Space Science Reviews

, Volume 123, Issue 1–3, pp 303–339 | Cite as

The Pre-CME Sun

Report of Working Group E
  • N. Gopalswamy
  • Z. Mikić
  • D. Maia
  • D. Alexander
  • H. Cremades
  • P. Kaufmann
  • D. Tripathi
  • Y.-M. Wang


The coronal mass ejection (CME) phenomenon occurs in closed magnetic field regions on the Sun such as active regions, filament regions, transequatorial interconnection regions, and complexes involving a combination of these. This chapter describes the current knowledge on these closed field structures and how they lead to CMEs. After describing the specific magnetic structures observed in the CME source region, we compare the substructures of CMEs to what is observed before eruption. Evolution of the closed magnetic structures in response to various photospheric motions over different time scales (convection, differential rotation, meridional circulation) somehow leads to the eruption. We describe this pre-eruption evolution and attempt to link them to the observed features of CMEs. Small-scale energetic signatures in the form of electron acceleration (signified by nonthermal radio bursts at metric wavelengths) and plasma heating (observed as compact soft X-ray brightening) may be indicative of impending CMEs. We survey these pre-eruptive energy releases using observations taken before and during the eruption of several CMEs. Finally, we discuss how the observations can be converted into useful inputs to numerical models that can describe the CME initiation.


coronal mass ejections flares radio bursts filaments prominences streamers solar magnetism active regions closed and open magnetic fields pre -eruption signatures energy storage and release helicity 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbett, W. P., and Fisher, G. H.: 2003, apj 582, 475–485.ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, W. M.: 1976, solphys 47, 601–605.ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Amari, T., Luciani, J. F., Aly, J. J., Mikić, Z., and Linker, J.: 2003a, apj 585, 1073–1086.ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Amari, T., Luciani, J. F., Aly, J. J., Mikić, Z., and Linker, J.: 2003b, apj 585, 1073–1086.ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Amari, T., Luciani, J. F., Aly, J. J., Mikić, Z., and Linker, J.: 2003c, apj 595, 1231–1250.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Amari, T., Luciani, J. F., Mikić, Z., and Linker, J.: 1999, apjl 518, L57–L60.ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. Amari, T., Luciani, J. F., Mikić, Z., and Linker, J.: 2000, apjl 529, L49–L52.ADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Ambastha, A.: 1998, ASP Conf. Ser. 140: Synoptic Solar Physics. pp. 113–+119.Google Scholar
  9. Andrews, M. D., and Howard, R. A.: 2001, Space Science Reviews 95, 147–163.ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Antiochos, S. K.: 1998, apjl 502, L181.ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Antiochos, S. K., DeVore, C. R., and Klimchuk, J. A.: 1999, apj 510, 485–493.ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Babcock, H. W., and Babcock, H. D.: 1955, apj 121, 349–366.ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Berger, M. A.: 1984, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dynam. 30, 79–104.ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Berger, M. A., and Field, G. B.: 1984, J. Fluid Mechan. 147, 133–148.ADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  15. Berger, T. E., Loefdahl, M. G., Shine, R. S., and Title, A. M.: 1998, apj 495, 973–98305.ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhatnagar, A.: 1996, apss 243, 105–112.ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Bravo, S.: 1996, Advances in Space Research 17, 285–288.ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, D. S., Nightingale, R. W., Alexander, D., Schrijver, C. J., Metcalf, T. R., Shine, R. A., et al.: 2003, solphys 216, 79–108.ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown, M. R., Canfield, R. C., and Pevtsov, A. A. (eds.): 1999, Magnetic Helicity in Space and Laboratory Plasmas.Google Scholar
  20. Bruzek, A.: 1967, solphys 2, 451–461.ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Burlaga, L., Fitzenreiter, R., Lepping, R., Ogilvie, K., Szabo, A., Lazarus, A., et al.: 1998, jgr 103, 277–286.ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. Canfield, R. C., Hudson, H. S., and McKenzie, D. E.: 1999, grl 26, 627–630.ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Canfield, R. C., Hudson, H. S., and Pevtsov, A. A.: 2000, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, December 2000 28, 1786–1794.Google Scholar
  24. Canfield, R. C., and Pevtsov, A. A.: 1998, ASP Conf. Ser. 140: Synoptic Solar Physics pp. 131–143.Google Scholar
  25. Canfield, R. C., Priest, E. R., and Rust, D. M.: 1974, High Altitude Observatory, CO: Flare Related Magnetic Field Dynamics, pp. 361–371.Google Scholar
  26. Chen, J., Howard, R. A., Brueckner, G. E., Santoro, R., Krall, J., Paswaters, S. E., et al.: 1997, apjl 490, L191.ADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Chen, J., and Krall, J.: 2003, J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 2–1.Google Scholar
  28. Chen, P. F., and Shibata, K.: 2000, apj 545, 524–531.ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Cliver, E. W., St. Cyr, O. C., Howard, R. A., and McIntosh, P. S.: 1994, IAU Colloq. 144: Solar Coronal Struct. pp. 83–89.Google Scholar
  30. Cremades, H., and Bothmer, V.: 2004, aap 422, 307–322.ADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Démoulin, P., Mandrini, C. H., van Driel-Gesztelyi, L., Thompson, B. J., Plunkett, S., Kovári, Z., et al.: 2002, aap 382, 650–665.Google Scholar
  32. Delannée, C., and Aulanier, G.: 1999, solphys 190, 107–129.ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Démoulin, P., Henoux, J. C., Mandrini, C. H., and Priest, E. R.: 1997, solphys 174, 73–89.ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Dere, K. P., Brueckner, G. E., Howard, R. A., Michels, D. J., and Delaboudiniere, J. P.: 1999, apj 516, 465–474.ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. DeVore, C. R.: 2000, apj 539, 944–953.ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Dobrzycka, D., Cranmer, S. R., Raymond, J. C., Biesecker, D. A., and Gurman, J. B.: 2002, apj 565, 621–629.ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Engvold, O.: 1988, Solar and Stellar Coronal Structure and Dynamics, pp. 151–169.Google Scholar
  38. Fárník, F., Hudson, H. S., Karlický, M., and Kosugi, T.: 2003, aap 399, 1159–1166.Google Scholar
  39. Fan, Y.: 2001, apjl 554, L111–L114.ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Feynman, J., and Martin, S. F.: 1995a, jgr 100, 3355–3367.ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Feynman, J., and Martin, S. F.: 1995b, jgr 100, 3355–3367.ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Filippov, B. P., Gopalswamy, N., and Lozhechkin, A. V.: 2001, solphys 203, 119–130.ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Forbes, T. G.: 2000, jgr 105, 23153–23166.ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Forbes, T. G., J. A. Linker, et al.: 2006, Space Sci. Rev. doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9019-8.Google Scholar
  45. Gaizauskas, V., Harvey, K. L., Harvey, J. W., and Zwaan, C.: 1983, apj 265, 1056–1065.ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Gaizauskas, V., Zirker, J. B., Sweetland, C., and Kovacs, A.: 1997, apj 479, 448–457.ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Gibson, S. E., Fletcher, L., Del Zanna, G., Pike, C. D., Mason, H. E., Mandrini, C. H., et al.: 2002, apj 574, 1021–1038.ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Gilbert, H. R., Holzer, T. E., Burkepile, J. T., and Hundhausen, A. J.: 2000, apj 537, 503–515.ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Glover, A., Harra, L. K., Matthews, S. A., and Foley, C. A.: 2003, aap 400, 759–767.ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Gopalswamy, N.: 1999, in: Bastian, T. S., Gopalswamy, N., and Shibasaki, K. (eds.), Proceedings of the Nobeyama Symposium, held in Kiyosato, Japan, Oct. 27–30, 1998, NRO Report No. 479., pp. 141–152.Google Scholar
  51. Gopalswamy, N.: 2003, Adv. Space Res. 31, 869–881.ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Gopalswamy, N.: 2005, EOS Trans. AGU 86(50), 525.ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Gopalswamy, N., Hanaoka, Y., and Hudson, H. S.: 2000, Adv. Space Res. 25, 1851–1854.ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Gopalswamy, N., Hanaoka, Y., Kosugi, T., Lepping, R. P., Steinberg, J. T., Plunkett, S., et al.: 1998, grl 25, 2485–2488.ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Gopalswamy, N., and Kaiser, M. L.: 2002, Adv. Space Res. 29, 307–312.ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Gopalswamy, N., Lara, A., Yashiro, S., and Howard, R. A.: 2003a, apjl 598, L63–L66.ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. Gopalswamy, N., Shimojo, M., Lu, W., Yashiro, S., Shibasaki, K., and Howard, R. A.: 2003b, apj 586, 562–578.ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Gopalswamy, N., Shimojo, M., Lu, W., Yashiro, S., Shibasaki, K., and Howard, R. A.: 2004a, Adv. Space Res. 33, 676–680.ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. Gopalswamy, N., White, S. M., and Kundu, M. R.: 1991, apj 379, 366–380.ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Gopalswamy, N., Yashiro, S., Kaiser, M. L., Howard, R. A., and Bougeret, J.-L.: 2001, jgr 106(15), 29219–29230.ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Gopalswamy, N., Yashiro, S., Kaiser, M. L., Thompson, B. J., and Plunkett, S.: 1999, in: Bastian, T. S., Gopalswamy, N., and Shibasaki, K. (eds) Proceedings of the Nobeyama Symposium, held in Kiyosato, Japan, Oct. 27-30, 1998, NRO Report No. 479, pp. 207–210.Google Scholar
  62. Gopalswamy, N., Yashiro, S., Krucker, S., and Howard, R. A.: 2005, Dere, K., Wang, J., and Yan, Y. (eds.), IAU Symposium, pp. 367–373.Google Scholar
  63. Gopalswamy, N., Yashiro, S., Krucker, S., Stenborg, G., and Howard, R. A.: 2004b, Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 109(A18), 12105.ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Gosling, J. T., Birn, J., and Hesse, M.: 1995, grl 22, 869–872.ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Green, L. M., Démoulin, P., Mandrini, C. H., and Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.: 2003, solphys 215, 307–325.ADSGoogle Scholar
  66. Green, L. M., L' opez fuentes, M. C., Mandrini, C. H., Démoulin, P., Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L., and Culhane, J. L.: 2002, solphys 208, 43–68.ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Hagyard, M. J., Moore, R. L., and Emslie, A. G.: 1984, Adv. Space Res. 4, 71–80.ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Hanaoka, Y., Kurokawa, H., Enome, S., Nakajima, H., Shibasaki, K., Nishio, M., et al.: 1994, pasj 46, 205–216.ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. Harvey, K. L., and Harvey, J. W.: 1976, solphys 47, 233–246.ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. Hori, K., and Culhane, J. L.: 2002, aap 382, 666–677.ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. House, L. L., Illing, R. M. E., Sawyer, C., and Wagner, W. J.: 1981, baas 13, 862–.ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. Howard, R. A., Sheeley, N. R., Michels, D. J., and Koomen, M. J.: 1985, jgr 90, 8173–8191.ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. Hudson, H. S., Acton, L. W., Harvey, K. L., and McKenzie, D. E.: 1999, apjl 513, L83–L86.ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Hundhausen, A. J.: 1993, jgr 98, 13177–+.ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Illing, R. M. E., and Hundhausen, A. J.: 1985, jgr 90(9), 275–282.ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Jackson, B. V., and Sheridan, K. V.: 1979, Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust. 3, 383–386.ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Jackson, B. V., Sheridan, K. V., Dulk, G. A., and McLean, D. J.: 1978, Proc. Astronom. Soc. Aust. 3, 241–.ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Kaufmann, P., Giménez de Castro, C. G., Makhmutov, V. S., Raulin, J., Schwenn, R., Levato, H., et al.: 2003, J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.) 108, 5–1.Google Scholar
  79. Khan, J. I., and Hudson, H. S.: 2000, grl 27, 1083–1086.ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. Klein, K.-L., Aurass, H., Soru-Escaut, I., and Kalman, B.: 1997, aap 320, 612–619.Google Scholar
  81. Kopp, R. A., and Pneuman, G. W.: 1976, solphys 50, 85–98.ADSGoogle Scholar
  82. Krall, K. R., Smith, J. B., Hagyard, M. J., West, E. A., and Cummings, N. P.: 1982, solphys 79, 59–75.ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Kundu, M. R., Gopalswamy, N., Saba, J. L. R., Schmelz, J. T. S., and Strong, K. T.: 1987, solphys 114, 273–288.ADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Kundu, M. R., and McCullough, T. P.: 1972, solphys 24, 133–141.ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Kuperus, M., and van Tend, W.: 1981, solphys 71, 125–139.ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. Kusano, K., Maeshiro, T., Yokoyama, T., and Sakurai, T.: 2002, apj 577, 501–512.ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. Lara, A., Gopalswamy, N., and Deforest, C.: 2000, grl 27, 1435–1438.ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Leamon, R. J., Canfield, R. C., Blehm, Z., and Pevtsov, A. A.: 2003, apjl 596, L255–L258.ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. Leamon, R. J., Canfield, R. C., and Pevtsov, A. A.: 2002, J. Geophys. Res. (Space Phys.), pp. 1–1.Google Scholar
  90. Leka, K. D., Canfield, R. C., McClymont, A. N., and van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.: 1996, apj 462, 547–.ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. Liggett, M., and Zirin, H.: 1984, solphys 91, 259–267.ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. Linker, J. A., Lionello, R., Mikić, Z., and Amari, T.: 2001, jgr 106, 25165–25176.ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Linker, J. A., Mikić, Z., Lionello, R., Riley, P., Amari, T., and Odstrcil, D.: 2003a, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1971–1978.ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. Linker, J. A., Mikić, Z., Riley, P., Lionello, R., and Odstrcil, D.: 2003b, in: Velli, M., Bruno, R., and Malara, F. (eds.), AIP Conference Proceedings: Solar Wind Ten, American Institute of Physics, New York, vol. 679, pp. 703–710.Google Scholar
  95. Lionello, R., Mikić, Z., Linker, J. A., and Amari, T.: 2002, apj 581, 718–725.ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Litvinenko, Y. E., and Martin, S. F.: 1999, solphys 190, 45–58.ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Longcope, D. W.: 2004, apj 612, 1181–1192.ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. Low, B. C.: 1996, solphys 167, 217–265.ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. Low, B. C., and Hundhausen, J. R.: 1995, apj 443, 818–836.ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. Low, B. C., and Zhang, M.: 2002, apjl 564, L53–L56.ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. Mackay, D. H., Gaizauskas, V., Rickard, G. J., and Priest, E. R.: 1997, apj 486, 534–549.ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. MacQueen, R. M., and Fisher, R. R.: 1983, solphys 89, 89–102.ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. Magara, T., and Longcope, D. W.: 2001, apjl 559, L55–L59.ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. Marqué, C.: 2004, apj 602, 1037–1050.ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. Marqué, C., Lantos, P., and Delaboudiniére, J. P.: 2002, aap 387, 317–325.ADSGoogle Scholar
  106. Martens, P. C., and Zwaan, C.: 2001, apj 558, 872–887.ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. Martin, S. F.: 1998a, solphys 182, 107–137.ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. Martin, S. F.: 1998b, solphys 182, 107–137.ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. Martin, S. F., Livi, S. H. B., and Wang, J.: 1985, Aust. J. Phys. 38, 929–959.ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. Marubashi, K.: 1986, Adv. Space Res. 6, 335–338.ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. Metcalf, T. R., Jiao, L., McClymont, A. N., Canfield, R. C., and Uitenbroek, H.: 1995, apj 439, 474–481.ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. Metcalf, T. R., Leka, K. D., and Mickey, D. L.: 2004, Am. Astron. Soc. Meeting Abstracts 204, –.Google Scholar
  113. Mikić, Z., and Lee, M.: 2006, Space Sci. Rev., rm doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9012-2.Google Scholar
  114. Moon, Y.-J., Chae, J., Choe, G. S., Wang, H., Park, Y. D., Yun, H. S., et al.: 2002, apj 574, 1066–1073.ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. Moon, Y.-J., Choe, G. S., Wang, H., and Park, Y. D.: 2003, apj 588, 1176–1182.ADSGoogle Scholar
  116. Munro, R. H., Gosling, J. T., Hildner, E., MacQueen, R. M., Poland, A. I., and Ross, C. L.: 1979, solphys 61, 201–215.ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. Nindos, A., and Zhang, H.: 2002, apjl 573, L133–L136.ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. Nitta, N. V., and Hudson, H. S.: 2001, grl 28, 3801–3804.ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. November, L. J., and Simon, G. W.: 1988, apj 333, 427–442.ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. Pevtsov, A. A., and Canfield, R. C.: 1999, Measurement Techniques in Space Plasmas Fields, pp. 103–.Google Scholar
  121. Pick, M., Forbes, T. G., Mann, G., et al.: 2006, Space Sci. Rev., 10.1007/s11214-006-9021-1.Google Scholar
  122. Plunkett, S. P., Michels, D. J., Howard, R. A., Brueckner, G. E., St. Cyr, O. C., Thompson, B. J., et al.: 2002, Adv. Space Res. 29, 1473–1488.ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. Plunkett, S. P., Thompson, B. J., Howard, R. A., Michels, D. J., St. Cyr, O. C., Tappin, S. J., et al.: 1998, grl 25, 2477–2480.ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. Plunkett, S. P., Vourlidas, A., Řimberová, S., Karlický, M., Kotrč, P., Heinzel, P., et al.: 2000, solphys 194, 371–391.ADSGoogle Scholar
  125. Poland, A. I., and MacQueen, R. M.: 1981, solphys 71, 361–379.ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. Priest, E. R.: 1984, Solar magneto-hydrodynamics. Geophysics and Astrophysics Monographs, Reidel, Dordrecht, 1984.Google Scholar
  127. Priest, E. R., Gaizauskas, V., Hagyard, M. H., Schmahl, E. J., and Webb, D. F.: 1986, Energetic Phenomena on the Sun, pp. 1–1.Google Scholar
  128. Roussev, I. I., Sokolov, I. V., Forbes, T. G., Gombosi, T. I., Lee, M. A., and Sakai, J. I.: 2004a, apjl 605, L73–L76.ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. Roussev, I. I., Sokolov, I. V., Forbes, T. G., Gombosi, T. I., Lee, M. A., and Sakai, J. I.: 2004b, apjl 605, L73–L76.ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. Rust, D. M., and Kumar, A.: 1994a, solphys 155, 69–97.ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. Rust, D. M., and Kumar, A.: 1994b, ESA SP-373: Solar Dynamic Phenomena and Solar Wind Consequences, the Third SOHO Workshop, pp. 39–.Google Scholar
  132. Rust, D. M., and Kumar, A.: 1996, apjl 464, L199.ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. Saito, K., and Tandberg-Hanssen, E.: 1973, solphys 31, 105–121.ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. Sheeley, N. R., Walters, J. H., Wang, Y.-M., and Howard, R. A.: 1999, jgr 104, 24739–24768.ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. Simnett, G. M.: 1999, The Many Faces of the Sun: A Summary of The Results from NASA's Solar Maximum Mission, pp. 201.Google Scholar
  136. Srivastava, N., Schwenn, R., and Stenborg, G.: 1999, ESA SP-446: 8th SOHO Workshop: Plasma Dynamics and Diagnostics in the Solar Transition Region and Corona, pp. 621.Google Scholar
  137. St. Cyr, O. C., Burkepile, J. T., Hundhausen, A. J., and Lecinski, A. R.: 1999, jgr 104, 12493–12506.ADSGoogle Scholar
  138. Sterling, A. C., Hudson, H. S., Thompson, B. J., and Zarro, D. M.: 2000, apj 532, 628–647.ADSGoogle Scholar
  139. Sterling, A. C., and Moore, R. L.: 2001a, apj 560, 1045–1057.ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. Sterling, A. C., and Moore, R. L.: 2001b, jgr 106, 25227–25238.ADSGoogle Scholar
  141. Subramanian, P., and Dere, K. P.: 2001, apj 561, 372–395.ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. Tandberg-Hanssen, E.: 1995, The Nature of Solar Prominences. Astrophysics and Space Science Library, vol. 199, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, c1995.Google Scholar
  143. Tappin, S. J., and Simnett, G. M.: 1997, ESA SP-415: Correlated Phenomena at the Sun, in the Heliosphere and in Geospace, pp. 117–120.Google Scholar
  144. Thompson, B. J., Plunkett, S. P., Gurman, J. B., Newmark, J. S., St. Cyr, O. C., and Michels, D. J.: 1998, grl 25, 2465–2468.ADSGoogle Scholar
  145. Tripathi, D., Bothmer, V., and Cremades, H.: 2004, aap 422, 337–349.ADSGoogle Scholar
  146. Vaiana, G. S., Krieger, A. S., and Timothy, A. F.: 1973, solphys 32, 81–116.ADSGoogle Scholar
  147. van Ballegooijen, A. A., Priest, E. R., and Mackay, D. H.: 2000, apj 539, 983–994.ADSGoogle Scholar
  148. Vourlidas, A., Buzasi, D., Howard, R. A., and Esfandiari, E.: 2002, ESA SP-506: Solar Variability: From Core to Outer Frontiers, pp. 91–94.Google Scholar
  149. Wang, H.: 1993, ASP Conf. Ser. 46: IAU Colloq. 141: The Magnetic and Velocity Fields of Solar Active Regions, pp. 323–332.Google Scholar
  150. Wang, Y.-M., and Sheeley, N. R.: 1999, apjl 510, L157–L160.ADSGoogle Scholar
  151. Wang, Y.-M., and Sheeley, N. R.: 2002, apj 575, 542–552.ADSGoogle Scholar
  152. Wang, Y.-M., Sheeley, N. R., Socker, D. G., Howard, R. A., Brueckner, G. E., Michels, D. J., it et al.: 1998, apj 508, 899–907.ADSGoogle Scholar
  153. Webb, D. F., Krieger, A. S., and Rust, D. M.: 1976, solphys 48, 159–186.ADSGoogle Scholar
  154. Webb, D. F., Lepping, R. P., Burlaga, L. F., DeForest, C. E., Larson, D. E., Martin, S. F., et al.: 2000, jgr 105, 27251–27260.ADSGoogle Scholar
  155. Webb, D. F., Nolte, J. T., Solodyna, C. V., and McIntosh, P. S.: 1978, solphys 58, 389–396.ADSGoogle Scholar
  156. Welsch, B. T., DeVore, C. R., and Antiochos, S. K.: 2005, apj 634, 1395–1404.ADSGoogle Scholar
  157. Welsch, B. T., Fisher, G. H., Abbett, W. P., and Regnier, S.: 2004, apj 610, 1148–1156.ADSGoogle Scholar
  158. Wills-Davey, M. J., and Thompson, B. J.: 1999, solphys 190, 467–483.ADSGoogle Scholar
  159. Wolfson, R., Conover, C., and Illing, R. M. E.: 1987, baas 19, 931.ADSGoogle Scholar
  160. Wolfson, R., and Saran, S.: 1998, apj 499, 496–503.ADSGoogle Scholar
  161. Wood, B. E., Karovska, M., Chen, J., Brueckner, G. E., Cook, J. W., and Howard, R. A.: 1999, apj 512, 484–495.ADSGoogle Scholar
  162. Yang, G., and Wang, H.: 2002, Solar-Terrestrial Magnetic Activity and Space Environment, pp. 113–116.Google Scholar
  163. Zarro, D. M., Sterling, A. C., Thompson, B. J., Hudson, H. S., and Nitta, N.: 1999, apjl 520, L139–L142.ADSGoogle Scholar
  164. Zwaan, C.: 1985, solphys 100, 397–414. ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Gopalswamy
    • 1
  • Z. Mikić
    • 1
  • D. Maia
    • 3
  • D. Alexander
    • 4
  • H. Cremades
    • 5
  • P. Kaufmann
    • 6
  • D. Tripathi
    • 5
  • Y.-M. Wang
    • 7
  1. 1.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA
  2. 2.SAICSan DiegoUSA
  3. 3.CICGEFaculdade Ciências Universidade PortoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.Department of Physics and AstronomyRice UniversityHoustonUSA
  5. 5.Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System ResearchKatlenburg-LindauGermany
  6. 6.CRAAMMackenzie Presbyterian UniversityS. PauloBrazil
  7. 7.Naval Research LaboratoryWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations