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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 123, Issue 1–3, pp 251–302 | Cite as

CME Theory and Models

Report of Working Group D
  • T. G. ForbesEmail author
  • J. A. Linker
  • J. Chen
  • C. Cid
  • J. Kóta
  • M. A. Lee
  • G. Mann
  • Z. Mikić
  • M. S. Potgieter
  • J. M. Schmidt
  • G. L. Siscoe
  • R. Vainio
  • S. K. Antiochos
  • P. Riley
Article

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of current efforts in the theory and modeling of CMEs. Five key areas are discussed: (1) CME initiation; (2) CME evolution and propagation; (3) the structure of interplanetary CMEs derived from flux rope modeling; (4) CME shock formation in the inner corona; and (5) particle acceleration and transport at CME driven shocks. In the section on CME initiation three contemporary models are highlighted. Two of these focus on how energy stored in the coronal magnetic field can be released violently to drive CMEs. The third model assumes that CMEs can be directly driven by currents from below the photosphere. CMEs evolve considerably as they expand from the magnetically dominated lower corona into the advectively dominated solar wind. The section on evolution and propagation presents two approaches to the problem. One is primarily analytical and focuses on the key physical processes involved. The other is primarily numerical and illustrates the complexity of possible interactions between the CME and the ambient medium. The section on flux rope fitting reviews the accuracy and reliability of various methods. The section on shock formation considers the effect of the rapid decrease in the magnetic field and plasma density with height. Finally, in the section on particle acceleration and transport, some recent developments in the theory of diffusive particle acceleration at CME shocks are discussed. These include efforts to combine self-consistently the process of particle acceleration in the vicinity of the shock with the subsequent escape and transport of particles to distant regions.

Keywords

Sun: Coronal Mass Ejections CMEs ICMEs flares magnetic reconnection shocks solar energetic particles (SEPs) 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. G. Forbes
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. A. Linker
    • 2
  • J. Chen
    • 3
  • C. Cid
    • 4
  • J. Kóta
    • 5
  • M. A. Lee
    • 2
  • G. Mann
    • 6
  • Z. Mikić
    • 1
  • M. S. Potgieter
    • 7
  • J. M. Schmidt
    • 8
  • G. L. Siscoe
    • 9
  • R. Vainio
    • 10
  • S. K. Antiochos
    • 3
  • P. Riley
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Earth, Oceans, and SpaceUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Science Applications International Corp.San DiegoUSA
  3. 3.Naval Research LaboratoryWashingtonUSA
  4. 4.Departamento de Física Universidad de AlcalaMadridSpain
  5. 5.Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Department of Planetary SciencesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  6. 6.Astrophysikalisches Institut PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  7. 7.Unit for Space Physics and School of PhysicsNorth-West UniversityPotchefstroomSouth Africa
  8. 8.Imperial College, Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Lab.LondonU.K.
  9. 9.Boston University, Center for Space PhysicsBostonUSA
  10. 10.Department of Physical SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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