Space Science Reviews

, Volume 116, Issue 3–4, pp 523–624 | Cite as

Supermassive Black Holes in Galactic Nuclei: Past, Present and Future Research

  • Laura Ferrarese
  • Holland Ford


This review discusses the current status of supermassive black hole research, as seen from a purely observational standpoint. Since the early ‘90s, rapid technological advances, most notably the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, the commissioning of the VLBA and improvements in near-infrared speckle imaging techniques, have not only given us incontrovertible proof of the existence of supermassive black holes, but have unveiled fundamental connections between the mass of the central singularity and the global properties of the host galaxy. It is thanks to these observations that we are now, for the first time, in a position to understand the origin, evolution and cosmic relevance of these fascinating objects.


Black Hole Imaging Technique Technological Advance Global Property Hubble Space Telescope 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abbott, B., et al.: 2003, arXiv:grqc/0308069 Vol. 1, 21 August 2003.Google Scholar
  2. Abbott, B., et al.: 2004, NIMPA 517, 154.Google Scholar
  3. Acernese, F., et al.: 2002, CQGra 19, 1421.Google Scholar
  4. Adams, F. C., Graff, D. S., and Richstone, D.: 2000, ApJ 551, L31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akritas, M. G., and Bershady, M. A.: 1996, ApJ 470, 706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alexander, D. M., et al.: 2001, ApJ 122, 2156.Google Scholar
  7. Allen, C. R., et al.: 1962, MNRAS 124, 477.Google Scholar
  8. Allen, Z. A., et al.: 2000, PhRvL 85, 5046.Google Scholar
  9. Alonso-Herrero, A., Ivanov, V. D., Jayawardhana, R., and Hosokawa, T.: 2002, ApJ 571, L1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ando, M., et al.: 2002, CQGra 19, 1409.Google Scholar
  11. Antonucci, R. R. J.: 1993, ARA&A 31, 473.Google Scholar
  12. Antonucci, R. R. J., and Miller, J. S.: 1985, ApJ 297, 621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arav, N., Barlow, T. A., Laor, A., and Blandford, R. D.: 1997, MNRAS 288, 1015.Google Scholar
  14. Arav, N., Barlow, T. A., Laor, A., Sargent, W. L. W., and Blandford, R. D.: 1998, MNRAS 297, 990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baade, W., and Minkowski, R.: 1954, ApJ 119, 206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baade, W.: 1955, ApJ 123, 550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bacon, R., Emsellem, E., Combes, F., Copin, Y., Monnet, G., and Martin, P.: 2001, A&A 371, 409.Google Scholar
  18. Baes, M., Buyle, P., Hau, G. K. T., and Dejonghe, H.: 2003, MNRAS 341, L44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Balick, B., and Brown, R. L.: 1974, ApJ 194, 264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bao, G., and Abramowicz, M. A.: 1996, ApJ 465, 646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Barger, A. J., et al.: 2001, AJ 122, 2177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Barger, A. J., et al.: 2002, AJ 124, 1839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Barish, B. C.: 2000, AdSpR 25, 1165.Google Scholar
  24. Barth, A., et al.: 2001, ApJ 555, 685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Barth, A., Ho, L. C., and Sargent, W. L. W.: 2002, ApJ 566, L13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Barth, A., Ho, L. C., and Sargent, W. L. W.: 2003, ApJ 583, 134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Begelman, M. C., Blandford, R. D., and Rees, M. J.: 1980, Nature 287, 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Begelman, M. C.: 2001, ApJ 551, 897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Belloni, T., and Hasinger, G.: 1990, A&A 227, L33.Google Scholar
  30. Bernardi M., et al.: 2003, AJ 125, 1817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bian, W.-H., and Zhao, Y.-H.: 2003, PASJ 55, 143.Google Scholar
  32. Binney, J., and Mamon, G. A.: 1982, MNRAS 200, 361.Google Scholar
  33. Binney, J. and Tremaine, S.: 1987, Galactic Dynamics, Princeton University Press (Princeton).Google Scholar
  34. Blandford, R. D., and McKee, C. F.: 1982, ApJ 255, 419; Blanford, R. D., and Begelman, M. C.: 1999, MNRAS 303, L1.Google Scholar
  35. Blandford, R. D., and Begelman, M. C.: 1999, MNRAS 303, L1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Blumenthal, G. R., and Mathews, W. G.: 1975, ApJ 198, 517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bolton, C. T.: 1972, Nature 235, 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Boroson, T. A.: 2002, ApJ 565, 78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bottorff, M., Korista, K. T., Shlosman, I., and Blandfrod, R. D.: 1997, ApJ 479, 200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Boyle, B. J., et al.: 2000, MNRAS 317, 1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bower, G., et al.: 1998, ApJ 492, L111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Braatz, J. A., Wilson, A. S., and Henkel, C.: 1994, ApJ 437, L99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Braatz, J. A., Wilson, A. S., and Henkel, C.: 1996, ApJS 106, 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Braatz, J. A., Wilson, A. S., and Henkel, C.: 1997, ApJS 110, 321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Brucato, R. J., and Kristian, J.: 1972, ApJ 173, 105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Bryan, G. L., and Norman, M. L.: 1998, ApJ 495, 80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Bullock, J. S., et al.: 2001, MNRAS 321, 559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Burbidge, G. R.: 1962, in ’,Problems of Extra-Galactic Research,’ Proceedings from IAU Symposium No. 15. (eds.) George Cunliffe McVittie, Macmillan Press, New York, p. 258.Google Scholar
  49. Cappellari, M., et al.: 2002, ApJ 578, 787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cattaneo, A., Haehnelt, M. G., and Rees, M. J.: 1999, MNRAS 308, 77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cecil, G., Wilson, A. S., and Tully, R. B.: 1992, ApJ 390, 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Cecil, G., et al.: 2000, ApJ 536, 675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Chandrasekhar, S.: 1931, ApJ 74, 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Chandrasekhar, S.: 1935, MNRAS 95, 226.Google Scholar
  55. Cheung, et al.: 1969, Nature 221, 626.Google Scholar
  56. Chiang, J., and Murray, N.: 1996, ApJ 466, 704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Chokshi, A. and Turner, E. L.: 1992, MNRAS 259, 421.Google Scholar
  58. Cipollina, M., and Bertin, G.: 1994, A&A 288, 43.Google Scholar
  59. Claussen, M. J., Hellingman, G. M., and Lo, K. Y.: 1984, Nature 310, 298.Google Scholar
  60. Claussen, M. J., and Lo, K. Y.: 1986, ApJ 308, 592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Collin-Souffrin, S., Dyson, J. E., McDowell, J. C., and Perry, J. J.: 1988, MNRAS 232, 539.Google Scholar
  62. Cowie, L. L., et al.: 2003, ApJ 584, L57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Crane, P., et al.: 1993, AJ 106, 1371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Crawford, M. K., Genzel, R., Harris, A. I., Jaffe, D. T., Lugten, J. B., Serabyn, E., Townes, C. H., and Lacy, J. H.: 1985, Nature 315, 467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Cretton, N., and van den Bosch, F. C.: 1999, ApJ 514, 704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Croom S. M., et al.: 2003, astroph/0403040.Google Scholar
  67. Curtis, H. D.: 1918, Pub. Lick. Obs. 13, 31.Google Scholar
  68. Dabrowski, Y., Fabian, A. C., Iwasawa, K., Lasenby, A. N., and Reynolds, C. S.: 1997, MNRAS 288, L11.Google Scholar
  69. Danzmann, K.: 1995, GEO600–-A 600-m Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Antenna, in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on gravitational wave experiments E. Coccia, G. Pizella and F. Ronga (eds.) (World Scientific, Singapore), pp. 100–111.Google Scholar
  70. Danzmann, K.: 2000, AdSpR 25, 1129.Google Scholar
  71. de Araujo, J. C. N., Miranda, O.D, and Aguiar, O. D.: 2001, ApJ 550, 368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Dettmar, R.-J., and Koribalski, B.: 1990, A&A 240, 15.Google Scholar
  73. de Vaucouleurs, G., de Vaucouleurs, A., Corwin, H. G., Jr., Buta, R. J., Pasturel, G., and Fouqu, P.: 1991, Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (New York: Springer).Google Scholar
  74. Devereux, N., Ford, H. C., Tsvetanov, Z., and Jacoby, G.: 2003, AJ 125, 1226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. de Zeeuw, T.: 2003, in “Hubble Science Legacy: Future Optical/Ultraviolet Astronomy from Space,” K. R.Sembach, J. C.Blades, G. D.Illingworth, and R. C. Kennicutt (eds.), ASPC Conference Series, Vol. 291, p. 205.Google Scholar
  76. Dietrich, M., Wagner, S. J., Courvoisier, T. J.-L., Bock, H., and North, P.: 1999, A&A 351, 31.Google Scholar
  77. di Matteo, T., Fabian, A. C., Rees, M. J., Carilli, C. L., and Ivison, R. J.: 1999, MNRAS 305, 492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Doeleman, S. S., et al.: 2001, AJ 121, 2610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Done, C., and Krolik, J. H.: 1996, ApJ 463, 144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Done, C., Madejski, G. M., and Zycki, P. T.: 2000, ApJ 536, 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. dos Santos, P. M. and Lepine, J. R. D.: 1979, Nature 278, 34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ebisuzaki, T., Makino, J., and Okumura, S. K.: 1991, Nature 354, 212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Eckart, A., Genzel, R., Hofmann, R., Sams, B. J., and Tacconi-Garman, L. E.: 1993, ApJ 407, L77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Eddington, A. S.: 1930, “The Internal Constitution of Stars,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  85. Edelson, R., and Nandra, K.: 1999, ApJ 514, 682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. El-Zant, A. A., Shlosman, I., Begelman, M. C., and Frank, J.: 2003, ApJ 590, 641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Einstein, A.: 1915, Sitzungsberichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Klasse fur Mathematik, Physik, und Technik, 844.Google Scholar
  88. Eisenhauer, F., SchÖdel, R., Genzel, R., Ott, T., Tecza, M., Abuter, R., Eckart, A., and Alexander, T.: 2003, ApJ 597, L121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ekers, R. D., Goss, W. M., Schwarz, U. J., Downes, D., and Rogstad, D. H.: 1975, A&A 43, 159.Google Scholar
  90. Elvis M., et al.: 1994, ApJS 95, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Elvis, M., Risaliti, G., and Zamorani, G.: 2002, ApJ 565, 75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Emmering, R. T., Blandford, R. D., and Schlosman, I.: 1992, ApJ 385, 460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Emsellem, E., et al.: 1999, MNRAS 303, 495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Faber, S. M., et al.: 1989, ApJS 69, 763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Fabian, A. C., and Canizares, C. A.: 1988, Nature 333, 829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Fabian, A. C., Rees, M. J., Stella, L., and White, N.: 1989, MNRAS 238, 729.Google Scholar
  97. Fabian, A. C., et al.: 1995, MNRAS 277, L11.Google Scholar
  98. Fabian, A. C. and Iwasawa, K.: 1999, MNRAS 303, L34, 121, 662.Google Scholar
  99. Fabian, A. C., Iwasawa, K., Reynolds, C. S., and Young, A. J.: 2000, PASP 112, 1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Fabian, A. C.: 2003, Astron. Nach. 324, 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Falcke, H., Henkel, Chr., Peck, A. B., Hagiwara, Y., Almudena Prieto, M., and Gallimore, J. F.: 2000, A&A 358, L17.Google Scholar
  102. Falomo, R., Kotilainen, J. K., Carangelo, N., and Treves, A.: 2003, ApJ 595, 624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Fan, X., et al.: 2001, AJ 121, 54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ferland, G. J., Peterson, B. M., Horne, K., Welsh, W. F., and Nahar, S. N.: 1992, ApJ 387, 95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ferrarese, L., van den Bosch, F. C., Ford, H. C., Jaffe, W., and O’Connell, R. W.: 1994, AJ 108, 1598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ferrarese, L., Ford, H. C., and Jaffe, W.: 1996, ApJ 470, 444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ferrarese, L., and Ford, H. C.: 1999, ApJ 515, 583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ferrarese, L. and Merritt, D., 2000, ApJ 539, L9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ferrarese, L., Pogge, R. W., Peterson, B. M., Merritt, D., Wandel, A., and Joseph, C. M.: 2001, ApJ 555, L79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ferrarese, L.: 2002a, in “Current High-Energy Emission Around Black Holes,” Proceedings of the 2nd KIAS Astrophysics Workshop, Chang-Hwan Lee and Heon-Young Chang (eds.), Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, p. 3.Google Scholar
  111. Ferrarese, L.: 2002b, ApJ 578, 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ferrarese, L.: 2003, in “Hubble Science Legacy: Future Optical/Ultraviolet Astronomy from Space,” K. R. Sembach, J. C. Blades, G. D. Illingworth, and R. C. Kennicutt (eds.), ASPC Conference Series, Vol. 291, p. 196.Google Scholar
  113. Field, G. B.: 1964, ApJ 140, 1434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Filippenko, A. V., and Ho, L. C.: 2003, ApJ 588, L13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Ford, H. C., Dahari, O., Jacoby, G. H., Crane, P. C., and Ciardullo, R.: 1986, ApJ 311, L7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Ford, H. C., et al.: 1994, ApJ 435, L27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Fowler, R. H.: 1926, MNRAS 87, 114.Google Scholar
  118. Franceschini, A., Vercellone, S., and Fabian, A. C.: 1998, MNRAS 297, 817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Fukugita, M., Hogan, C. J., and Peebles, P. J. E.: 1998, ApJ 503, 518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Gallimore, J. F., Baum, S. A., O’Dea, C. P., and Pedlar, A.: 1996a, ApJ 458, 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Gallimore, J. F., Baum, S. A., O’Dea, C. P., Brinks, E., and Pedlar, A.: 1996b, ApJ 462, 740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Gallimore,J. F., Baum, S. A., and O’Dea, C. P.: 1996c, ApJ 464, 198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Gallimore,J. F., Baum, S. A., and O’Dea, C. P.: 1997, Ap&SS 248, 253.Google Scholar
  124. Gardner, F. F., and Whiteoak, J. B.: 1982, MNRAS 201, 13.Google Scholar
  125. Gebhardt, K., et al.: 2000a, AJ 119, 1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Gebhardt, K., et al.: 2000b, ApJ 539, L13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Gebhardt, K., et al.: 2000c, ApJ 543, L5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Gebhardt, K., et al.: 2003, ApJ 583, 92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Genzel, R., and Townes, C. H.: 1987, ARA&A 25, 377.Google Scholar
  130. George, I. M., and Fabian, A. C.: 1991, MNRAS 249, 352.Google Scholar
  131. Gerhard, O.: 1993, MNRAS 265, 213.Google Scholar
  132. Gerhard, O., Kronawitter, A., Saglia, R. P., and Bender, R.: 2001, AJ 121, 1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ghez, A. M., Klein, B. L., Morris, M., and Becklin, E. E.: 1998, ApJ 509, 678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Ghez, A. M., Morris, M., Becklin, E. E., Tanner, A., and Kremenek, T.: 2000, Nature 407, 349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Ghez, A. M., et al.: 2003, ApJ 586, L127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Gilli, G. M., Salviati, M., and Hasinger, G., 2001, A&A 366, 407.Google Scholar
  137. Gondoin, P., Barr, P., Lumb, D., Oosterbroek, T., Orr, A., and Parmar, A. N.: 2001a, A&A 378, 806.Google Scholar
  138. Gondoin, P., Lumb, D., Siddiqui, H., Guainazzi, M., and Schartel, N., 2001b, A&A 373, 805.Google Scholar
  139. Graham, A. W., Erwin, P., Caon, N., and Trujillo, I.: 2001, ApJ 563, L11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Greenhill, L. J., Jiang, D. R., Moran, J. M., Reid, M. J., Lo, K. Y., and Claussen, M. J.: 1995a, ApJ 440, 619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Greenhill, L. J., Henkel, C., Becker, R., Wilson, T. L., and Wouterloot, J. G. A.: 1995b, A&A 304, 21.Google Scholar
  142. Greenhill, L. J., Gwinn, C. R., Antonucci, R., and Barvainis, R.: 1996, ApJ 472, L21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Greenhill, L. J. and Gwinn, C. R.: 1997, Astrophysics and Space Science 248, 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Greenhill, L. J., Moran, J. M., and Herrnstein, J. R.: 1997, ApJ 481, L23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Greenhill, L., et al.: 1997, ApJ 486, L15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Greenhill, L., et al.: 2002, ApJ 565, 836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Greenhill, L., et al.: 2003a, ApJ 582, L11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Greenhill, L., et al.: 2003b, ApJ 590, 162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Greenstein, J. L., and Schmidt, M.: 1964, ApJ 140, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Haardt, F., and Maraschi, L.: 1991, ApJ 380, L51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Haardt, F., and Maraschi, L.: 1993, ApJ 413, 507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Haehnelt, M. G., Natarajan, P., and Rees, M. J.: 1998, MNRAS 300, 817.Google Scholar
  153. Haehnelt, M. G., and Kauffmann, G.: 2000, MNRAS 318, L35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Hagiwara, Y., Henkel, C., Menten, K.,M., and Nakai, N.: 2001a, ApJ 560, L37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Hagiwara, Y., Diamond, P. J., Nakai, N., and Kawabe, R.: 2001b, ApJ 560, 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Hagiwara, Y., Diamond, P. J., and Miyoshi, M.: 2002, A&A 383, 65.Google Scholar
  157. Harms, R. J., et al.: 1994, ApJ 435, L35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Harrower, G. A.: 1960, ApJ 132, 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Harwit, M.: 1998, Astrophysical Concepts, New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  160. Haschick, A. D., and Baan, W. A.: 1990, ApJ 355, L23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Haschick, A. D., Baan, W. A., and Peng, E. W.: 1994, ApJ 437, L35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Hasinger, G.: 2002, in “X-ray astronomy in the new millennium,” R. D. Blandford, A. C. Fabian and K. Pounds (eds.), Roy Soc of London Phil Tr A, Vol. 360, Issue 1798, p. 2077.Google Scholar
  163. Hazard, MacKay and Shimmins: 1965, in “ Quasi-Stellar Sources and Gravitational Collapse,” Proceedings of the 1st Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics, Ivor Robinson, Alfred Schild and E. L. Schucking (eds.), Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 448.Google Scholar
  164. Henkel, C., Guesten, R., Downes, D., Thum, C., Wilson, T. L., and Biermann, P.: 1984, A&A 141, L1.Google Scholar
  165. Henkel, C., Braatz, J. A., Greenhill, L. J., and Wilson, A. S.: 2002, A&A 394, L23.Google Scholar
  166. Heraudean, Ph., Simien, F.: 1998, A&AS 133, 317.Google Scholar
  167. Herrnstein, J. R., Greenhill, L. J., and Moran, J. M.: 1996, ApJ 468, L17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Herrnstein, J. R., et al.: 1999, Nature 400, 539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Ho, L. C.: 1999, in Observational Evidence for Black Holes in the Universe, S. K. Chakrabarti (ed.), Dordrecht: Reidel, p. 157.Google Scholar
  170. Ho, L. C.: 2002, ApJ 564, 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Hoyle, F., and Fowler, W. A.: 1963, MNRAS 125, 169.Google Scholar
  172. Hubeny, I., Agol, E., Blaes, O., and Krolik, J. H.: 2000, ApJ 533, 710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Huchra, J. P., Geller, M. J., de Lapparent, V., and Corwin, H. G., Jr.: 1990, ApJS 72, 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Illingworth, G.: 1977, ApJ 218, L43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Ishihara, Y., Nakai, N., Iyomoto, N., Makishima, K., Diamond, P., and Hall, P.: 2001, PASJ 53, 215.Google Scholar
  176. Iwasawa, K., et al.: 1996, MNRAS 281, L41.Google Scholar
  177. Jaffe, W., Ford, H. C., Ferrarese, L., van den Bosch, F., and O’Connell, R. W.: 1993, Nature 364, 213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Jennison, R. C., and Das Gupta M. K.: 1953, Nature 172, 996.Google Scholar
  179. Jones, D. L., Wehrle, A. E., Meier, D. L., and Piner, B. G.: 2000, ApJ 534, 165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Jorgensen, I., Franx, M., and Kjaergaard: 1995, MNRAS 276, 1371.Google Scholar
  181. Kalogera, V., R. Narayan, R., Spergel, D. N. and Taylor, J. H.: 2001, Astrophys. J. 556, 340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Kaspi, S., Smith, P. S., Netzer, H., Maoz, D., Jannuzi, B. T., and Giveon, U.: 2000, ApJ 533, 631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Kollatschny, W.: 2003, A&A 407, 461.Google Scholar
  184. Komossa, S., et al.: 2003, ApJ 582, L15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Koratkar, A. P., and Gaskell, C. M.: 1991, ApJ 370, L71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Kormendy, J., et al.: 1988, ApJ 335, 40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Kormendy, J., and Richstone, D.: 1992, ApJ 393, 559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Kormendy, J., and Richstone, D.: 1995, ARA&A, 581.Google Scholar
  189. Kormendy, J., and Gebhardt, K.: 2001, in AIP Conf. Proc. 586, The 20th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics, J. C. Wheeler and H. Martel (eds.), Melville: AIP, 363.Google Scholar
  190. Krolik, J. H.: 1998, in “Theory of Black Hole Accretion Disks,” Marek A. Abramowicz, Gunnlaugur Bjornsson, and James E. Pringle (eds.), Cambridge University Press, p. 134.Google Scholar
  191. Krolik, J. H.: 2001, ApJ 551, 72.Google Scholar
  192. Kronawitter, A., Saglia, R. P., Gerhard, O., and Bender, R.: 2000, A&AS 144, 53.Google Scholar
  193. Lacy, J. H., Townes, C. H., Geballe, T. R., and Hollenbach, D. J.: 1980, ApJ 241, 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Lacy, J. H., Townes, C. H., and Hollenbach, D. J.: 1982, ApJ 262, 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Lacy, M., et al.: 2001, ApJ 551, L17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Landau, L. D.: 1932, Phys. Z. Sowjetunion 1, 285.Google Scholar
  197. Laor, A.: 1991, ApJ 376, 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Laor, A.: 2000, ApJ 543, L111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Lauer, T. R.: 1995, AJ 110, 2622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Lee, M. H., and Goodman, J.: 1989, ApJ 343, 594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Lipunov, V. M., Postnov, K. A., and Prokhorov, M. E.: 1997, NewA. 2, 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Liu, F. K., Wu, X.-B., and Cao, S. L.: 2003, MNRAS 340, 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Loeb, A., and Rasio, F.: 1994, ApJ 432, L52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Lynden-Bell, D.: 1969, Nature 223, 690.Google Scholar
  205. Mauder, H.: 1973, A&A 28, 473.Google Scholar
  206. Macchetto, D. F., et al.: 1997, ApJ 489, 579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Maciejewski, W., and Binney, J.: 2001, MNRAS 323, 831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Magorrian, J., et al.: 1998, AJ 115, 2285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Maiolino, R., and Rieke, G. H.: 1995, ApJ 454, 95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Malkan, M. A., and Sargent, W. L. W.: 1982, ApJ 254, 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Malkan, M. A.: 1983, ApJ 268, 582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Maoz, E.: 1998, ApJL 494, 181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Marchesini, D., Ferrarese, L., and Celotti, A.: 2004, MNRAS, in press.Google Scholar
  214. Marconi, A., et al.: 2001, ApJ 549, 915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Marconi, A., and Salvati, M.: 2002, in “Issues in Unification of AGNs,” R. Maiolino, A. Marconi and N. Nagar (eds.), ASP Conference Series.Google Scholar
  216. Marconi, A., and Hunt, L. K.: 2003, ApJ 589, L21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Marconi, A., et al.: 2003, ApJ 586, 868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Marconi A., Risaliti G., Gilli R., Hunt L. K., Maiolino R., and Salvati M.: 2004, MNRAS 351, 169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Martocchia, A., and Matt, G.: 1996, MNRAS 282, L53.Google Scholar
  220. Marzke, R. O., et al.: 1998, ApJ 503, 617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Matt, G., Perola, G. C., and Piro, L.: 1991, A&A 247, 25.Google Scholar
  222. Matt, G., Perola, G. C., Piro, L., and Stella, L.: 1992, A&A 257, 63.Google Scholar
  223. Mathur, S.: 2000, NewAR 44, 469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Mauder, H.: 1973, A&A 28, 473.Google Scholar
  225. McHardy, I.: 1988, Mem. Soc. Astr. It 59, 239.Google Scholar
  226. McLure, R. J., and Dunlop, J. S.: 2000, MNRAS 317, 249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. McLure, R. J., and Dunlop, J. S.: 2001, MNRAS 327, 199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. McLure, R. J., and Jarvis, M. J.: 2002, MNRAS 337, 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. McLure R. J., and Dunlop. J. S., 2004, MNRAS, in press.Google Scholar
  230. Melia, F., and Falcke, H.: 2001, ARA&A 39, 309.Google Scholar
  231. Merritt, D., and Ferrarese, L.: 2001a, MNRAS 320, L30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Merritt, D., and Ferrarese, L.: 2001b, ApJ 547, 140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Merritt, D., and Ferrarese, L.: 2001c, in “The Central Kiloparsec of Starbursts and AGN: The La Palma Connection,” ASP Conference Proceedings, J. H. Knapen, J. E. Beckman, I. Shlosman, and T. J. Mahoney (eds.), San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 249, p. 335.Google Scholar
  234. Merritt, D., and Ekers, R. D.: 2003, Science 297, 1310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Mezger, P. G., and Wink, J. E.: 1986, A&A 157, 252.Google Scholar
  236. Miller, M. C., and Colbert, E. J. M.: 2004, Int. J. Mod. Phys. 13, 1.Google Scholar
  237. Milosavljevic, M., and Merritt, D.: 2001, ApJ 563, 34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Miyoshi, M., Moran, J., Herrnstein, J., Greenhill, L., Nakai, N., Diamond, P., and Inoue, M.: 1995, Nature 373, 127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Monaco, P., Salucci, P., and Danese, L.: 2000, MNRAS 311, 279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Moran, J., Greenhill, L., Herrnstein, J., Diamond, P., Miyoshi, M., Nakai, N., and Inoue: 1995, in “Quasars and AGN: High Resolution Imaging,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 92, Issue 25, p. 11427.Google Scholar
  241. Moran, J., Greenhill, L., and Herrnstein, J.: 1999, J. Astroph. Astr. 20, 165.Google Scholar
  242. Murray, N., Chiang, J., Grossman, S. A., and Voit, G. M.: 1995, ApJ 451, 498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Murray, N., and Chiang, J.: 1997, ApJ 474, 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Mushotzky, R. F., Done, C., and Pounds, K. A.: 1993, ARA&A 31, 717.Google Scholar
  245. Nakai, N., Inoue, M., and Miyoshi, M.: 1993, Nature 361, 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Nakai, N., Inoue, M., Miyazawa, K., Miyoski, M., and Hall, P.: 1995, PASJ 47, 771.Google Scholar
  247. Nakano, T., and Makino, J.: 1999, ApJ 510, 155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Nandra, K., Pounds, K. A., Stewart, G. C., Fabian, A. C., and Rees, M. J.: 1989, MNRAS 236, 39.Google Scholar
  249. Nandra, K., George, I. M., Mushotzky, R. F., Turner, T. J., and Yaqoob, T.: 1997, ApJ 477, 602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Nandra, K., George, I. M., Mushotzky, R. F., Turner, T. J., and Yaqoob, T.: 1999, ApJ 523, L17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Narayan, R., and Yi, I.: 1994, ApJ 428, L13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Navarro, J. F., and Steinmetz, M.: 2000, ApJ 538, 477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Nelson, C. H., and Whittle, M.: 1996, ApJ 465, 96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Netzer, H.: 2003, ApJ 583, L5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Neufeld, D. A., and Melnick: 1991, ApJ 368, 215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Neufeld, D. A., Maloney, P. R., and Conger, G. J.: 1994, ApJ 436, L127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Neufeld, D. A., and Maloney, P. R.: 1995, ApJ 447, L17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. O’Brien, P. T., et al.: 1998, ApJ 509, 163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Onken, C. A., and Peterson, B. M.: 2002, ApJ 572, 746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Onken, C. A., Peterson, B. M., Dietrich, M., Robinson, A., and Salamanca, I. M.: 2003, ApJ 585, 121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Onken, C. A., et al.: 2004, ApJ, in press.Google Scholar
  262. Oppenheimer, J. R., and Snyder, H.: 1939, PhRv 56, 455O.Google Scholar
  263. Oppenheimer, J. R., and Volkoff, G. M.: 1938, Phys. Rev. 55, 374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Oshlack, A. Y. K. N., Webster, R. L., and Whiting, M. T.: 2002, ApJ 576, 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Padovani, P., Burg, R., and Edelson, R. A.: 1990, 353, 438.Google Scholar
  266. Peebles, P. J. E.: 1972, Gen. Relativ. Gravitation 3, 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Pelletier, G., and Pudritz, R. E.: 1992, ApJ 394, 117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Peterson, B. M.: 1993, PASP 105, 247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Peterson, B. M.: 1999, in “Structure and Kinematics of Quasar Broad Line Regions,” ASP Conference Series, C. M. Gaskell, W. N. Brandt, M. Dietrich, D. Dultzin-Hacyan, and M. Eracleous (eds.), Vol. 175, p. 49.Google Scholar
  270. Peterson, B. M., et al.: 2000, ApJ 542, 161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Peterson, B. M., and Wandel, A.: 2000, ApJ 540, L13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Peterson, B. M., et al.: 2002, ApJ 581, 197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Peterson, B. M.: 2002, in “Advanced Lectures on the Starburst-AGN Connection,” Singapore:World Scientific, p. 3.Google Scholar
  274. Peterson, B. M.: 2003, in “Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation,” J. Chris Blades, Oswald H. W. Siegmund (eds.), Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 4854, p. 311.Google Scholar
  275. Peterson, B. M., and Horne, K.: 2003, in “Astrotomography, 25th meeting of the IAU.”Google Scholar
  276. Peterson, B. M., Polidan, R. S., and Robinson, E. L.: 2003, in “Future EUV/UV and Visible Space Astrophysics Missions and Instrumentation.” J. Chris Blades, Oswald H. W. Siegmund (eds.), Vol. 4854, pp. 311–318.Google Scholar
  277. Peterson, B. M.: 2004, in “The Interplay Among Black Holes, Stars, and the ISM in Galactic Nuclei,” IAU Coll. 222, T. Storchi-Bergmann, L. Ho, and H. R. Schmitt (eds.), in press.Google Scholar
  278. Phinney, E. S.: 2003, HEAD 35, 2703.Google Scholar
  279. Piro, L., Yamauchi, M., and Matsuoka, M.: 1990, ApJ 360, L35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Pogge, R. W.: 1989, ApJS 71, 433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Press, W. H., and Schechter, P.: 1974, ApJ 187, 425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Quinlan, G. D., Hernquist, L., and Sigurdsson, S.: 1995, ApJ 440, 554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Quinlan, G. D., and Hernquist, L.: 1997, NewA 2, 533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Rees, M. J., Phinney, E. S., Begelman, M. C., and Blandford, R. D.: 1982, Nature 295, 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Rees, M. J.: 1984, ARA&A 22, 471.Google Scholar
  286. Reid, M. J., Menten, K. M., Genzel, R., Ott, T., SchÖdel, R., and Eckart, A.: 2003, ApJ 587, 208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Rest, A., et al.: 2001, AJ 121, 2431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Reunanen, J., Kotilainen, J. K., and Prieto, M. A.: 2003, MNRAS 343, 192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Reynolds, C. S.: 1996, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  290. Reynolds, C. S.: 1997, MNRAS 286, 513.Google Scholar
  291. Reynolds, C. S., and Nowak, M. A.: 2003, Phys. Rept. 377, 389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Rhoades, C. E., and Ruffini, R.: 1974, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 324.Google Scholar
  293. Richstone, D. O., and Schmidt, M.: 1980, ApJ 235, 361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Richstone, D. O., and Tremaine, S.: 1985, ApJ 286, 370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Richstone, D. O., et al.: 1998, Nature 395, A14.Google Scholar
  296. Robinson, I., Schild, A., and Schucking, E. L.: 1965, Proceedings of the 1st Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  297. Rosati, P., et al.: 2002, ApJ 566, 667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Ross, R. R., Fabian, A. C., and Mineshige, S.: 1992, MNRAS 258, 189.Google Scholar
  299. Salpeter, E. E.: 1964, ApJ 140, 796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Salucci, P., et al.: 1999, MNRAS 307, 637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Sandage, A.: 1964, ApJ 139, 416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Sargent, W. L. W., et al.: 1978, ApJ 221, 731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Sarzi, M., et al.: 2001, ApJ 550, 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Schlegel, D. J., Finkbeiner, D. P., and Davis, M.: 1998, ApJ 500, 525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Schödel, R., Ott, T., Genzel, R., Eckart, A., Mouawad, N., and Alexander, T.: 2003, ApJ 596, 1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Schwarzschild, K.: (1916a), 1916, Sitzungsberichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Klasse fur Mathematik, Physik, und Technik, 189.Google Scholar
  307. Schwarzschild, K.: (1916b), 1916, Sitzungsberichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Klasse fur Mathematik, Physik, und Technik, 424.Google Scholar
  308. Schwarzschild, M.: 1979, ApJ 232, 236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Scorza, C., and Bender, R.: 1995, A&A 293, 20.Google Scholar
  310. Serabyn, E., and Lacy, J. H.: 1985, ApJ 293, 445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Sergeev, S. G., Pronik, V. I., Peterson, B. M., Sergeeva, E. A., and Zheng, W.: 2002, ApJ 576, 660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Seyfert, C. K.: 1943, ApJ 97, 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Shankar, F., Salucci, P., Granato, G. L., De Zotti, G., and Danese, L.: 2004, MNRAS, in press.Google Scholar
  314. Sheth, R. K., et al.: 2003, ApJ 594, 225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Shields, G. A.: 1978, Nature 272, 706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Shields, G. A., et al.: 2003, ApJ 583, 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Shklovski, I. S.: 1954, Doklady Akad. Nauk. 98, 353.Google Scholar
  318. Sigurdsson, S., Hernquist, L., and Quinlan, G. D.: 1995, ApJ 446, 75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Siemiginowska, A., Kuhn, O., Elvis, M., Fiore, F., McDowell, J., and Wilkes, B. J.: 1995, ApJ 454, 77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Silk, J., and Rees, M. J.: 1998, A&A 331, L1.Google Scholar
  321. Simien, F., and de Vaucouleurs, G.: 1986, ApJ 302, 564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Sincell, M. W., and Krolik, J. H.: 1998, ApJ 496, 737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Smith, H. J., and Hoffleit, D.: 1963, AJ 68, 292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Smith, M. D., and Raine, D. J.: 1985, MNRAS 212, 425.Google Scholar
  325. Smith, M. D., and Raine, D. J.: 1988, MNRAS 234, 297.Google Scholar
  326. Small, T., and Blandford, R. D.: 1992, MNRAS 259, 725.Google Scholar
  327. Snellen, I. A. G., Lehnert, M. D., Bremer, M. N., and Schilizzi, R. T.: 2003, MNRAS 342, 889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Sofue, Y., and Irwin, J. A.: 1992, PASJ 44, 353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Soltan, A.: 1982, MNRAS 200, 115.Google Scholar
  330. Steinmetz, M., and Muller, E.: 1995, MNRAS 276, 549.Google Scholar
  331. Stern, B. E., Poutanen, J., Svensson, R., Sikora, M., and Begelman, M. C.: 1995, ApJ 449, L13.Google Scholar
  332. Stirpe, G. M., et al.: 1994, A&A 285, 857.Google Scholar
  333. Sudou, H., Iguchi, S., Murata, Y., and Taniguchi, Y.: 2003, Science 300, 1263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Sun, W.-H, and Malkan, M. A.: 1989, ApJ 346, 68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Sunyaev, R. A., and Truemper, J.: 1979, Nature 279, 506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Szuszkiewicz, E., Malkan, M. A., and Abramowicz, M. A.: 1996, ApJ 458, 474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Tadhunter, C., Marconi, A., Axon, D., Wills, K., Robinson, T. G., and Jackson, N.: 2003, MNRAS 342, 861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Takahashi, K., Inoue, H., and Dotani, T.: 2002, PASJ 54, 373.Google Scholar
