Space Science Reviews

, Volume 120, Issue 3–4, pp 243–286 | Cite as

Solar Forcing of Climate. 2: Evidence from the Past

Article

Abstract

The nature of the climatic response to solar forcing and its geographical coherence is reviewed. This information is of direct relevance for evaluating solar forcing mechanisms and validating climate models.

Interpretation of Sun-climate relationships is hampered by difficulties in (1) translating proxy records into quantitative climate parameters (2) obtaining accurate age assessments (3) elucidating spatial patterns and relationships (4) separating solar forcing from other forcing mechanisms (5) lacking physical understanding of the solar forcing mechanisms. This often limits assessment of past solar forcing of climate to identification of correlations between environmental change and solar variability.

The noisy character and often insufficient temporal resolution of proxy records often exclude the detection of high frequency decadal and bi-decadal cycles. However, on multi-decadal and longer time scales, notably the ∼90 years Gleisberg, and ∼200 years Suess cycles in the 10Be and 14C proxy records of solar activity are also well presented in the environmental proxy records. The additional ∼1500 years Bond cycle may result from interference between centennial-band solar cycles.

Proxy evidence for Sun-climate relations is hardly present for Africa, South America and the marine realm; probably more due to a lack of information than a lack of response to solar forcing. At low latitudes, equatorward movement of the ITCZ (upward component of the Hadley cell) occurs upon a decrease in solar activity, explaining humidity changes for (1) Mesoamerica and adjacent North and South American regions and (2) East Africa and the Indian and Chinese Monsoon systems. At middle latitudes equatorward movement of the zonal circulation during solar minima probably (co-)induces wet and cool episodes in Western Europe, and Terra del Fuego as well as humidity changes in Southern Africa, Australia, New Zealand and the Mediterranean. The polar regions seem to expand during solar minima which, at least for the northern hemisphere is evident in southward extension of the Atlantic ice cover. The forcing-induced migration of climate regimes implies that solar forcing induces a non linear response at a given location. This complicates the assessment of Sun-climate relations and calls for nonlinear analysis of multiple long and high resolution records at regional scale. Unfortunately nonlinear Sun-climate analysis is still a largely barren field, despite the fact that major global climate configurations (e.g. the ENSO and AO) follow nonlinear dynamics.

The strength of solar forcing relative to other forcings (e.g. volcanism, ocean circulation patterns, tides, and geomagnetism) is another source of dynamic responses. Notably the climatic effects of tides and geomagnetism are hitherto largely enigmatic.

Few but well-dated studies suggest almost instantaneous, climatic deteriorations in response to rapid decreases in solar activity. Such early responses put severe limits to the solar forcing mechanisms and the extent of this phenomenon should be a key issue for future Sun-climate studies.

Keywords

proxy climate solar forcing Holocene 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agnihotri, R. and Dutta, K.: 2003, Curr. Sci. India 85, 459.Google Scholar
  2. Andronova, N. G., Schlesinger, M. E., and Mann, M. E.: 2004, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, DOI:10.1029/2004GL019658.Google Scholar
  3. Arnold, N.: 2002, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 360, 2787.ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Augustin, L., Barbante, C., Barnes, P. R. F., Barnola, J. M., Bigler, M., Castellano, E., et al.: 2004, Nature 429, 623.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldwin, M. P. and Dunkerton, T. J.: 2005, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 67, 71.ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Balling, Jr, R. C., Vose, R. S., and Weber, G.-R.: 1998, Climate Res. 10, 193.Google Scholar
  7. Baumgartner, S., Beer, J., Masarik, J., Wagner, G., Meynadier, L., and Synal, H. A.: 1998, Science 279, 1330.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. Bay, R. C., Bramall, N., and Price, P. B.: 2004, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 6341–6345.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Beer, J., Joos, F., Lukasczyk, C., Mende, W., Rodriguez, J., Siegenthaler, U., and Stellmacher, R.: 1994, in E. Nesme-Ribes (ed.), The Solar Engine and its Influence on Terrestrial Atmosphere and Climate, Springer, Berlin, p. 221.Google Scholar
