Space Science Reviews

, Volume 137, Issue 1–4, pp 511–519 | Cite as

DEMETER Observations of EM Emissions Related to Thunderstorms

  • M. ParrotEmail author
  • J. J. Berthelier
  • J. P. Lebreton
  • R. Treumann
  • J. L. Rauch


The paper is related to specific emissions at frequency <3 MHz observed by the low altitude satellite DEMETER in relation with the thunderstorm activity. At its altitude (∼700 km), the phenomena observed on the E-field and B-field spectrograms recorded by the satellite are mainly dominated by whistlers. Particular observations performed by DEMETER are reported. It concerns multiple hop whistlers and interaction between whistlers and lower hybrid noise. Two new phenomena discovered by the satellite are discussed. First, V-shaped emissions up to 20 kHz are observed at mid-latitude during night time. They are centered at the locations of intense thunderstorm activity. By comparison with VLF saucers previously observed by other satellites in the auroral zones it is hypothesized that the source region is located below the satellite and that the triggering mechanism is due to energetic electrons accelerated during sprite events. Second, emissions at frequency ∼2 MHz are observed at the time of intense whistlers. These emissions are produced in the lower ionosphere in probable relation with Transient Luminous Events (TLEs).


Lightning Ionosphere VLF and HF emissions: whistlers 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. S.D. Baker, M.C. Kelley, C.M. Swenson, J. Bonnell, D.V. Hahn, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 62, 1393 (2000). doi: 10.1016/S1364-6826(00)00127-9 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  2. J.J. Berthelier et al., Planet. Space Sci. 54, 456 (2006a). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.016 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. J.J. Berthelier et al., Planet. Space Sci. 54, 487 (2006b). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.018 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. J.J. Berthelier, M. Malingre, R. Pfaff et al., Nature Geosci. 1, 101 (2008). doi: 10.1038/ngeo109 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. N.M. Brice, R.L. Smith, Nature 203, 926 (1964) ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. N.M. Brice, R.L. Smith, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 71 (1965). doi: 10.1029/JZ070i001p00071 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. W.J. Burke, T.L. Aggson, N.C. Maynard et al., J. Geophys. Res. 97(A5), 6359 (1992). doi: 10.1029/92JA00305 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. J. Chum, F. Jiricek, O. Santolik et al., Ann. Geophys. 24, 2921 (2006) ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. M.A. Clilverd, C.J. Rodger, R.J. Gamble et al., J. Geophys. Res. 113, A04211 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2007JA012602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. T. Cussac et al., Planet. Space Sci. 54, 413 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.013 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. R.E. Ergun, C.W. Carlson, J.P. McFadden et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(19), 3805 (2001). doi: 10.1029/2001GL013024 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. R.E. Ergun, C.W. Carlson, J.P. McFadden et al., Phys. Plasmas 10(2), 454 (2003). doi: 10.1063/1.1530160 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. O.E. Ferencz, Cs. Ferencz, P. Steinbach et al., Ann. Geophys. 25, 1103 (2007) ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. M. Fullekrug et al. (eds.), Sprites, Elves and Intense Lightning Discharges. NATO Science Series, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry (Springer, Berlin, 2006) Google Scholar
  15. D.N. Holden, C.P. Munson, J.C. Devenport, Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 889 (1995). doi: 10.1029/95GL00432 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. U.S. Inan, D. Piddyachiy, W.B. Peter et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L07103 (2007). doi: 10.1029/2006GL029238 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. A.R. Jacobson, S.O. Knox, R. Franz et al., Radio Sci. 34, 337 (1999). doi: 10.1029/1998RS900043 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. H.G. James, J. Geophys. Res. 81(4), 501 (1976) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. M.C. Kelley, S.D. Baker, R.H. Holzworth et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 24(9), 1111 (1997). doi: 10.1029/97GL00991 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. C.-L. Kuo et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L19103 (2005). doi: 10.1029/2005GL023389 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. J.P. Lebreton et al., Planet. Space Sci 54, 472 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.017 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. M.C. Lee, S.P. Kuo, J. Geophys. Res. 89, 10,873 (1984). doi: 10.1029/JA089iA12p10873 ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. C.P. Liao, J.P. Freidberg, M.C. Lee, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 51(9/10), 751 (1989) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. H. Lonnqvist, M. Andre, L. Matson et al., J. Geophys. Res. 98, 13565 (1993) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. O. Molchanov, A. Rozhnoi, M. Solovieva et al., Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 6, 745 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. A. Morioka et al., Ann. Geophys. 23, 723 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. S.R. Mosier, D.A. Gurnett, J. Geophys. Res. 74(24), 5675 (1969). doi: 10.1029/JA074i024p05675 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. S.R. Mosier, J. Geophys. Res. 76(7), 1713 (1971). doi: 10.1029/JA076i007p01713 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. M. Parrot et al., Planet. Space Sci. 54, 441 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.015 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. R. Roussel-Dupré, E. Symbalisty, Y. Taranenko et al., J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 60(7/9), 917 (1998). doi: 10.1016/S1364-6826(98)00028-5 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. J.-A. Sauvaud et al., Planet. Space Sci. 54(5), 502 (2006). doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.019 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. D.R. Shklyar, H. Washimi, J. Geophys. Res. 99(A12), 23, 695 (1994) CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. R.L. Smith, Nature 224(5217), 351 (1969). doi: 10.1038/224351a0 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. R.L. Smith, J.J. Angerami, J. Geophys. Res. 73(1), 1 (1968). doi: 10.1029/JA073i001p00001 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. A.J. Smith, D.L. Carpenter, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 44(11), 973 (1982). doi: 10.1016/0021-9169(82)90062-9 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. L.R.O. Storey, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. 246, 113 (1953). doi: 10.1098/rsta.1953.0011 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. H.J. Strangeways, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 61, 1067 (1999). doi: 10.1016/S1364-6826(99)00074-7 CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. R.A. Treumann, Z. Klos, M. Parrot (2008, this issue) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Parrot
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. J. Berthelier
    • 2
  • J. P. Lebreton
    • 3
  • R. Treumann
    • 4
    • 5
  • J. L. Rauch
    • 1
  1. 1.LPCE/CNRSOrléans cedex 2France
  2. 2.CETPObservatoire de Saint MaurSaint Maur des Fossés cedexFrance
  3. 3.Research and Scientific Support DepartmentESA/ESTECNoordwijkThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Geophysics Section, Department of Geophysics and Environmental SciencesMunich UniversityMunichGermany
  5. 5.International Space Science InstituteBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations