Social Justice Research

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 336–351 | Cite as

Fairness in Animals: Where to from Here?



In the last decade, there has been an explosion of work investigating non-human species’ behavior as it relates to the human sense of fairness and justice. This research has provided a much needed evolutionary perspective on humans, and highlighted ways in which humans’ behavior is both similar to and different from that of other species. In this concluding paper, we outline the major threads of the work highlighted in this and the previous special issues of Social Justice Research and provide thoughts on future directions for the field. This is a very exciting time in our exploration of the evolution of human justice and fairness, and we eagerly await the developments of the next decade.


Inequity Fairness Justice Evolution of behavior Comparative approach 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Neuroscience Institute and Language Research CenterGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Living Links Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Department of PsychologyEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

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