  10. Benestad, R. E.: 2002, Solar Activity and Earth's Climate, Springer, Chichester, p. 288.Google Scholar
  11. Benson, L., Linsley, B., Smoot, J., Mensing, S., Lund, S., Stine, S., et al.: 2003, Quaternary Res. 59, 151.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Berger, W. H. and von Rad, U.: 2004, Glob. Planet. Change 34, 313.Google Scholar
  13. Biondi, F., Perkins, D. L., Cayan, D. R., and Hughes, M. K.: 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1445.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Blaauw, M., van Geel, B., and van der Plicht, J.: 2004, Holocene 14, 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blasius, B., Huppert, A., and Stone, L.: 1999, Nature 399, 354.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Boberg, F. and Lundstedt, H.: 2002, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, DOI:10.1029/2002GL014903.Google Scholar
  17. Bochnícek, J. and Hejda, P.: 2005, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 67, 17.ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. Bond, G., Kromer, B., Beer, J., Muscheler, R., Evans, M. N., Showers, W., et al.: 2001, Science 294, 2130.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. Bradley, R. S., Vuille, M., Hardy, D., and Thompson, L. G.: 2003, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, DOI:10.1029/2002GL016546.Google Scholar
  20. Briffa, K. R.: 2000, Quaternary Sci. Rev. 19, 87.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Briffa, K. R. and Osborn, T. J.: 2002, Science 295, 2227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Briffa, K. R., Osborn, T. J., and Schweingruber, F. H.: 2004, Glob. Planet. Change 40, 11.ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Briffa, K. R., Osborn, T. J., Schweingruber, F. H., Harris, I. C., Jones, P. D., Shiyatov, S. G., et al.: 2001, J. Geophys. Res. D 106, 2929.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Buisman, J.: 1995–2004, Duizend jaar weer, wind en water in de Lage Landen, van Wijnen, Franeker, 5 volumes.Google Scholar
  25. Burgess, C. P. and Zuber, K.: 2000, Astroparticle Phys. 14, 1.ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Burns, S. J., Fleitmann, D., Mudelsee, M., Neff, U., Matter, A., and Mangini, A.: 2002, J. Geophys. Res. D 107, 4434-1.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. Burroughs, W. J.: 2003, Weather Cycles: Real or Imaginary? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 330.Google Scholar
  28. Camuffo, D. and Enzi, S.: 1996, in P. D. Jones and R. S. Bradley (eds.), Climatic Variations and Forcing Mechanisms of the Last 2000 Years, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 433.Google Scholar
  29. Carcaillet, J., Bourlès, D. L., Thouveny, N., and Arnold, M.: 2004, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 219, 397.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Carslaw, K. S., Harrison, R. G., and Kirkby, J.: 2002, Science 298, 1732.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. Charvatova, I.: 2000, Ann. Geophys. 18, 399.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chen, H. L. and Rao, A. R.: 1998, Stochastic Hydrol. Hydraulics 12, 205.Google Scholar
  33. Christl, M., Mangini, A., Holzkämper, S., and Spötl, C.: 2004, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 313.ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Christoforou, P. and Hameed, S.: 1997, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 293.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Cini Castagnoli, G., Albrecht, A., Bonino, G., Shen, C., Callegari, E., Taricco, C., et al.: 1995, Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 707.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Cini Castagnoli, G., Bernasconi, S. M., Bonino, G., Della Monica, P., and Taricco, C.: 1999, Adv. Space Res. 24, 233.ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Cini Castagnoli, G., Bonino, G., Della Monica, P., Procopio, S., and Taricco, C.: 1998a, Nuovo Cimento C 21, 237.ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Cini Castagnoli, G., Bonino, G., and Taricco, C.: 1998b, Nuovo Cimento C 21, 453.ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Cini Castagnoli, G., Bonino, G., Taricco, C., and Bernasconi, S. M.: 2002, Adv. Space Res. 29, 1989.ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Clemens, S. C.: 2005, Quaternary Sci. Rev. 24, 521.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Cook, E. R., D'Arrigo, R., and Mann, M. E.: 2002, J. Climatol. 15, 1754.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Cook, E. R., Esper, J., and D'Arrigo, R. D.: 2004, Quaternary Sci. Rev. 23, 2063.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Cook, E. R., Meko, D. M., and Stockton, C. W.: 1997, J. Climatol. 10, 1343.ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Crowley, T. J.: 2003, Climatic Change 61, 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Crowley, T. J. and Lowery, T. S.: 2000, Ambio 29, 51.Google Scholar
  46. Crutzen, P. J. and Brühl, C.: 1996, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 1582.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Crutzen, P. J. and Steffen, W.: 2003, Climatic Change 61, 251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cullen, H. M. and DeMenocal, P. B.: 2000, Int. J. Climatol. 20, 853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Curran, M. A. J., van Ommen, T. D., Morgan, V. I., Phillips, K. L., and Palmer, A. S.: 2003, Science 302, 1203.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Currie, R. G.: 1996a, Int. J. Climatol. 16, 427.Google Scholar
  51. Currie, R. G.: 1996b, Int. J. Climatol. 16, 1343.Google Scholar
  52. Currie, R. G. and Vines, R. G.: 1996, Int. J. Climatol. 16, 1243.Google Scholar
  53. Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S. J., Clauson, H. B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N. S., Hammer, C. U., et al.: 1993, Nature 364, 218.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Davis, O. K.: 1993, A Bibliography of Holocene Climate Events http://www.geo.arizona.edu/palynology/geos462/holobib.html.
  55. de Jager, C. and Versteegh, G. J. M.: in press, Solar Phys. Google Scholar
  56. Dean, W., Anderson, R., Bradbury, J. P., and Anderson, D.: 2002, J. Paleolimnol. 27, 287.Google Scholar
  57. Dergachev, V. A., Raspopov, O. M., van Geel, B., and Zaitseva, G. I.: 2004, Radiocarbon 46, 661.Google Scholar
  58. Domack, E., Leventer, A., Dunbar, R., Taylor, F., Brachfeld, S., and Sjunneskog, C.: 2001, Holocene 11, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Donarummo, J., Ram, M., and Stolz, M. R.: 2004, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, DOI:10.1029/ 2002GL014858.Google Scholar
  60. Egbert, G. D. and Ray, R. D.: 2000, Nature 405, 775.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Ellis, J. and Schramm, D. N.: 1995, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 235.ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Elton, C.: 1924, Br. J. Exp. Biol. 2, 119.Google Scholar
  63. Enfield, D. B., Mestas-Nuñez, A. M., and Trimble, P. J.: 2001, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2077.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Esper, J., Cook, E. R., and Schweingruber, F. H.: 2002, Science 295, 2250.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Fairbridge, R. W.: 2001, Holocene 11, 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Felis, T., Pätzold, J., Loya, Y., Fine, M., Nawar, A. H., and Wefer, G.: 2000, Paleoceanography 15, 679.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Ferraro, S. and Mazzarella, A.: 1998, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 59, 129.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Fleitmann, D., Burns, S. J., Mudelsee, M., Neff, U., Kramers, J., Mangini, A., et al.: 2003, Science 300, 1737.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. Fleitmann, D., Burns, S. J., Neff, U., Mudelsee, M., Mangini, A., and Matter, A.: 2004, Quaternary Sci. Rev. 23, 935.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  70. Gimeno, L., de la Torre, L., Nieto, R., Garcia, R., Hernandez, E., and Ribera, P.: 2003, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 206, 15.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  71. Glueck, M. F. and Stockton, C. W.: 2001, Int. J. Climatol. 21, 1453–1465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Goodwin, I. D., van Ommen, T. D., Curran, M. A. J., and Mayewski, P. A.: 2004, Clim. Dynam. 22, 783.ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. Green, D. A. and Stephenson, F. R.: 2004, Astroparticle Phys. 20, 613.ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Gupta, A. K., Anderson, D. M., and Overpeck, J. T.: 2003, Nature 421, 354.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Hagelberg, T. K., Bond, G., and DeMenocal, P.: 1994, Paleoceanography 9, 545.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Haigh, J. D.: 1999, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 61, 63.ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Haigh, J. D.: 2003, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 361, 95.ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Hammer, C. U., Clausen, H. B., and Dansgaard, W.: 1980, Nature 288, 230.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  79. Haug, G. H., Gunther, D., Peterson, L. C., Sigman, D. M., Hughen, K. A., and Aeschlimann, B.: 2003, Science 299, 1731.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. Hegerl, G. C., Crowley, T. J., Baum, S. K., Kim, K.-Y., and Hyde, W. T.: 2003, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, DOI:10.1029/2002GL016635.Google Scholar
  81. Helland-Hansen, B. and Nansen, F.: 1920, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 70, 1.Google Scholar
  82. Hiremath, K. M. and Mandi, P. I.: 2004, New Astron. 9, 651.ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Hodell, D. A., Brenner, M., Curtis, J. H., and Guilderson, T.: 2001, Science 292, 1367.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  84. Hong, Y. T., Wang, Z. G., Jiang, H. B., Lin, Q. H., Hong, B., Zhu, Y. X., et al.: 2001, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 185, 111.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Hoyt, D. V. and Schatten, K. H.: 1997, The Role of the Sun in Climate Change, Oxford University Press, New York, p. 279.Google Scholar
  86. Hu, F. S., Kaufman, D., Yoneji, S., Nelson, D., Shemesh, A., Huang, Y., et al.: 2003, Science 301, 1890.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  87. Hughen, K., Lehman, S., Southon, J., Overpeck, J., Marchal, O., Herring, C., et al.: 2004, Science 303, 202.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  88. IPCC Working Group 1.: 2001, Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p. 881.Google Scholar
  89. Iyudin, A. F.: 2002, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 64, 669.ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. Jacoby, G., Solomina, O., Frank, D., Eremenko, N., and D'Arrigo, R.: 2004, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 209, 303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jones, P. D., Briffa, K. R., Barnett, T. P., and Tett, S. F. B.: 1998, Holocene 8, 455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Jones, P. D. and Mann, M. E.: 2004, Rev. Geophys. 42, DOI:10.1029/2003RG000143.Google Scholar
  93. Jose, P. D.: 1965, Astronom. J. 70, 193.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  94. Keeling, C. D. and Whorf, T. P.: 2000, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 3814.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  95. Kleiven, H. F., Jansen, E., Curry, W. B., Hodell, D. A., and Venz, K.: 2003, Paleoceanography 18, 1008.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Kniveton, D. R. and Todd, M. C.: 2001, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1527.ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Knox, F. G. and McFadgen, B. G.: 2004, Radiocarbon 46, 987.Google Scholar
  98. Kodera, K.: 2002, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1218.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  99. Kodera, K. and Kuroda, Y.: 2005, J. Geophys. Res. D 110, D02111-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Krebs, C. J., Boonstra, R., Boutin, S., and Sinclair, A. R. E.: 2001, BioScience 51, 25.Google Scholar
  101. Kristjánsson, J. E., Kristiansen, J., and Kaas, E.: 2004, Adv. Space Res. 34, 407.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kvana, I., Berteaux, D., and Cazelles, B.: 2004, Am. Nat. 164, 1.Google Scholar
  103. Labitzke, K.: 2005, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 67, 45.ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. Lamb, H., Darbyshire, L., and Verschuren, D.: 2003, Holocene 13, 285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lamb, H. H.: 1965, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 1, 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lamb, H. H.: 1979, Quaternary Res. 11, 1.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  107. Landscheidt, T.: 1999, Solar Phys. 189, 415.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  108. Loehle, C.: 2004, Ecol. Model. 171, 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Loutre, M. F., Berger, A., Bretagnon, P., and Blanc, P.-L.: 1992, Clim. Dynam. 7, 181.ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. Lund, D. C. and Curry, W. B.: 2004, Paleoceanography 19, PA4001-1.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  111. Luterbacher, J., Schmutz, C., Gyalistras, D., Xoplaki, E., and Wanner, H.: 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2745.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  112. Luterbacher, J., Xoplaki, E., Dietrich, D., Jones, P. D., Davies, T. D., Portis, D., Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F., von Storch, H., Gyalistras, D., Casty, C., and Wanner, H.: 2002, Atmos. Sci. Lett. 2, 114.ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. Magny, M.: 2004, Quatern. Int. 113, 65.Google Scholar
  114. Mann, M., Amman, C., Briffa, K., Jones, P., Osborn, T., Crowley, T., et al.: 2003a, Eos 84, 256.ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. Mann, M., Amman, C., Briffa, K., Jones, P., Osborn, T., Crowley, T., et al.: 2003b, Eos 84, 473.ADSGoogle Scholar
  116. Mann, M. E., Bradley, R. S., and Hughes, M. K.: 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 759.ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. Mann, M. E. and Jones, P. D.: 2003, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1.Google Scholar
  118. Mantua, N. J., Hare, S. R., Zhang, Y., Wallace, J. M., and Francis, R. C.: 1997, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 1069.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  119. Marshall, J., Kushnir, Y., Battisti, D., Chang, P., Czaja, A., Dickson, et al.: 2004, Int. J. Climatol. 21, 1863.Google Scholar
  120. Masarik, J. and Beer, J.: 1999, J. Geophys. Res. D 104, 12099.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  121. Mauquoy, D., Blaauw, M., van Geel, B., Borromei, A., Quattrocchio, M., Chambers, F. M., et al.: 2004a, Quaternary Res. 61, 148.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  122. Mauquoy, D., van Geel, B., Blaauw, M., Speranza, A., and van der Plicht, J.: 2004b, Holocene 14, 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Mauquoy, D., van Geel, B., Blaauw, M., and van der Plicht, J.: 2002, Holocene 12, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. McCabe, G. J., Palecki, M. A., and Betancourt, J. L.: 2004, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 4136.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  125. McCracken, K. G.: 2004, J. Geophys. Res., A 109, A04101-1.Google Scholar
  126. McIntyre, A. and Molfino, B.: 1996, Science 274, 1867.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  127. McIntyre, S. and McKitrick, R.: 2005, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L03710-1.Google Scholar
  128. Mehta, V. M. and Lau, K.-M.: 1997, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 159.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  129. Miranda, J. G. V. and Andrade, R. F. S.: 1999, Theor. Appl. Climatol. 63, 79.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  130. Moberg, A., Sonechkin, D. M., Holmgren, K., Datsenko, N. M., and Karlén, W.: 2005, Nature 433, 613.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  131. Munk, W., Dzieciuch, M., and Jayne, S.: 2002, J. Climatol. 15, 370.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  132. Muscheler, R., Beer, J., and Kromer, B.: 2003, ESA SP 535, 305.ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. Muscheler, R., Beer, J., Wagner, G., and Finkel, R. C.: 2000, Nature 408, 567.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  134. Muscheler, R., Beer, J., Wagner, G., Laj, C., Kissel, C., Raisbeck, G. M., et al.: 2004, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 219, 325.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  135. Nagovitsyn, Y. A., Ivanov, V. G., Miletsky, E. F., and Volobuev, D. M.: 2003, Proceedings of the International Conference – WorkshopCosmogenic Climate Forcing Factors During the Last Millennium”, Vol. 41.Google Scholar
  136. Neff, U., Burns, S. J., Mangini, A., Mudelsee, M., Fleitmann, D., and Matter, A.: 2001, Nature 411, 290.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  137. Ni, F. B., Cavazos, T., Hughes, M. K., Comrie, A. C., and Funkhouser, G.: 2002, Int. J. Climatol. 22, 1645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Nuzhdina, M. A.: 2004, Nat. Hazard. Earth Sys. 2, 83.Google Scholar
  139. Ogi, M., Yamazaki, K., and Tachibana, Y.: 2003, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 2170.ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. Ogurtsov, M. G.: 2004, Solar Phys. 220, 93.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  141. Ogurtsov, M. G., Jungner, H., Kocharov, G. E., Lindholm, M., and Eronen, M.: 2004, Solar Phys. 222, 177.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  142. Ogurtsov, M. G., Jungner, H., Kocharov, G. E., Lindholm, M., Eronen, M., and Nagovitsyn, Y. A.: 2003, Solar Phys. 218, 345.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  143. Ogurtsov, M. G., Kocharov, G. E., Lindholm, M., Merilainen, J., Eronen, M., and Nagovitsyn, Y. A.: 2002a, Solar Phys. 205, 403.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  144. Ogurtsov, M. G., Nagovitsyn, Y. A., Kocharov, G. E., and Jungner, H.: 2002b, Solar Phys. 211, 371.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  145. Osborn, T. J. and Briffa, K. R.: 2004, Science 306, 621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Overpeck, J., Hughen, K., Hardy, D., Bradley, R., Case, R., Douglas, M., et al.: 1997, Science 278, 1251.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  147. Palamara, D. R. and Bryant, E. A.: 2004, Ann. Geophys. 22, 725.ADSGoogle Scholar
  148. Palmer, A. S., van Ommen, T. D., Curran, M. A. J., and Morgan, V.: 2001, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 1953.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  149. Palmer, J. G. and Xiong, L.: 2004, Holocene 14, 282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Patterson, R. T., Prokoph, A., and Chang, A.: 2004, Sed. Geol. 172, 67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Pavese, M. P., Banzon, V., Colacino, M., Gregori, G. P., and Pasqua, M.: 1995, in R. S. Bradley and P. D. Jones (eds.), Climate since A.D. 1500, Routledge, London, p. 155.Google Scholar
  152. Pfister, C. and Brázdil, R.: 1999, Climatic Change 43, 5.Google Scholar
  153. Pfister, C., Brázdil, R., Glaser, R., Barriendos, M., Camuffo, D., Deutsch, M., et al.: 1999, Climatic Change 43, 55.Google Scholar
  154. Pfister, C., Luterbacher, J., Schwarz-Zanetti, G., and Wegmann, M.: 1998, Holocene 8, 535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Poore, R. Z., Quinn, T. M., and Verardo, S.: 2004, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L12214-1.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  156. Pozo-Vazquez, D., Tovar-Pescador, J., Gamiz-Fortis, S. R., Esteban-Parra, M. J., and Castro-Diez, Y.: 2004, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, 1.Google Scholar
  157. Prasad, S., Vos, H., and Negendank, J. F. W.: 2004, Geology 32, 581.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  158. Pustilnik, L. A. and Yom Din, G.: 2004, Solar Phys. 223, 335.ADSGoogle Scholar
  159. Ram, M., Stolz, M., and Koenig, G.: 1997, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2359.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  160. Ram, M. and Stolz, M. R.: 1999, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1043.ADSGoogle Scholar
  161. Raspopov, O. M., Dergachev, V. A., and Gooskova, E. G.: 2003, Eos 84, 77, 83.Google Scholar
  162. Raspopov, O. M., Dergachev, V. A., and Kolström, T.: 2004, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 209, 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rigozo, N. R., Nordemann, D. J. R., Echer, E., and Vieira, L. E. A.: 2004, Pure Appl. Geophys. 161, 221.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  164. Rosenmeier, M. F., Hodell, D. A., Brenner, M., and Curtis, J. H.: 2002, Quaternary Res. 57, 183.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  165. Roth, S. and Reijmer, J. J. G.: 2005, Sedimentology 52, 161.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  166. Rozema, J., van Geel, B., Björn, L. O., Lean, J., and Madronich, S.: 2002, Science 296, 1621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Ruddiman, W. F.: 2003, Climatic Change 61, 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Russell, J. M., Johnson, T. C., and Talbot, M. R.: 2003, Geology 31, 677.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  169. Ruzmaikin, A., Feynman, J., Jiang, X., Noone, D. C., Waple, A. M., and Yung, Y. L.: 2004, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L12201-1.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  170. Schimmelmann, A., Harvey, C. C., Zhao, M., and Lange, C. B.: 1999, Quaternary Res. 51, 111.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  171. Schimmelmann, A., Lange, C. B., and Meggers, B. J.: 2003, Holocene 13, 769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Schimmelmann, A., Zhao, M., Harvey, C. C., and Lange, C. B.: 1998, Quaternary Res. 49, 51.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  173. Schmutz, C., Luterbacher, J., Gyalistras, D., Xoplaki, E., and Wanner, H.: 2000, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 1135.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  174. Shackleton, N. J., Fairbanks, R. G., Chiu, T. C., and Parrenin, F.: 2004, Quaternary Sci. Rev. 23, 1513.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  175. Shaviv, N. J.: 2002, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 051102.ADSGoogle Scholar
  176. Shea, M. A. and Smart, D. F.: 2004, Adv. Space Res. 34, 420.ADSGoogle Scholar
  177. Shea, M. A., Smart, D. F., Dreschhoff, G. A. M., and McCracken, K. G.: 2003, Frontiers Space Sci. 41, 4225.Google Scholar
  178. Shindell, D. T., Schmidt, G. A., Mann, M. E., Rind, D., and Waple, A.: 2001, Science 294, 2149.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  179. Shindell, D. T., Schmidt, G. A., Miller, R. L., and Mann, M. E.: 2003, J. Climatol. 16, 4094.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  180. Sinclair, A. R. E. and Gosline, J. M.: 1997, Am. Nat. 149, 776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Sinclair, A. R. E., Gosline, J. M., Holdsworth, D. G., Krebs, C. J., Boutin, S., Smith, J. N. M., Boonstra, R., and Dale, M.: 1993, Am. Nat. 141, 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Snowball, I. and Sandgren, P.: 2004, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 227, 361.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  183. Solanki, S. K. and Krivova, N. A.: 2003, J. Geophys. Res., A 108, 7-1.Google Scholar
  184. Solanki, S. K., Usoskin, I. G., Kromer, B., Schüssler, M., and Beer, J.: 2004, Nature 431, 1084.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  185. Soon, W. and Baliunas, S.: 2003a, Eos 84, 473, 476.Google Scholar
  186. Soon, W. and Baliunas, S.: 2003b, Climate Res. 23, 89.Google Scholar
  187. St-Onge, G., Stoner, J. S., and Hillaire-Marcel, C.: 2003, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 209, 113.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  188. Stager, J. C., Ryves, D., Cumming, B. F., Meeker, L. D., and Beer, J.: 2005, J. Paleolimnol. 33, 243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Steinbach, M., Tan, P.-N., Kumar, V., Klooster, S., and Potter, C.: 2003, Proceedings of 9th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 446.Google Scholar
  190. Stuiver, M., Grootes, P. M., and Braziunas, T. F.: 1995, Quaternary Res. 44, 341.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  191. Svensmark, H. and Friis-Christensen, E.: 1997, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 59, 1225.ADSGoogle Scholar
  192. Tan, M., Hou, J. Z., and Liu, T. S.: 2004, Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L07207-1.Google Scholar
  193. Tan, M., Liu, T. S., Hou, J. Z., Qin, X. G., Zhang, H. C., and Li, T. Y.: 2003, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 19-1.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  194. Tedesco, K. and Thunell, R.: 2003, Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1891-1.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  195. Thejll, P. A.: 2001, J. Geophys. Res. D 106, 31693.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  196. Thompson, L. G., Mosley-Thompson, E., Davis, M. E., Henderson, K. A., Brecher, H. H., Zagorodnov, V. S., et al.: 2002, Science 298, 589.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  197. Thompson, L. G., Mosley-Thompson, E., Davis, M. E., Lin, P. N., Henderson, K., and Mashiotta, T. A.: 2003, Climatic Change 59, 137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Thouveny, N., Carcaillet, J., Moreno, E., Leduc, G., and Nérini, D.: 2004, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 219, 377.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  199. Thresher, R. E.: 2002, Int. J. Climatol. 22, 901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Timm, O., Ruprecht, E., and Kleppek, S.: 2004, J. Climatol. 17, 2157.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  201. Tiwari, R. K. and Rao, K. N. N.: 2004, Pure Appl. Geophys. 161, 413.ADSGoogle Scholar
  202. Treloar, N. C.: 2002, Int. J. Climatol. 22, 1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Troshichev, O. and Gabis, I.: 2005, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 67, 93.ADSGoogle Scholar
  204. Tsonis, A. A., Hunt, A. G., and Elsner, J. B.: 2003, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 84, 229.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  205. Udelhofen, P. M. and Cess, R. D.: 2001, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 2617.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  206. Usoskin, I. G., Mursula, K., Solanki, S., Schüssler, M., and Alanko, K.: 2004a, Astronom. Astrophys. 413, 745.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Usoskin, I. G., Solanki, S. K., Schüssler, M., and Mursula, K.: 2004b, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 199002-1.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  208. Vaganov, E. A., Hughes, M. K., Kirdyanov, A. V., Schweingruber, F. H., and Silkin, P. P.: 1999, Nature 400, 149.ADSGoogle Scholar
  209. van der Plicht, J., van Geel, B., Bohncke, S. J. P., Bos, J. A. A., Blaauw, M., Speranza, A. O. M., et al.: 2004, J. Quaternary Sci. 19, 263.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  210. van der Schrier, G. and Versteegh, G. J. M.: 2001, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 759.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  211. van Geel, B. and Mook, W. G.: 1989, Radiocarbon 31, 151.Google Scholar
  212. van Geel, B., Renssen, H., and van der Plicht, J.: 2001, CERN Publ. 2001-007, 24.Google Scholar
  213. van Geel, B., van der Plicht, J., Kilian, M. R., Klaver, E. R., Kouwenberg, J. H. M., Renssen, H., et al.: 1998, Radiocarbon 40, 535.Google Scholar
  214. van Geel, B., van der Plicht, J., and Renssen, H.: 1999, Quaternary Res. 51, 108.ADSGoogle Scholar
  215. Vasiliev, S. S. and Dergachev, V. A.: 2002, Ann. Geophys. 20, 115.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Veretenenko, S. and Thejll, P.: 2004, J. Atm. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 393.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Verschuren, D., Laird, K. R., and Cumming, B. F.: 2000, Nature 403, 410.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  218. Viau, A. E., Gajewski, K., Fines, P., Atkinson, D. E., and Sawada, M. C.: 2002, Geology 30, 455.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  219. Vitt, F. M., Armstrong, T. P., Cravens, T. E., Dreschhoff, G. A. M., Jackman, C. H., and Laird, C. M.: 2000, J. Atm. Solar-Terr. Phys. 62, 669.ADSGoogle Scholar
  220. von Storch, H., Zorita, E., Jones, J. M., Dimitriev, Y., González-Rouco, F. and Tett, S. F. B.: 2004, Science 306, 679.ADSGoogle Scholar
  221. Vos, H., Sanchez, A., Zolitschka, B., Brauer, A., and Negendank, J. F. W.: 1997, Surv. Geophys. 18, 163.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  222. Wagner, G., Beer, J., Masarik, J., Muscheler, R., Kubik, P. W., Mende, W., Laj, C., Raisbeck, G. M., and Yiou, F.: 2001, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 303.ADSGoogle Scholar
  223. Wang Ninglian, Thompson, L. G. and Cole-Dai, J.: 2000, Chinese Sci. Bull. 45, 2118.Google Scholar
  224. Wanner, H., Brönnimann, S., Casty, C., Gyalistras, D., Luterbacher, J., Schmutz, C., Stephenson, D. B., and Xoplaki, E.: 2001, Surv. Geophys. 312.Google Scholar
  225. Westaway, R.: 2003, Curr. Sci. India 84, 1105.Google Scholar
  226. White, W. B., Lean, J., Cayan, D. R., and Dettinger, M. D.: 1997, J. Geophys. Res., C 102, 3255.ADSGoogle Scholar
  227. Wittmann, A. D.: 1992, Catalog of large sunspots (165 BC-1992), 36pp. http://alpha.uni-sw.gwdg.de/~wittmann/awittmann-Dateien/navbar-Dateien/Largespotscatalog.pdf
  228. Worm, H. U.: 1997, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 147, 55.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  229. Wunsch, C.: 2000, Nature 405, 743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Xu Zhentao: 1990, Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. London 330, 513.ADSGoogle Scholar
  231. Yu, Z. C. and Ito, E.: 1999, Geology 27, 263.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  232. Zielinski, G. A.: 2000, Quaternary Sci. Rev. 19, 417.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hanse WissenschaftskollegDelmenhorstGermany

Personalised recommendations