 (2005). doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200500160

  65. W.H. Ip, in Comets II, ed. by M. Festou, H.U. Keller, H.A. Weaver (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2004), pp. 605–629

  66. W. Irvine, D. Bockelee-Morvan, Lis et al., Nature 382, 418–420 (1996). doi:10.1038/383418a0

  67. W.M. Irvine, E.A. Bergin, J.E. Dickens, D. Jewitt, A.J. Lovell, H.E. Matthews et al., Nature 393, 547 (1998a). doi:10.1038/31171 Medline

  68. W.M. Irvine, J.E. Dickens, A.J. Lovell, F.P. Schloerb, M. Senay, E.A. Bergin et al., Faraday Discuss. 109, 475–492 (1998b). doi:10.1039/a709289j Medline

  69. W.M. Irvine, M. Senay, A.J. Lovell, H.E. Matthews, D. McGonagle, R. Meier, Icarus 143(2), 412–414 (2000). doi:10.1006/icar.1999.6281 Medline

  70. W.M. Irvine, P. Bergman, T.B. Lowe, H. Matthews, D. McGonagle, A. Nummelin et al., Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 33, 609–619 (2003). doi:10.1023/A:1025791101127 Medline

  71. W.M. Jackson, A. Scodinu, D. Xu, A.L. Cochran, Astrophys. J. 607, L139–L141 (2004). doi:10.1086/421995

  72. D.C. Jewitt, H.E. Matthews, T. Owen, R. Meier, Science 278, 90–93 (1997). doi:10.1126/science.278.5335.90 Medline

  73. L.P. Keller, S. Bajt, G.A. Baratta et al., Science 314, 1728–1731 (2006). doi:10.1126/science.1135796 Medline

  74. J. Kissel, F.R. Krueger, J. Silén, B.C. Clark, Science 304, 1774–1776 (2004). doi:10.1126/science.1098836 Medline

  75. J. Kissel, F.R. Krueger, Nature 326, 755–760 (1987). doi:10.1038/326755a0

  76. P.L. Lamy, J.-M. Perrin, Icarus 76, 100–109 (1988). doi:10.1016/0019-1035(88)90142-X

  77. R. Meier, P. Eberhardt, D. Krankowsky, R.R. Hodges, Astron. Astrophys. 277, 677–690 (1993)

  78. J. Michal, Fire Mater. 6(1), 13–15 (1982). doi:10.1002/fam.810060105

  79. S.N. Milam, A.J. Remijan, Womack et al., Astrophys. J. 649, 1169–1177 (2006). doi:10.1086/506501

  80. R.D. Minard, P.G. Hatcher, R.C. Gourley, C.N. Matthews, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 28, 461–473 (1998). doi:10.1023/A:1006566125815 Medline

  81. D.L. Mitchell, R.P. Lin, C.W. Carlson, A. Korth, H. Reme, D.A. Mendis, Icarus 98, 125–133 (1992). doi:10.1016/0019-1035(92)90213-Q

  82. G.M. Muñoz Caro, U. Meierhenrich, W.A. Schutte, W.H.-P. Thiemann, J.M. Greenberg, Astron. Astrophys. 413, 209–216 (2004). doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20031447

  83. T.W. Rettig, S.C. Tegler, D.J. Pasto, M.J. Mumma, Astrophys. J. 398, 293–298 (1992). doi:10.1086/171857

  84. S.D. Rodgers, S.B. Charnley, Astrophysical J. Lett. 501(2), L227–L230 (1998). doi:10.1086/311459

  85. S.D. Rodgers, S.B. Charnley, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 323(1), 84–92 (2001). doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04099.x

  86. S.D. Rodgers, S.B. Charnley, W.F. Huebner, D.C. Boice, in Comets II, ed. by M. Festou, H.U. Keller, H.A. Weaver (University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 2004), pp. 505–522

  87. S.D. Rodgers, S.B. Charnley, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 356(4), 1542–1548 (2005). doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08606.x

  88. S.A. Sandford, J. Aléon, C.M.O.D. Alexander et al., Science 314, 1720 (2006)

  89. J. Schmedt auf der Günne, J. Beck, W. Hoffbauer, P. Krieger-Beck, Chem. Eur. J. 11, 4429–4440 (2005). doi:10.1002/chem.200401133

  90. W.A. Schutte, L.J. Allamandola, S.A. Sandford, Icarus 104, 118–137 (1993). doi:10.1006/icar.1993.1087 Medline

  91. R.N. Smith, D.A. Young, E.N. Smith, C.C. Carter, Inorg. Chem. 2(4), 829–838 (1963). doi:10.1021/ic50008a041

  92. N. Thomas, D.C. Boice, W.F. Huebner, H.U. Keller, Intensity profiles of dust near extended sources on comet Halley. Nature 332(6159), 51–52 (1988) doi:10.1038/332051a0

  93. H.A. Weaver, P.D. Feldman, J.B. McPhate, M.F. A’Hearn, C. Arpigny, T.A. Smith, Astrophys. J. 422, 374–380 (1994). doi:10.1086/173732

  94. H.A. Weaver, T.Y. Brooke, G. Chin, S.J. Kim, D. Bockelée-Morvan, J.K. Davies, Earth Moon Planets 78, 71–80 (1997). doi:10.1023/A:1006227530238

  95. J. Wink, D. Bockelée-Morvan, D. Despois, P. Colom, N. Biver, J. Crovisier et al., Earth Moon Planets 78, 63–63 (1997). doi:10.1023/A:1006263026604

  96. M. Womack, M.C. Festou, S.A. Stern, Astron. J. 114, 2789–2796 (1997). doi:10.1086/118687

  97. T.J. Xue, M.A. McKinney, C.A. Wilkie, Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 58(1–2), 193–202 (1997). doi:10.1016/S0141-3910(97)00048-7

  98. L.M. Ziurys, C. Savage, M.A. Brewster, A.J. Apponi, T.C. Pesch, Wyckoff, Astrophys. J. Lett. 527(1), L67–L71 (1999). doi:10.1086/312388

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Hervé Cottin.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Cottin, H., Fray, N. Distributed Sources in Comets. Space Sci Rev 138, 179–197 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-008-9399-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Comets
  • Distributed source
  • Extended source
  • Composition
  • Organic chemistry
  • Modelling