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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 124, Issue 1–4, pp 183–202 | Cite as

Ring Current Dynamics

  • Ioannis A. DaglisEmail author
Article

Abstract

This chapter reviews the current understanding of ring current dynamics. The terrestrial ring current is an electric current flowing toroidally around the Earth, centered at the equatorial plane and at altitudes of ∼10,000 to 60,000 km. Enhancements in this current are responsible for global decreases in the Earth’s surface magnetic field, which have been used to define geomagnetic storms. Intense geospace magnetic storms have severe effects on technological systems, such as disturbances or even permanent damage of telecommunication and navigation satellites, telecommunication cables, and power grids. The main carriers of the ring current are positive ions, with energies from ∼1 keV to a few hundred keV, which are trapped by the geomagnetic field and undergo an azimuthal drift. The ring current is formed by the injection of ions originating in the solar wind and the terrestrial ionosphere into the inner magnetosphere. The injection process involves electric fields, associated with enhanced magnetospheric convection and/or magnetospheric substorms. The quiescent ring current is carried mainly by protons of predominantly solar wind origin, while active processes in geospace tend to increase the abundance (both absolute and relative) of O+ ions, which are of ionospheric origin. During intense geospace magnetic storms, the O+ abundance increases dramatically. This increase has been observed to occur concurrently with the rapid intensification of the ring current in the storm main phase and to result in O+ dominance around storm maximum. This compositional change can affect several dynamic processes, such as species-and energy-dependent charge-exchange and wave-particle scattering loss.

Keywords

Magnetic storms ring current substorms magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling particle acceleration inner magnetosphere plasma sheet 

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© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Space Applications and Remote SensingNational Observatory of AthensPenteliGreece

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