Space Science Reviews

, 139:63 | Cite as

Cross Sections and Reaction Rates for Comparative Planetary Aeronomy

  • David L. Huestis
  • Stephen W. Bougher
  • Jane L. Fox
  • Marina Galand
  • Robert E. Johnson
  • Julianne I. Moses
  • Juliet C. Pickering
Article

Abstract

In this chapter we describe the current knowledge of a selection of collision processes and chemical reactions of importance to planetary aeronomy. Emphasis is placed on critical evaluation of what we know and what we wish we knew about fundamental processes required for interpretation, explanation, and modeling of atmospheric observations.

Keywords

Collisions Photoabsorption Chemical reactions Critical evaluation Laboratory measurement First-principles theory Needs in atmospheric models 

References

  1. W.A. Abdou, D.G. Torr, P.G. Richards, M.R. Torr, E.L. Breig, J. Geophys. Res. 89(A10), 9069–9079 (1984) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. R.A. Akmaev, J. Geophys. Res. 108(A7), 1292 (2003). doi:10.1029/2003JA009896 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. M.J. Alexander, A.I.F. Stewart, S.C. Solomon, S.W. Bougher, J. Geophys. Res. 98(E6), 10,849–10,871 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. V.G. Anicich, An index of the literature for bimolecular gas phase cation-molecule. Reaction kinetics. JPL Publication 03-19 (2003). trs-new.jpl.nasa.gov/dspace/bitstream/2014/7981/1/03-2964.pdf Google Scholar
  5. V.G. Anicich, M.J. McEwan, Planet. Space Sci. 45, 897–921 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. S.K. Atreya, T.M. Donahue, J.H. Waite Jr., Nature 280, 795–796 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. G.E. Ballester, M.A. McGrath, D.F. Strobel, X. Zhu, P.D. Feldman, H.W. Moos, Icarus 111, 2–17 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. P.M. Banks, G. Kockarts, Aeronomy, Parts A and B (Academic Press, New York, 1973) Google Scholar
  9. C.A. Barth, JPL Res. Summ. 36–39 1, 64 (1961) Google Scholar
  10. C.A. Barth, The photochemistry of the atmosphere of Mars, in The Photochemistry of Atmospheres, ed. by J.S. Levine (Academic Press, New York, 1985) Google Scholar
  11. C.A. Barth, C.W. Hord, J.B. Pearce, K.K. Kelly, G.P. Anderson, A.I. Stewart, J. Geophys. Res. 76(10), 2213–2227 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. J.N. Bass, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2913–2921 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. D.R. Bates, Planet. Space Sci. 38, 889–902 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. D.R. Bates, A.H. Boyd, Proc. Phys. Soc. 80, 1301–1307 (1962) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. S.J. Bauer, Physics of Planetary Ionospheres (Springer, Berlin, 1973) Google Scholar
  16. D.L. Baulch, D.D. Drysdale, J. Duxbury, S.J. Grant, Evaluated Kinetic Data for High Temperature Reactions, vol. 3 (Butterworths, London, 1976) Google Scholar
  17. N.H.F. Beebe, E.W. Thulstrup, A. Andersen, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 2080–2093 (1976). Supplementary Data Tables (private communication) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Y. Bénilan, N. Smith, A. Jolly, F. Raulin, Planet. Space Sci. 48, 463–471 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. J. Berkowitz, Atomic and Molecular Photoabsorption – Absolute Total Cross Sections (Academic Press, New York, 2002) Google Scholar
  20. J.-L. Bertaux, F. Leblanc, S. Perrier, E. Quemerais, O. Korablev, E. Dimarellis, A. Reberac, F. Forget, P.C. Simon, S.A. Stern, B. Sandel, the SPICAM team, Science 307, 566–569 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. H.A. Bethe, Rev. Mod. Phys. 9, 69–249 (1937) MATHADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. B. Bezard, H. Feuchtgruber, J.I. Moses, T. Encrenaz, Astron. Astrophys. 334, L41–L44 (1998) ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. B. Bezard, P.N. Romani, H. Feuchtgruber, T. Encrenaz, Astrophys. J. 515, 868–872 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. N.K. Bibinov, F.I. Vilesov, I.P. Vinogradov, L.D. Mineev, A.M. Pravilov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 9, 838–844 (1979) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. A.P. Billingham, P. Borrell, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 82, 963–970 (1986) Google Scholar
  26. D. Blackie, R. Blackwell-Whitehead, G. Stark, J.C. Pickering, J. Rufus, A. Thorne, P. Smith, Sulphur dioxide: high resolution ultra-violet photoabsorption cross section measurements at 200 K. Eos Trans. AGU 88(52). Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract P21A-0226 (2007) Google Scholar
  27. P. Borrell, P.M. Borrell, M.D. Pedley, K.R. Grant, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 367, 395–410 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. P.M. Borrell, P. Borrell, K.R. Grant, M.D. Pedley, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 700–703 (1982) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. S.W. Bougher, W.J. Borucki, J. Geophys. Res. 99(E2), 3759–3776 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. S.W. Bougher, J.C. Gerard, A.I.F. Stewart, C.G. Fesen, J. Geophys. Res. 95(A5), 6271–6284 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. S.W. Bougher, M.J. Alexander, H.G. Mayr, Upper atmosphere dynamics: Global circulation and gravity waves, in Venus II, ed. by S.W. Bougher, D.M. Hunten, P.J. Phillips (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1997), pp. 259–292 Google Scholar
  32. S.W. Bougher, S. Engel, R.G. Roble, B. Foster, J. Geophys. Res. 104(E7), 16,591–16,611 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. S.W. Bougher, S. Engel, R.G. Roble, B. Foster, J. Geophys. Res. 105(E7), 17669–17692 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. S.W. Bougher, R.G. Roble, T.J. Fuller-Rowell, Simulations of the upper atmospheres of the terrestrial planets, in Atmospheres in the Solar System – Comparative Aeronomy, M. Mendillo, A. Nagy, J.H. Waite, eds., AGU Monograph 130, 261–288 (2002) Google Scholar
  35. S.W. Bougher, S. Rafkin, P. Drossart, Planet. Space Sci. 54, 1371–1380 (2006a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. S.W. Bougher, J.M. Bell, J.R. Murphy, M.A. Lopez-Valverde, P.G. Withers, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L02203 (2006b) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. M.T. Bowers, W.H. Chesnavich, W.T. Huntress Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 12, 357–382 (1973) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. H.C. Brinkman, H.A. Kramers, Proc. Acad. Sci. Amst. 33, 973–984 (1930) Google Scholar
