Space Science Reviews

, Volume 134, Issue 1–4, pp 229–268

Simulation Techniques for Cosmological Simulations

  • K. Dolag
  • S. Borgani
  • S. Schindler
  • A. Diaferio
  • A. M. Bykov
Open Access


Modern cosmological observations allow us to study in great detail the evolution and history of the large scale structure hierarchy. The fundamental problem of accurate constraints on the cosmological parameters, within a given cosmological model, requires precise modelling of the observed structure. In this paper we briefly review the current most effective techniques of large scale structure simulations, emphasising both their advantages and shortcomings. Starting with basics of the direct N-body simulations appropriate to modelling cold dark matter evolution, we then discuss the direct-sum technique GRAPE, particle-mesh (PM) and hybrid methods, combining the PM and the tree algorithms. Simulations of baryonic matter in the Universe often use hydrodynamic codes based on both particle methods that discretise mass, and grid-based methods. We briefly describe Eulerian grid methods, and also some variants of Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods.


Cosmology: theory Large-scale structure of universe Hydrodynamics Method: numerical, N-body simulations 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Dolag
    • 1
  • S. Borgani
    • 2
  • S. Schindler
    • 3
  • A. Diaferio
    • 4
    • 5
  • A. M. Bykov
    • 6
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für AstrophysikGarchingGermany
  2. 2.Department of AstronomyUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly
  3. 3.Institut für Astro- und TeilchenphysikUniversität InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  4. 4.Dipartimento di Fisica Generale “Amedeo Avogadro”Università degli Studi di TorinoTurinItaly
  5. 5.Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di TorinoTurinItaly
  6. 6.A.F. Ioffe Institute of Physics and TechnologySt. PetersburgRussia

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