  339. Tanaka, Y., et al.: 1995, Nature 375, 659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Thatte, N., Quirrenbach, A., Genzel, R., Maiolino, R., and Tecza: 1997, ApJ 490, 238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Thorne, K. S., and Price, R. H.: 1975, ApJ 195, 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Thorne, K. S.: 1994, Black Holes and Time Warps, Einstein’s Outrageous Legacy, W W Norton and Company, New York and London.Google Scholar
  343. Tonry, J. L., et al.: 2001, ApJ 546, 681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. Tran, H. D., et al.: 2001, AJ 121, 2928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Tremaine, S., et al.: 2002, ApJ 574, 740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Trotter, A. S., et al.: 1998, ApJ 495, 740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Turler, M., et al.: 1999, A&AS 134, 89.Google Scholar
  348. Turner, J. L., and Ho, P. T. P.: 1994, ApJ 421, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Ulrich, M.-H., and Horne, K.: 1996, MNRAS 283, 748.Google Scholar
  350. Urry, C. M., and Padovani, P.: 1995, PASP 107, 803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Valluri, M., Merritt, D., and Emsellem, E.: 2004, ApJ 602, 66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. van de Ven, G., Hunter, C., Verolme, E. K., and de Zeeuw, P. T.: 2003, MNRAS 342, 1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. van den Bosch, F. C., and de Zeeuw, P. T.: 1996, MNRAS 283, 381.Google Scholar
  354. van den Bosch, F. C., Jaffe, W., and van der Marel, R. P.: 1998, MNRAS 293, 343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. van der Kruit, P. C., Oort, J. H., Mathewson, D. S.: 1972, A&A 21, 169.Google Scholar
  356. van der Marel, R. P., Franx, M.: 1993, ApJ 407, 525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. van der Marel, R. P.: 1994, MNRAS 270, 271.Google Scholar
  358. van der Marel, R. P., and van den Bosch, F. C.: 1998, AJ 116, 2220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. van der Marel, R. P.: 1999, AJ 117, 744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. Verolme, E. K., et al.: 2002, MNRAS 335, 517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. Vestergaard, M., Wilkes, B. J., and Barthel, P. D.: 2000, ApJ 538, L103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. Vestergaard, M.: 2002, ApJ 571, 733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. Vestergaard M.: 2004, ApJ 601, 676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. Vila-Vilaro, B.: 2000, PASPJ 52, 305.Google Scholar
  365. Walker, R. C., Matsakis, D. N., and Garcia-Barreto, J. A.: 1982, ApJ 255, 128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. Wandel, A.: 1999, ApJ 519, 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. Wandel, A., Peterson, B. M., and Malkan, M. A.: 1999, ApJ 526, 579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. Wandel, A.: 2002, ApJ 565, 762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. Wanders, I., and Horne, K.: 1994, A&A 289, 76.Google Scholar
  370. Wanders, I., et al.: 1995, ApJ 453, L87.Google Scholar
  371. Wanders, I., and Peterson, B. M.: 1996, ApJ 466, 174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. Wanders, I., et al.: 1997, ApJS 113, 69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. Wang, J.-M., Szuszkiewicz, E., Lu, F.-J., and Zhou, Y.-Y.: 1999, ApJ 522, 839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  374. Wang, J.-X., Wang, T.-G., and Zhou, Y.-Y.: 2001, ApJ 549, 891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. Watanabe, M., et al.: 2003, ApJ 591, 714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. Watson, W. D., and Wallin, B. K.: 1994, ApJ 432, L35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. Wyithe, J. S. B., and Loeb, A.: 2002, ApJ 581, 886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. Wyithe, J. S. B., and Loeb, A.: 2003, ApJ 595, 614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. Willke, B., et al.: 2002, CQGra 19, 1377.Google Scholar
  380. Wilms, et al.: 2001, MNRAS 328, L27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. Wollman, E. R., Geballe, T. R., Lacy, J. H., Townes, C. H., and Rank, D. M.: 1977, ApJ 218, L103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. Woo, J.-H., and Urry, C. M.: 2002a, ApJ 579, 530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. Woo, J.-H., and Urry, C. M.: 2002b, ApJ 581, L5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. Wu, X.-B., and Han, J. L.: 2001, A&A 380, 31.Google Scholar
  385. Young, P. J.: 1980, ApJ 242, 1232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. Young, J. S., Claussen, M. J., and Scoville, N. Z.: 1988, ApJ 324, 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. Young, A. J., and Reynolds, C. S.: 2000, ApJ 529, 101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. Yu, Q.: 2002, MNRAS 331, 935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. Yu, Q., and Tremaine, S.: 2002, MNRAS 335, 965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. Zdziarski, A. A., et al., 1994, MNRAS 269, L55.Google Scholar
  391. Zel’dovich, Y. B., and Novikov, I. D.: 1964, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 158, 811.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Herzberg Institute of AstrophysicsNational Research Council CanadaVictoriaCanada
  2. 2.Department of Physics and AstronomyRutgers UniversityPiscatawayU.S.A.
  3. 3.Department of Physics and AstronomyJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations