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Russian Adaptations of General and Personal Belief in a Just World Scales: Validation and Psychometric Properties

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In a questionnaire study, Russian versions of the General and Personal belief in a just world (BJW) Scales were validated. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Personal BJW Scale could be empirically differentiated from the General BJW Scale; however, both scales correlated positively. Good internal consistencies of both scales were demonstrated. Age was positively correlated with personal BJW but not with general BJW. Gender differences were found neither in personal nor in general BJW. Personal BJW was found to be stronger than general BJW. Convergent validity was tested by inspecting correlations of BJW scales with the Basic World Assumptions Scale. Divergent validity was examined by inspecting correlations with Markers for the Big Five Factor Structure Scale and Justice Sensitivity Scales. Both personal and general BJW showed positive connections with all subscales of the Basic World Assumptions Scale (self-worth, benevolence of world, justice, luck, and control). We demonstrated divergent validity of personal BJW regarding intellect, agreeableness, conscientiousness, beneficiary and perpetrator sensitivity, and divergent validity of general BJW regarding intellect, beneficiary, perpetrator, and observer sensitivity. Both BJW dimensions were unrelated to beneficiary and perpetrator sensitivity. In addition, general BJW was not related to observer sensitivity. Results give evidence for satisfactory psychometric properties and validation of the Russian versions of BJW scales.

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We are very grateful to Prof. Dr. Claudia Dalbert for her kind permission to use BJW scale in Russia; to Prof. Dr. Manfred Schmitt for the chance to get high professional advice and always fruitful discussion; to Dr. Michael Wu for giving experience of common research on justice psychology. We also express our gratitude to the volunteers who took part in our study. This research was partially supported by Russian Foundation for the Humanities (Project 15-36-01233 by N. Astanina) and by Russian Science Foundation (Project 14-18-02163 by S. Nartova-Bochaver).

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Correspondence to Sofya Nartova-Bochaver.

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Appendix 1

General Belief in a Just World Scale: Russian Version and Corresponding English Version


Ниже перечислено несколько разных утверждений. С некоторыми из них Вы согласитесь, с другими – нет, с некоторыми - частично согласитесь. Прочитайте внимательно каждое утверждение и решите, в какой степени лично Вы согласны или не согласны с ним. Отметьте номер, соответствующий Вашему ответу для каждого утверждения.


Below you will find various statements. Most likely, you will strongly agree with some statements, and strongly disagree with others. Sometimes you may feel more neutral. Read each statement carefully and decide to what extent you personally agree or disagree with it. Circle the number which corresponds to this judgment. Make sure you circle a number for every statement.

Item code Russian wording English wording
gbjw1 Я считаю, что в целом мир справедлив I think basically the world is a just place
gbjw2 Я считаю, что, по большому счету, люди получают то, что заслуживают I believe that, by and large, people get what they deserve
gbjw3 Я уверен(а), что справедливость всегда побеждает несправедливость I am confident that justice always prevails over injustice
gbjw4 Я убежден(а), что, если человек пережил несправедливость, в будущем это возместится I am convinced that in the long run people will be compensated for injustices
gbjw5 Я твердо уверен(а), что несправедливость в самых разных жизненных ситуациях (в семье, в учебе и т.д.) – скорее исключение, чем правило I firmly believe that injustices in all areas of life (e.g., professional, family, politic) are the exception rather than the rule
gbjw6 Я думаю, что все, кто принимает важные решения, стремятся быть справедливыми I think people try to be fair when making important decisions
  1. Responses were made on a six-point scale: 1 (совсем не согласен; strongly disagree), 2 (не согласен; disagree), 3 (скорее не согласен, чем согласен; slightly disagree) 4 (скорее согласен, чем нет; slightly agree), 5 (согласен; agree), 6 (полностью cогласен; strongly agree)

Appendix 2

Personal Belief in a Just World Scale: Russian Version and Corresponding English Version

The instruction was the same as in “Appendix 1.”

Item code Russian wording English wording
pbjw1 Я считаю, что, по большому счету, заслуживаю того, что происходит со мной I believe that, by and large, I deserve what happens to me
pbjw2 Как правило, жизнь ко мне справедлива I am usually treated fairly
pbjw3 Я верю, что обычно получаю то, что заслуживаю I believe that I usually get what I deserve
pbjw4 В моей жизни в общем и целом все происходит справедливо I believe that most of the things that happen in my life are fair
pbjw5 В моей жизни несправедливость – скорее исключение, чем правило In my life injustice is the exception rather than the rule
pbjw6 Я считаю, что в целом в моей жизни все справедливо Overall, events in my life are just
pbjw7 Я думаю, что важные решения, которые касаются меня, обычно справедливы I think that important decisions that are made concerning me are usually just
  1. Responses were made on the same six-point scale as in “Appendix 1

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Nartova-Bochaver, S., Donat, M., Astanina, N. et al. Russian Adaptations of General and Personal Belief in a Just World Scales: Validation and Psychometric Properties. Soc Just Res 31, 61–84 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-017-0302-5

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  • Belief in a just world
  • Personality psychology
  • Five Factor model
  • World assumptions
  • Justice sensitivity
  • Culture
  • Validation