  39. A.L. Broadfoot et al., Science 204, 979–982 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. R.A. Brownsword, M. Hillenkamp, T. Laurent, R.K. Vasta, H.-R. Volpp, J. Wolfrum, Chem. Phys. Lett. 266, 259–266 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. I.M. Campbell, C.N. Gray, Chem. Phys. Lett. 18, 607–609 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. I.M. Campbell, B.A. Thrush, Proc. R. Soc. A 296, 222–232 (1967) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. M.T. Capria, G. Cremonese, A. Bhardwaj, M.C. de Sanctis, Astron. Astrophys. 442, 1121–1126 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. M.T. Capria, G. Cremonese, A. Bhardwaj, M.C. de Sanctis, E. Mazzotta Epifani, Astron. Astrophys. 479, 257–263 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. R.W. Carlson et al., Science 182, 53–55 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. K.J. Castle, K.M. Kleissas, J.M. Rhinehart, E.S. Hwang, J.A. Dodd, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A09303 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. G. Chambaud, J.M. Launay, B. Lefy, P. Millie, E. Roueff, F. Tran Minh, J. Phys. B 13, 4255–4216 (1980) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. W.F. Chan, G. Cooper, C.E. Brion, Chem. Phys. 178, 387–400 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. T. Chang, D.G. Torr, P.G. Richards, S.C. Solomon, J. Geophys. Res. 98(A9), 15,589–15,597 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. M. Chatelet, A. Tardieu, W. Spreitzer, M. Maier, Chem. Phys. 102, 387–394 (1986) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. F.Z. Chen, C.Y.R. Wu, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 85, 195–209 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. F.Z. Chen, D.L. Judge, C.Y.R. Wu, J. Caldwell, H.P. White, R. Wagener, J. Geophys. Res. 96, 17519–17527 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. F.Z. Chen, D.L. Judge, C.Y.R. Wu, Chem. Phys. 260, 215–223 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Y. Chen, P.A. Cloutier, D.H. Crider, C. Mazelle, H. Reme, J. Geophys. Res. 106(A12), 29,387–29,399 (2001) ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. A.L. Cochran, W.D. Cochran, Icarus 154, 381–390 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. J.E.P. Connerney, J.H. Waite, Nature 312, 136–138 (1984) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. P.A. Cook, M.N.R. Ashfold, Y.J. Jee, K.H. Jung, S. Harich, X.M. Yang, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 3, 1848–1860 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. M. Cordonnier, D. Uy, R.M. Dickson, K.E. Kerr, Y. Zhang, T. Oka, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 3181–3193 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. P.C. Cosby, J.R. Peterson, D.L. Huestis, Dissociative recombination of vibrationally excited levels in oxygen molecular ions, in Dissociative Recombination of Molecular Ions with Electrons, ed. by S.L. Guberman (Kluwer/Plenum, New York, 2003), pp. 101–108 Google Scholar
  60. C. Cossart-Magos, S. Leach, M. Eidelsberg, F. Launay, R. Rostas, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 78(2), 1477–1487 (1982) Google Scholar
  61. C. Cossart-Magos, M. Jungen, F. Launay, Molec. Phys. 61, 1077–1117 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. T.E. Cravens, Astrophysical applications for electron energy deposition in molecular hydrogen. Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (1974) Google Scholar
  63. T.E. Cravens, J. Geophys. Res. 92(A10), 11,083–11,100 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. T.E. Cravens et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L07105 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. A. Dalgarno, H.N. Yadav, Proc. Phys. Soc. A66, 173–177 (1953) ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. E.I. Dashevskaya, E.E. Nikitin, Chem. Phys. Lett. 328, 119–123 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. E.I. Dashevskaya, J.A. Kunc, E.E. Nikitin, I. Oref, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3141–3147 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. E.I. Dashevskaya, I. Litvin, E.E. Nikitin, J. Troe, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 154315 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. E.I. Dashevskaya, I. Litvin, E.E. Nikitin, J. Troe, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 114317 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. J.P. Davis, W.R. Thorson, Can. J. Phys. 56, 996–1020 (1978) ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. S.P. Davis, M.C. Abrams, J.W. Brault, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic Press, New York, 2001) Google Scholar
  72. A.H. Delsemme, Photodissociation of CO2 into CO + O(1D), in Les Spectres des Molécules Simples au Laboratorie et en Astrophysique (Liège Institut d’Astrophysique, Université de Liège, Liège, 1980), pp. 515–523 Google Scholar
  73. G.S. Diskin, Experimental and theoretical investigation of the physical processes important to the RELIEF flow tagging diagnostic. Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University (1997) Google Scholar
  74. G.S. Diskin, W.R. Lempert, R.B. Miles, Observation of vibrational dynamics in X3Σg oxygen following stimulated Raman excitation to the v=1 Level: Implications for the RELIEF Flow Tagging Technique. AIAA 96-3001, 34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit (Reno, NV, 15–18 January 1996) Google Scholar
  75. J.A. Dodd, E.S. Hwang, M. Simione, K.J. Castle, Laboratory measurement of CO2(v2) + O temperature-dependent vibrational energy transfer. Eos Trans. AGU 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract SA41A-0278 (2007); private communication; K.J. Castle, L.A. Black, M.W. Simione, E.S. Hwang, J.A. Dodd (manuscript in preparation) Google Scholar
  76. P. Drossart et al., Nature 340, 539–542 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. V. Escalante, G.A. Victor, Planet. Space Sci. 40, 1705–1718 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. A. Fahr, A.K. Nayak, Chem. Phys. 189, 725–731 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. A. Fahr, A. Nayak, Chem. Phys. 203, 351–358 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. B. Faltermeier, R. Protz, M. Maier, Chem. Phys. 62, 377–385 (1981) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. P.D. Feldman, M.A. McGrath, D.F. Strobel, H.W. Moos, K.D. Retherford, B.C. Wolven, Astrophys. J. 535, 1085–1090 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. M.C. Festou, Astron. Astrophys. 96, 52–57 (1981) ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. M.C. Festou, P.D. Feldman, Astron. Astrophys. 103, 154–159 (1981) ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. J.-H. Fillion, J. Ruiz, X.-F. Yang, M. Castillejo, F. Rostas, J.-L. Lemaire, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 6531–6541 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. J.L. Fox, Adv. Space Res. 5(9), 165–169 (1985) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. J.L. Fox, Planet. Space Sci. 36, 37–46 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. J.L. Fox, Chemistry of the atmosphere: ion chemistry, in Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, ed. by J.R. Holton, J. Pyle, J.A. Curry (Elsevier, London, 2002), pp. 359–375 Google Scholar
  88. J.L. Fox, Aeronomy, in Springer Handbook of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ed. by G.W.F. Drake (Springer, New York, 2006), pp. 1259–1292, Chapter 84 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. J.L. Fox, A. Dalgarno, J. Geophys. Res. 84(A12), 7315–7331 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. J.L. Fox, A. Dalgarno, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 9027–9032 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. J.L. Fox, R.V. Yelle, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2179–2182 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. J.L. Fox, P. Zhou, S.W. Bougher, Adv. Space Res. 17, (11)203–(11)218 (1995) Google Scholar
  93. J.L. Fox et al., Energy deposition, Space Sci. Rev. (2008, this issue). Chapter 1 Google Scholar
  94. A.H. Friedson, A.-S. Wong, Y.L. Yung, Icarus 158, 389–400 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. S.R. Furlanetto, M.R. Furlanetto, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374, 547–555 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. M. Galand, S. Chakrabarti, Auroral processes in the solar system, in Atmospheres in the Solar System – Comparative Aeronomy, ed. by M. Mendillo, A. Nagy, J.H. Waite, AGU Monograph 130, 55–76 (2002) Google Scholar
  97. M. Galand, S. Chakrabarti, J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys. 68, 1488–1501 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. M. Galand, D. Lummerzheim, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A03307 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. T.R. Geballe, M.F. Jagod, T. Oka, Astrophys. J. 408, L109–L112 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. J. Gerard, A. Saglam, G. Piccioni, P. Drossart, C. Cox, S. Erard, R. Hueso, A. Sanchez-Lavega, The distribution of the O2 infrared nightglow observed with VIRTIS on board Venus Express. Geophys Res. Lett. (2008, in press). doi:10.1029/2007GL032021
  101. D. Gerlich, E. Herbst, E. Roueff, Planet. Space Sci. 50, 1275–1285 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. G.A. Germany, D. Lummerzheim, P.G. Richards, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12,837–12,843 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. K. Giles, N.G. Adams, D. Smith, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 7645–7650 (1992) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. G.R. Gladstone, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 1377–1387 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. G.R. Gladstone, M. Allen, Y.L. Yung, Icarus 119, 1–52 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. J. Glosik, A.B. Rakshit, N.C. Twiddy, N.G. Adams, D. Smith, J. Phys. B 11, 3365–3379 (1978) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. D. Grodent, J.H. Waite Jr., J.-C. Gerard, J. Geophys. Res. 106(A7), 12,933–12,952 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. D.T. Hall, D.F. Strobel, P.D. Feldman, M.A. McGrath, H.A. Weaver, Nature 373, 677–679 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. D.T. Hall, P.D. Feldman, M.A. McGrath, D.F. Strobel, Astrophys. J. 499, 475–481 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. J.T. Hallett, D.E. Shemansky, X. Liu, The Cassini UVIS Team, Cassini UVIS observations of the Saturn H2 dayglow emission. Eos Trans. AGU 85(47), F1268 (2004) Google Scholar
  111. J.T. Hallett, D.E. Shemansky, X. Liu, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L02204 (2005a) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. J.T. Hallett, D.E. Shemansky, X. Liu, Astrophys. J. 624, 448–461 (2005b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. W.B. Hanson, S. Sanatani, D.R. Zuccaro, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4351–4363 (1977) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. N.M. Harvey, Chem. Phys. Lett. 88, 553–558 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. A.J.R. Heck, R.N. Zare, D.W. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 4019–4030 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. A.E. Hedin, H.B. Niemann, W.T. Kasprzak, A. Seiff, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 73–83 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. A.P. Hickman, M. Medikeri-Naphade, C.D. Chapin, D.L. Huestis, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 119–122 (1997a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. A.P. Hickman, M. Medikeri-Naphade, C.D. Chapin, D.L. Huestis, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4633–4643 (1997b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. R.R. Hodges Jr., E.L. Breig, J. Geophys. Res. 96(A5), 7697–7708 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. R.D. Hudson, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 9, 305–406 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. W.F. Huebner, “The photochemistry of comets” and Appendix “Unattenuated solar photo rate coefficients at 1 AU heliocentric distance”, in The Photochemistry of Atmospheres, ed. by J.S. Levine (Academic Press, New York, 1985) Google Scholar
  122. D.L. Huestis, Current laboratory experiments for planetary aeronomy, in Atmospheres in the Solar System – Comparative Aeronomy, M. Mendillo, A. Nagy, J.H. Waite, eds., AGU Monograph 130, 245–258 (2002) Google Scholar
  123. D.L. Huestis, Chem. Phys. Lett. 411, 108–110 (2005a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. D.L. Huestis, H++H2 ion-molecule reactions in the ionospheres of the outer planets. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 37, 757 (2005b) ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. D.L. Huestis, J. Phys. Chem. 110, 6638–6642 (2006a) Google Scholar
  126. D.L. Huestis, Radiative transition probabilities, in Springer Handbook of Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ed. by G.W.F. Drake (Springer, New York, 2006b), pp. 515–533, Chapter 33 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. D.L. Huestis, Hydrogen collisions in planetary atmospheres, ionospheres, and magnetospheres. AOGS 2007 Proceedings, Planet. Space Sci. (2008, in press) Google Scholar
  128. D.L. Huestis, J. Berkowitz, Photoabsorption cross sections for polyatomic molecules in planetary atmospheres. SRI International proposal PYU 07-091 submitted to NASA Planetary Atmospheres (June 2007) Google Scholar
  129. D.L. Huestis, J.M. Bowman, Vibrationally excited H3+ in outer planet atmospheres. SRI International proposal PYU 07-173 submitted to NASA Outer Planets Research (November 2007) Google Scholar
  130. D.L. Huestis, T.G. Slanger, Cross sections and yields of O(1S) and O(1D) in photodissociation of H2O and CO2. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 38, 609 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. D.L. Huestis, G. Black, S.A. Edelstein, R.L. Sharpless, J. Chem. Phys. 60, 4471–4474 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. D.L. Huestis, J. Marschall, G.D. Billing, R. Maclagan, Theoretical and experimental studies of O–CO2 collisions. Eos Trans. AGU 83, F1106 (2002) Google Scholar
  133. D.L. Huestis, B.D. Sharpee, T.G. Slanger, Eos Trans. AGU 88(52) (2007). Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract SA41-0261 Google Scholar
  134. D.M. Hunten, Planet. Space Sci. 30, 773–783 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. D.M. Hunten, Nature 373, 654 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. G. Hunter, M. Kuriyan, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 353, 575–588 (1977) ADSGoogle Scholar
  137. W.T. Huntress Jr., V.G. Anicich, Astrophys. J. 208, 237–244 (1976) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. A. Ichihara, O. Iwamoto, R.K. Janev, J. Phys. B 33, 4747–4758 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. J.D. Jackson, H. Schiff, Phys. Rev. 89, 359–365 (1953) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. R.K. Janev, D. Reiter, U. Samm, Collision processes in low-temperature hydrogen plasmas (2003). http://www.eirene.de/reports/report_4105.pdf
  141. K.L. Jessup, J. Spencer, R. Yelle, Icarus 192, 24–40 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. R. Johnsen, M.A. Biondi, Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 401–403 (1980a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. R. Johnsen, M.A. Biondi, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 190–193 (1980b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. R.E. Johnson, Energetic Charged Particle Interactions with Atmospheres and Surfaces (Springer, Berlin, 1990) Google Scholar
  145. R.E. Johnson, M. Liu, C. Tully, Planet. Space Sci. 50, 123–128 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. P.V. Johnson, C.P. Malone, I. Kanik, K. Tran, M.A. Khakoo, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A11311 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. R.E. Johnson et al., Exospheres. Space Sci. Rev. (2008, this issue). Chapter 9 Google Scholar
  148. D.B. Jones, L. Campbell, M.J. Bottema, P.J.O. Teubner, D.C. Cartwright, W.R. Newell, M.J. Brunger, Planet. Space Sci. 54, 45–59 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. I. Kanik, C. Noren, O.P. Vattipalle, J.M. Ajello, D.E. Shemansky, J. Geophys. Res. 108(E11), 5126 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. G.P. Karwasz, T. Wroblewski, R.S. Brusa, E. Illenberger, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 8192–8196 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. D. Kella, L. Vejby-Christensen, P.J. Johnson, H.B. Pederson, L.H. Andersen, Science 276, 1530–1533 (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. C.N. Keller, V.G. Anicich, T.E. Cravens, Planet. Space Sci. 46, 1157–1174 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. H. Keller-Rudek, G.K. Moortgat, MPI-Mainz-UV-VIS Spectral Atlas of Gaseous Molecules (2008). http://www.atmosphere.mpg.de/enid/2295
  154. V. Kharchenko, A. Dalgarno, B. Zygelman, J.-H. Yee, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,899–24,906 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  155. V. Kharchenko, A. Dalgarno, D.R. Schultz, P.C. Stancil, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L11105 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. L.E. Khvorostovskaya, I.Yu. Potekhin, G.M. Shved, V.P. Ogibalov, T.V. Uzyukova, Izvestiya Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 38, 613–624 (2002) Google Scholar
  157. Y.H. Kim, J.L. Fox, Icarus 112, 310–325 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. J.K. Kim, L.P. Heard, W.T. Huntress Jr., Int. J. Mass Spectr. Ion Phys. 15, 223–244 (1974) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Y.H. Kim, J.L. Fox, H.S. Porter, J. Geophys. Res. 97(E4), 6093–6101 (1992) ADSGoogle Scholar
  160. H. Klingshirn, B. Faltermeier, W. Hengl, M. Maier, Chem. Phys. Lett. 93, 485–489 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. H. Klingshirn, M. Maier, J. Chem. Phys. 82, 714–719 (1985) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. M.B. Knickelbein, K.L. Marsh, O.E. Ulrich, G.E. Busch, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2392–2393 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. V.D. Knyazev, I.R. Slagle, J. Phys. Chem. 100, 16899–16911 (1996) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. I. Koyano, T.S. Wauchop, K.H. Welge, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 110–112 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. V.A. Krasnopolsky, D.P. Cruikshank, J. Geophys. Res. 100(E10), 21,271–21,286 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. P.S. Krstic, Phys. Rev. A 66, 042717 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. P.S. Krstic, D.R. Schultz, J. Phys. B 32, 3485–3509 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. P.S. Krstic, D.R. Schultz, J. Phys. B 36, 385–398 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. P.S. Krstic, D.R. Schultz, R.K. Janev, Phys. Scripta T96, 61–71 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. P.S. Krstic, J.H. Macek, S.Yu. Ovchinnikov, D.R. Schulz, Phys. Rev. A 70, 042711 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. S. Kumar, D.M. Hunten, The atmospheres of Io and other satellites, in Satellites of Jupiter, ed. by D. Morrison (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1982) Google Scholar
  172. L. Landau, E. Teller, Zur Theorie der Schalldispersion. Phys. Z. Sowjet. 10, 34–43 (1936) [trans. D. Ter Haar, Collected Papers of L.D. Landau (Gordon and Breach, New York, 1965)] MATHGoogle Scholar
  173. M.P. de Lara-Castells, M.I. Hedrnandez, G. Delgado-Barrio, P. Villarreal, M. Lopez-Puertas, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 164302 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. M.P. de Lara-Castells, M.I. Hedrnandez, G. Delgado-Barrio, P. Villarreal, M. Lopez-Puertas, Molec. Phys. 105, 1171–1181 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. G.M. Lawrence, J. Chem. Phys. 57, 5616–5617 (1972) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. R.C.M. Learner, A.P. Thorne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5(10), 2045–2059 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. S.A. Ledvina et al., Modelling of plasma flows and related phenomena. Space Sci. Rev. (2008, this issue). Chapter 4 Google Scholar
  178. A.Y.T. Lee, Y.L. Yung, J. Moses, J. Geophys. Res. 105(E8), 20,207–20,225 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. E. Lellouch, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 364, 3139–3146 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. E. Lellouch, T. Clancy, D. Crisp, A. Kliore, D. Titov, S.W. Bougher, Monitoring of mesospheric structure and dynamics, in Venus II, ed. by S.W. Bougher, D.M. Hunten, P.J. Phillips (U. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1997), pp. 295–324 Google Scholar
  181. B.R. Lewis, J.H. Carver, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 297–309 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. X. Li, Y.-L. Huang, G.D. Flesch, C.Y. Ng, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 1373–1381 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. H.V. Lilenfeld, Deactivation of vibrationally excited NO and CO2 by O-atoms. Final report PL-TR-94-2180 (McDonnell Douglas Corp., St. Louis, June 1994) Google Scholar
  184. B.G. Lindsay, R.F. Stebbings, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A12213 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. X. Liu, D.E. Shemansky, J. Geophys. Res. 111, A04303 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. D. Lummerzheim, M. Galand, J. Semeter, M.J. Mendillo, M.H. Rees, F.J. Rich, J. Geophys. Res. 106, 141–148 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. H. Luna, M. Michael, M.B. Shah, R.E. Johnson, C.J. Latimer, J.W. McConkey, J. Geophys. Res. 108(E4) (2003). doi:10.1029/2002JE001950
  188. H. Luna, C. McGrath, M.B. Shah, R.E. Johnson, M. Liu, C.J. Latimer, E.C. Montenegro, Astrophys. J. 628, 1086–1096 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. J.R. Lyons, Y.L. Yung, M. Allen, Science 256, 204–206 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. M.T. MacPherson, M.J. Pilling, M.J.C. Smith, Chem. Phys. Lett. 94, 430–433 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. M.T. MacPherson, M.J. Pilling, M.J.C. Smith, J. Phys. Chem. 89, 2268–2274 (1985) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. T. Majeed, J.C. McConnell, D.F. Strobel, M.E. Summers, Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1721–1724 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. T. Majeed, J.H. Waite Jr., S.W. Bougher, R.V. Yelle, G.R. Gladstone, J.C. McConnell, A. Bhardwaj, Adv. Space Res. 33, 197–211 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. M.L. Marconi, Icarus 190, 155–174 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. S.L. Manatt, A.L. Lane, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 50, 267–276 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. A.N. Maurellis, T.E. Cravens, Icarus 154, 350–371 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. G.E. McClure, Phys. Rev. 148, 47–54 (1966) ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. J.C. McConnell, T. Majeed, J. Geophys. Res. 92(A8), 8570–8578 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. J.C. McConnell, J.B. Holdberg, G.R. Smith, B.R. Sandel, D.E. Shemansky, A.L. Broadfoot, Planet. Space Sci. 30, 151–167 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. M.B. McElroy, Space Sci. Rev. 14, 460–473 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. M.B. McElroy, D.M. Hunten, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 1188–1201 (1970) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. M.A. McGrath, M.J.S. Belton, J.R. Spencer, P. Sartoretti, Icarus 146, 476–493 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. T.B. McMahon, P.G. Miasek, J.I. Beauchamp, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 63–71 (1976) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. J.R. McNesby, I. Tanaka, H. Okabe, J. Chem. Phys. 36, 605–607 (1962) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. H. Melin, S. Miller, T. Stallard, D. Grodent, Icarus 178, 97–103 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. H. Melin, S. Miller, T. Stallard, C. Smith, D. Grodent, Icarus 181, 256–265 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. M. Michael, R.E. Johnson, Planet. Space Sci. 53, 1510–1514 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. R.L. Miller, S.H. Kable, P.L. Houston, I. Burak, J. Chem. Phys. 96, 332–338 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. S. Miller et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 358, 2485–2512 (2000) ADSGoogle Scholar
  210. S. Miller, T. Stallard, C. Smith, G. Millward, H. Melin, M. Lystrup, A. Aylward, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 364, 3121–3137 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. J.B.A. Mitchell, S.L. Guberman (eds.), Dissociative Recombination: Theory, Experiment, and Application (World Scientific, NJ, 1989) Google Scholar
  212. L.E. Moore, M. Mendillo, I.C.F. Müller-Wodarg, D.L. Murr, Icarus 172, 503–520 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. L. Moore, A.F. Nagy, A.J. Kliore, I. Müller-Wodarg, J.D. Richardson, M. Mendillo, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33, L22202 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. D.H. Mordaunt, I.R. Lambert, G.P. Morley, M.N.R. Ashford, R.N. Dixon, C.M. Western, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 2054–2065 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. J.E. Morgan, H.I. Schiff, J. Chem. Phys. 38, 1495–1500 (1963) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. J.E. Morgan, L. Elias, H.I. Schiff, J. Chem. Phys. 33, 930–931 (1960) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. J.I. Moses, S.F. Bass, J. Geophys. Res. 105(E3), 7013–7052 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. J.I. Moses, T. Fouchet, R.V. Yelle, A.J. Friedson, G.S. Orton, B. Bézard, P. Drossart, G.R. Gladstone, T. Kostiuk, T.A. Livengood, The stratosphere of Jupiter, in Jupiter: Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere, ed. by F. Bagenal, T.E. Dowling, W.B. McKinnon (Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 2004), pp. 129–157 Google Scholar
  219. J.I. Moses, T. Fouchet, B. Bézard, G.R. Gladstone, E. Lellouch, H. Feuchtgruber, J. Geophys. Res. 110, E08001 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. R. Mota, R. Parafita, A. Giuliani, M.-J. Hubin-Franskin, J.M.C. Lourenco, G. Garcia, S.V. Hoffman, N.J. Mason, P.A. Ribeiro, M. Paposo, P. Limao-Vieira, Chem. Phys. Lett. 416, 152–159 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. G.E. Moyano, M.A. Collins, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 5510–5517 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. J.E. Murray, High resolution spectrometry of neutral chromium using a Fourier transform spectrometer. Ph.D Thesis, Imperial College, London University (1992) Google Scholar
  223. A.F. Nagy, T.E. Cravens, Solar system ionospheres, in Atmospheres in the Solar System – Comparative Aeronomy, ed. by M. Mendillo, A. Nagy, J.H. Waite, AGU Monograph 130, 39–54 (2002) Google Scholar
  224. H. Nair, M. Allen, A.D. Anbar, Y.L. Yung, R.T. Clancy, Icarus 111, 124–150 (1994) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. R.S. Nakata, K. Watanabe, F.M. Matsunaga, Sci. Light 14(1), 54–71 (1965) Google Scholar
  226. H.B. Niemann, R.E. Hartle, A.E. Hedin, W.T. Kasprzak, N.W. Spencer, D.M. Hunten, G.R. Carignan, Science 205, 54–56 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. H.B. Niemann, W.T. Kasprzak, A.E. Hedin, D.M. Hunten, N.W. Spencer, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 7817–7827 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. E.E. Nikitin, J. Troe, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 125, 154315 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  229. E.E. Nikitin, S.Ya. Umanski, Faraday Disc. Chem. Soc. 53, 7–17 (1972) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. C. Noren, I. Kanik, J.M. Ajello, P. McCartney, O.P. Makarov, W.E. McClintock, V.A. Drake, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1379–1392 (2001a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. C. Noren, I. Kanik, P.V. Johnson, P. McCartney, G.K. James, J.M. Ajello, J. Phys. B 34, 2667–2677 (2001b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. M. Ogawa, J. Chem. Phys. 54, 2550–2556 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. T. Oka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 531–534 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. T. Oka, J. Molec. Spectrosc. 228, 635–639 (2004) ADSGoogle Scholar
  235. T. Oka, E. Epp, Astrophys. J. 613, 349–354 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. T. Oka, T.R. Geballe, Astrophys. J. 351, L53–L56 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. H. Okabe, Photochemistry of Small Molecules (Wiley, New York, 1978) Google Scholar
  238. R.E. Olson, Phys. Rev. A 27, 1871–1878 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. E.R. O’Neill, B.D. Sharpee, T.G. Slanger, The nightglow content of astronomical spectra taken during the October/November 2003 solar storm. Eos Trans. AGU 87(52). Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract SA13B-0277 (2006) Google Scholar
  240. S. Otranto, R.E. Olson, Phys. Rev. A 77, 022709 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. M.K. Pandey, R.K. Dubey, D.N. Tripathi, Eur. Phys. J. D 45, 273–277 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. K. Park, J.C. Light, J. Chem. Phys. 126, 044305 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. D.A. Pejaković, K.S. Kalogerakis, R.A. Copeland, D.L. Huestis, R.M. Robertson, G.P. Smith, Rate coefficients for O-atom three-body recombination in N2 at temperatures in the range 170–320 K. Eos Trans. AGU 86(52) Fall Meet. Suppl. Abstract SA53B-1172 (2005) Google Scholar
  244. D.A. Pejaković, K.S. Kalogerakis, R.A. Copeland, D.L. Huestis, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A04303 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. W.D. Pesnell, K. Omidvar, W.R. Hogey, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1343–1356 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. A. Petrignani, W.J. van der Zande, P.C. Cosby, F. Hellberg, R.D. Thomas, M. Larsson, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 014302 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. A.V. Phelps, H3+ + H2 cross sections (unpublished report dated 19 August 2001) (private communication) Google Scholar
  248. D.S. Pollock, G.B.I. Scott, L.F. Phillips, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 727–729 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. R. Protz, M. Maier, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 5464–5467 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. G. Quemener, B. Naduvalath, D.L. Huestis, Charge exchange and vibrational relaxation in collisions of H+ with H2(v). Quant. Chem. Calc. (2008, in progress) Google Scholar
  251. D. Régo, R. Prangé, L. Ben Jaffel, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 5939–5954 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. B.A. Ridley, R. Atkinson, K.H. Welge, J. Chem. Phys. 58, 3878–3880 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. R.G. Roble, Energetics of the mesosphere and thermosphere, in The Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere: A Review of Experiment and Theory, R.M. Johnson, T.L. Killeen, eds., AGU Monograph 87, 1–21 (1995) Google Scholar
  254. B.R. Rowe, D.W. Fahey, F.C. Fehsenfeld, D.L. Albrighton, J. Chem. Phys. 73, 194–205 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. J. Rufus, G. Stark, P.L. Smith, J.C. Pickering, A.P. Thorne, J. Geophys. Res. 108(E2) (2003). doi:10.1029/2002JE001931
  256. D.W. Rusch, D.G. Torr, P.B. Hays, J.C.G. Walker, J. Geophys. Res. 82(4), 719–722 (1977) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. S.P. Sander, V.L. Orkin, M.J. Kurylo, D.M. Golden, R.E. Huie, C.E. Kolb, B.J. Finlayson-Pitts, M.J. Molina, R.R. Friedl, A.R. Ravishankara, G.K. Moortgat, H. Keller-Rudek, P.H. Pine, Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in atmospheric studies, evaluation number 15. JPL Publication 06-2 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, November 20, 2006). http://jpldataeval.jpl.nasa.gov/
  258. G.C. Schatz, M.J. Redmon, Chem. Phys. 58, 195–201 (1981) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. H.I. Schiff, The photolysis of CO2 at 1470 Å. Final report on grant No. DA-ARO(D)-31-124-0507, McGill University, Montreal Canada, November 1965 Google Scholar
  260. G.B.I. Scott, D.S. Pollock, L.F. Phillips, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 98, 1183–1188 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. M. Seidl, J. Kaa, M. Maier, Chem. Phys. 157, 279–285 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. R. Shakeshaft, Phys. Rev. A 18, 1930–1934 (1978) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. D.A. Shaw, D.M.P. Holland, M.A. Hayes, M.A. MacDonald, A. Hopkirk, S.M. McSweeney, Chem. Phys. 198, 381–396 (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. D.E. Shemansky, X. Liu, J. Geophys. Res. 110, A07307 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. V.I. Shematovich, R.E. Johnson, Adv. Space Res. 27, 1881–1888 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. V.I. Shematovich, R.E. Johnson, J.F. Cooper, M.C. Wong, Icarus 173, 480–498 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. G.M. Shved, L.E. Khvorostovskaya, I.Yu. Potekhin, A.I. Dem’yanikov, A.A. Kutepov, V.I. Fomichev, Izvestiya. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 27, 295–299 (1991) Google Scholar
  268. J.P. Singh, D.W. Setser, J. Phys. Chem. 89, 5353–5358 (1985) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. G.G. Sivjee, J. Geophys. Res. 88(A1), 435–441 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. G.G. Sivjee, Planet. Space Sci. 39, 777–784 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. I.R. Slagle, D. Gutman, J.W. Davies, M.J. Pilling, J. Phys. Chem. 92, 2455–2462 (1988) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. T.G. Slanger, G. Black, J. Chem. Phys. 54, 1889–1898 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. T.G. Slanger, G. Black, J. Chem. Phys. 68, 1844–1949 (1978) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. T.G. Slanger, P.C. Cosby, Ground-based optical signatures of solar storms interacting with the ionosphere. SRI International proposal PYU 07-016, submitted in response to solicitation NSF 07-520 (January 2007) Google Scholar
  275. T.G. Slanger, R.L. Sharpless, G. Black, S.V. Filseth, J. Chem. Phys. 61, 5022–5027 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. T.G. Slanger, R.L. Sharpless, G. Black, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 5317–5323 (1977) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. T.G. Slanger, P.C. Cosby, D.L. Huestis, R.R. Meier, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A10309 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. T.G. Slanger, D.L. Huestis, P.C. Cosby, N.J. Chanover, T.A. Bida, Icarus 182, 1–9 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. T.G. Slanger, K.S. Kalogerakis, L.C. Lee, Excited state photofragment yields from CO2 and H2O (2008a, experiments in progress) Google Scholar
  280. T.G. Slanger et al., Photoemission phenomena in the solar system. Space Sci. Rev. (2008b, this issue). Chapter 7 Google Scholar
  281. F.J. Smith, Proc. Phys. Soc. 92, 866–870 (1967) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. G.P. Smith, Chem. Phys. Lett. 376, 381–388 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. D.L. Smith, J.H. Futrell, Chem. Phys. Lett. 40, 229–232 (1976) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. N. Smith, F. Raulin, J. Geophys. Res. 104(E1), 1873–1876 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. G.P. Smith, R. Robertson, Chem. Phys. Lett. 458, 6–10 (2008). doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2008.04.074 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. P.L. Smith, K. Yoshino, W.H. Parkinson, K. Ito, G. Stark, J. Geophys. Res. 96(E2), 17,529–17,533 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. N.S. Smith, Y. Bénilan, P. Bruston, Planet. Space Sci. 46, 1215–1220 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. J.A. Spirko, J.J. Zirbel, A.P. Hickman, J. Phys. B 36, 1645–1662 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. J.R. Stallcop, H. Partridge, E. Levin, J. Chem. Phys. 95, 6429–6439 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. P.C. Stancil, D.R. Schultz, M. Kimura, J.-P. Gu, G. Hirsch, R.J. Buenker, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 140, 225–236 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. G. Stark, P.L. Smith, J. Rufus, A.P. Thorne, J.C. Pickering, G. Cox, J. Geophys. Res. 104(E4), 16,585–16,590 (1999) ADSGoogle Scholar
  292. G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P.L. Smith, K. Ito, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 103, 67–73 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. A.W. Stephan, R.R. Meier, K.F. Dymond, S.A. Budzien, R.P. McCoy, J. Geophys. Res. 108(A1), 1034 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. A.I.F. Stewart, M.J. Alexander, R.R. Meier, J.J. Paxton, S.W. Bougher, C.G. Fesen, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 91–102 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. L.J. Stief, W.A. Payne, R.B. Klemm, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 4000–4008 (1975) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. D.F. Strobel, M.E. Summers, Triton’s upper atmosphere and ionosphere, in Neptune and Triton, ed. by D.P. Cruikshank (U. Arizona Press, Tucscon, 1995), pp. 1107–1148 Google Scholar
  297. T. Terao, R.A. Back, J. Phys. Chem. 73, 3884–3890 (1969) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. L.P. Theard, W.T. Huntress Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2840–2848 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. J.J. Thompson, Philos. Mag. 21, 225 (1911) Google Scholar
  300. A.P. Thorne, C.J. Harris, I. Wynne-Jones, R.C.M. Learner, G. Cox, J. Phys. E Sci. Instrum. 20, 54–60 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. A.P. Thorne, U. Litzen, S.E. Johannson, Spectrophysics: Principles and Applications (Springer, Berlin, 1999) Google Scholar
  302. M.R. Torr, P.G. Richards, D.G. Torr, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 6819–6826 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. L.M. Trafton, T.R. Geballe, S. Miller, J. Tennyson, G.E. Ballester, Astrophys. J. 405, 761–766 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. C. Tully, R.E. Johnson, Planet. Space Sci. 49, 533–537 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. C. Tully, R.E. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 117 6556–6561 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. C. Tully, R.E. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 119(E) 10452–10453 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. G.L. Tyler et al., Science 246, 1466–1473 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. D. Uy, M. Cordonnier, T. Oka, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3844–3846 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. V. Vuitton, R.V. Yelle, M.J. McEwan, Icarus 191, 722–742 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. J.H. Waite Jr., W.S. Lewis, G.R. Gladstone, T.E. Cravens, A.N. Maurellis, P. Drossart, J.E.P. Connerney, S. Miller, H.A. Lam, Adv. Space Res. 20, 243–252 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. J.C.G. Walker, D.G. Torr, P.B. Hays, D.W. Rusch, K. Docken, G. Victor, M. Oppenheimer, J. Geophys. Res. 82(4), 719–722 (1975) Google Scholar
  312. C.W. Walter, P.C. Cosby, J.R. Peterson, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 2860 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. J.-H. Wang, K. Liu, Z. Min, H. Su, R. Bersohn, J. Preses, J. Larese, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 4146–4152 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. K. Watanabe, M. Zelikoff, E.C.Y. Inn, Absorption coefficients of several atmospheric gases. Air Force Cambridge Research Labs, Hanscom AFB, MA (1953) [DTIC AD0019700] Google Scholar
  315. K.H. Welge, R. Gilpin, J. Chem. Phys. 54, 4224–4227 (1971) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. E.P. Wigner, Phys. Rev. 73, 1002–1009 (1948) MATHADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. E. Wild, H. Klingshirn, B. Faltermeier, M. Maier, Chem. Phys Lett. 93, 490–494 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. E. Wild, H. Klingshirn, M. Maier, J. Photochem. 25, 131–143 (1984) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. J. Wildt, G. Bednarek, E.H. Fink, R.P. Wayne, Chem. Phys. 122, 463–470 (1988) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. O. Witasse et al., Ionospheres. Space Sci. Rev. (2008, this issue). Chapter 6 Google Scholar
  321. A.B. Wittkower, G. Ryding, H.B. Gilbody, Proc. Phys. Soc. 89, 541–546 (1966) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. A.-S. Wong, A.Y.T. Lee, Y.L. Yung, J.M. Ajello, Astrophys. J. 534, L215–L217 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. A.-S. Wong, Y.L. Yung, A.J. Friedson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1447 (2003). doi:10.1029/2002GL016661 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. C.Y.R. Wu, B.W. Yang, F.Z. Chen, D.L. Judge, J. Caldwell, L.M. Trafton, Icarus 145, 289–296 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. C.Y.R. Wu, F.Z. Chen, D.L. Judge, J. Geophys. Res. 106(E4), 7629–7636 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. C.Y.R. Wu, F.Z. Chen, D.L. Judge, J. Geophys. Res. 109, E07S15 (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Z. Xie, B.J. Braams, J.M. Bowman, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 224307 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. R.V. Yelle, N. Borggren, V. de la Haye, W.T. Kasprzak, H.B. Niemann, I. Müller-Wodard, J.H. Waite, Icarus 182, 567–675 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. K. Yoshino, J.R. Esmond, Y. Sun, W.H. Parkinson, K. Ito, T. Matsui, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 55, 53 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Y.L. Yung, W.B. DeMore, Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres (Oxford University Press, New York, 1999) Google Scholar
  331. Y.L. Yung, M.B. McElroy, Icarus 30, 97–103 (1977) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. O. Zatsarinny, S.S. Tayal, J. Phys. B 35, 241–253 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. M.H.G. Zhang, J.G. Luhmann, A.F. Nagy, J.R. Spreiter, S.S. Stahara, J. Geophys. Res. 98(E2), 311–3318 (1993) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Y.-F. Zhu, R.J. Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 2897–2901 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. J.F. Ziegler, SRIM – The stopping and range of ions in matter (2008). http://www.srim.org/

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • David L. Huestis
    • 1
  • Stephen W. Bougher
    • 2
  • Jane L. Fox
    • 3
  • Marina Galand
    • 4
  • Robert E. Johnson
    • 5
  • Julianne I. Moses
    • 6
  • Juliet C. Pickering
    • 4
  1. 1.Molecular Physics LaboratorySRI InternationalMenlo ParkUSA
  2. 2.Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space SciencesUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhysicsWright State UniversityDaytonUSA
  4. 4.Space and Atmospheric PhysicsImperial College LondonLondonUK
  5. 5.Engineering Physics and Materials ScienceUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA
  6. 6.Planetary ScienceLunar and Planetary InstituteHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations