Space Science Reviews

, Volume 123, Issue 4, pp 485–606 | Cite as

The James Webb Space Telescope

  • Jonathan P. GardnerEmail author
  • John C. Mather
  • Mark Clampin
  • Rene Doyon
  • Matthew A. Greenhouse
  • Heidi B. Hammel
  • John B. Hutchings
  • Peter Jakobsen
  • Simon J. Lilly
  • Knox S. Long
  • Jonathan I. Lunine
  • Mark J. Mccaughrean
  • Matt Mountain
  • John Nella
  • George H. Rieke
  • Marcia J. Rieke
  • Hans-Walter Rix
  • Eric P. Smith
  • George Sonneborn
  • Massimo Stiavelli
  • H. S. Stockman
  • Rogier A. Windhorst
  • Gillian S. Wright
Open Access


The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.6 m), cold (<50 K), infrared (IR)-optimized space observatory that will be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth–Sun Lagrange point. The observatory will have four instruments: a near-IR camera, a near-IR multiobject spectrograph, and a tunable filter imager will cover the wavelength range, 0.6 < ; < 5.0 μ m, while the mid-IR instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5.0 < ; < 29 μ m.

The JWST science goals are divided into four themes. The key objective of The End of the Dark Ages: First Light and Reionization theme is to identify the first luminous sources to form and to determine the ionization history of the early universe. The key objective of The Assembly of Galaxies theme is to determine how galaxies and the dark matter, gas, stars, metals, morphological structures, and active nuclei within them evolved from the epoch of reionization to the present day. The key objective of The Birth of Stars and Protoplanetary Systems theme is to unravel the birth and early evolution of stars, from infall on to dust-enshrouded protostars to the genesis of planetary systems. The key objective of the Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life theme is to determine the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems including our own, and investigate the potential for the origins of life in those systems. Within these themes and objectives, we have derived representative astronomical observations.

To enable these observations, JWST consists of a telescope, an instrument package, a spacecraft, and a sunshield. The telescope consists of 18 beryllium segments, some of which are deployed. The segments will be brought into optical alignment on-orbit through a process of periodic wavefront sensing and control. The instrument package contains the four science instruments and a fine guidance sensor. The spacecraft provides pointing, orbit maintenance, and communications. The sunshield provides passive thermal control. The JWST operations plan is based on that used for previous space observatories, and the majority of JWST observing time will be allocated to the international astronomical community through annual peer-reviewed proposal opportunities.


galaxies: formation infrared: general planetary systems space vehicles: instruments stars: formation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan P. Gardner
    • 1
    Email author
  • John C. Mather
    • 1
  • Mark Clampin
    • 2
  • Rene Doyon
    • 3
  • Matthew A. Greenhouse
    • 1
  • Heidi B. Hammel
    • 4
  • John B. Hutchings
    • 5
  • Peter Jakobsen
    • 6
  • Simon J. Lilly
    • 7
  • Knox S. Long
    • 8
  • Jonathan I. Lunine
    • 9
  • Mark J. Mccaughrean
    • 10
    • 11
  • Matt Mountain
    • 8
  • John Nella
    • 12
  • George H. Rieke
    • 13
  • Marcia J. Rieke
    • 13
  • Hans-Walter Rix
    • 14
  • Eric P. Smith
    • 15
  • George Sonneborn
    • 1
  • Massimo Stiavelli
    • 8
  • H. S. Stockman
    • 8
  • Rogier A. Windhorst
    • 16
  • Gillian S. Wright
    • 17
  1. 1.Laboratory for Observational Cosmology, Code 665Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltU.S.A.
  2. 2.Laboratory for Exoplanet and Stellar Astrophysics, Code 667Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltU.S.A.
  3. 3.Departement de PhysiqueUniversité de MontrealMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Space Science InstituteBoulderU.S.A.
  5. 5.Herzberg Institute of AstrophysicsVictoriaCanada
  6. 6.Astrophysics Division, RSSDEuropean Space Agency, ESTECNoordwijkThe Netherlands
  7. 7.Department of PhysicsSwiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH-Zurich)ZurichSwitzerland
  8. 8.Space Telescope Science InstituteBaltimoreU.S.A.
  9. 9.Lunar and Planetary LaboratoryThe University of ArizonaTucsonU.S.A.
  10. 10.Astrophysikalisches Institut PotsdamPotsdamGermany
  11. 11.School of PhysicsUniversity of ExeterExeterU.K.
  12. 12.Northrop Grumman Space TechnologyRedondo BeachU.S.A.
  13. 13.Steward ObservatoryUniversity of ArizonaTucsonU.S.A.
  14. 14.Max-Planck-Institut für AstronomieHeidelbergGermany
  15. 15.NASA HeadquartersU.S.A.
  16. 16.Department of Physics and AstronomyArizona State UniversityTempeU.S.A.
  17. 17.Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal ObservatoryEdinburghU.K.

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