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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 123, Issue 1–3, pp 57–80 | Cite as

An Introduction to Theory and Models of CMEs, Shocks, and Solar Energetic Particles

  • Z. MikićEmail author
  • M. A. Lee
Article

Abstract

We present a brief introduction to the essential physics of coronal mass ejections as well as a review of theory and models of CME initiation, solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration, and shock propagation. A brief review of the history of CME models demonstrates steady progress toward an understanding of CME initiation, but it is clear that the question of what initiates CMEs has still not been solved. For illustration, we focus on the flux cancellation model and the breakout model. We contrast the similarities and differences between these models, and we examine how their essential features compare with observations. We review the generation of shocks by CMEs. We also outline the theoretical ideas behind the origin of a gradual SEP event at the evolving CME-driven coronal/interplanetary shock and the origin of “impulsive” SEP events at flare sites of magnetic reconnection below CMEs. We argue that future developments in models require focused study of “campaign events” to best utilize the wealth of available CME and SEP observations.

Keywords

Solar Wind Coronal Mass Ejection Solar Energetic Particle Solar Energetic Particle Event Diffusive Shock Acceleration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Science Applications International CorporationSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Earth, Oceans, and SpaceUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA

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