Social Justice Research

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 121–153 | Cite as

Am I Respected or Not?: Inclusion and Reputation as Issues in Group Membership

  • David de CremerEmail author
  • Tom R. Tyler


Six studies examined why and when respect vs. disrespect influences people’s emotions, self-worth, and behavior. Following relational models of justice, we argued that people use groups to derive information about the social self and as such value respect information because it indicates (a) whether or not they are accepted, and (b) how their status within the group is evaluated. These two identity concerns were operationalized by means of reinforcing people’s desire to belong (i.e., the identity concern of acceptance) and concern for reputation (i.e., the identity concern of one’s status evaluation). In line with predictions, the first three studies demonstrated that respect matters only among those whose concerns to belong are made salient. Studies 4–6 further showed that respect only influenced reactions among those who have strong concerns for reputation. It is concluded that respect communicates information relevant to people’s identity concerns—i.e., inclusion and reputation.


respect belongingness reputation cooperation emotions procedural justice 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the Streets: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City. Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Aron, A., and Aron, N. E. (1986). Love as the Expansion of Self: Understanding Attraction and Satisfaction. Hemisphere, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Aron, A., and McLaughin-Volpe, T. (2001). Including others in the self: Extensions to own and partner’s group memberships. In Sedikides, C., and Brewer, M. B. (eds.), Individual Self, Relational Self, Collective Self, Psychology Press, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 89–108.Google Scholar
  4. Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of Life. Guilford Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Self-Esteem: The Puzzle of Low Self-Regard. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  6. Baumeister, R. F., and Hutton, D. G. (1987). Self-presentation theory: Self-construction and audience pleading. In Mullen, B., and Goethals, G. R. (eds.), Theories of Group Behavior, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F. (1998). The self. In Gilbert, D. T., Fiske, S. T., and Lindzey, G. (eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology, McGraw-Hill, New York, 4th ed., pp. 680–740.Google Scholar
  8. Baumeister, R. F., and Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychol. Bull. 117: 497–529.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berscheid, E., and Reis, H. T. (1998). Attraction and close relationships. In Gilbert, D. T., Fiske, S. T., Lindzey, G. (eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology, McGraw-Hill, New York, 4th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 193–281.Google Scholar
  10. Bies, R. J., and Moag, J. S. (1986). Interactional justice: Communication criteria of fairness. In Lewicki, R. J., Sheppard, B. H., and Bazerman, M. H. (eds.), Research on Negotiations in Organizations, JAI, Greenwich, CT, pp. 43–55.Google Scholar
  11. Bies, R. J. (2001). Interaction (in)justice: The sacred and the profane. In Greenberg, J., and Cropanzano, R. (eds.), Advances in Organizational Justice, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, pp. 89–118.Google Scholar
  12. Bourgeois, K. S., and Leary, M. R. (2001). Coping with rejection: Derogating those who choose us last. Motiv. Emotion 25: 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brockner, J., and Wiesenfeld, B. M. (1996). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: Interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychol. Bull. 120: 189–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cropanzano, R., Byrne, Z. S., Bobocel, D. R., and Rupp, D. (2001). Moral virtues, fairness heuristics, social entities, and other denizens of organizational justice. J. Vocat. Behav. 58: 164–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cross, S. E., Bacon, P. L., and Morris, M. L. (2000). The relational-interdependent self-construal and relationships. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 78: 791–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Deci, E. L., and Ryan, R. M. (2000). The what and why of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychol. Inq. 11: 227–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. De Cremer, D. (2002). Respect and cooperation in social dilemmas: The importance of feeling included. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 28: 1335–1341.Google Scholar
  18. De Cremer, D., and Alberts, H. (2004). When procedural fairness does not influence how positive I feel: The effects of voice and leader selection as a function of belongingness needs. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 34: 333–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Cremer, D., and Leonardelli, G. (2003). Individual Differences in Need to Belong and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas: The Moderating Effect of Group Size. Group Dyn. Theor. Res. Pract. 7: 168–174.Google Scholar
  20. Deutsch, M., and Gerard, H. B. (1955). A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgment. J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 51: 629–636.Google Scholar
  21. Emler, N., and Hopkins, N. (1990). Reputation, social identity, and the self. In Abrams, D., and Hogg, M. A. (eds.), Social Identity Theory: Constructive and Critical Advances, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Emler, N., and Reicher, S. (1995). Adolescence and Delinquency. Blackwell, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  23. Folger, R., and Cropanzano, R. (1998). Organizational Justice and Human Resource Management. Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.Google Scholar
  24. Forsyth, D. R. (1991). Change in therapeutic groups. In Snyder, C. R., and Forsyth, D. R. (eds.), Handbook of Social and Clinical Psychology, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 664–680.Google Scholar
  25. Gardner, W. L., Gabriel, S., and Diekman, A. (2000a). Interpersonal processes. In Tassinary, L., Cacioppo, J., and Berntson, G. (eds.), The Handbook of Psychophysiology, Cambridge Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 643–664.Google Scholar
  26. Gardner, W. L., Pickett, C. L., and Brewer, M. B. (2000b). Social exclusion and selective memory: How the need to belong influences memory for social events. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 26: 486–496.Google Scholar
  27. Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychol. Rev. 94: 319–340.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hill, T. E., Jr. (2000). Respect, pluralism, and justice. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  29. Hogg, M. A., and Abrams, D. (1988). Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. Routledge, London & New York.Google Scholar
  30. James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology. Holt, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  31. Jankowski, M. S. (1991). Islands in the Street: Gangs and American Urban Society. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  32. Kant, I. (1996). The Metaphysics of Morals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  33. Kelley, H. H., and Thibaut, J. W. (1978). Interpersonal Relations: A Theory of Interdependence. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Kennedy, L. W., and Forde, D. R. (1999). When Push Comes to Shove. State University of New York Press, Albany.Google Scholar
  35. Komorita, S. S., and Parks, C. D. (1994). Social Dilemmas. Brown and Benchmark, Dubuque, IA.Google Scholar
  36. Leary, M. (2001). The self as a source of relational difficulties. Self and Identity 1: 137–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Leary, M. R., and Baumeister, R. F. (2000). The nature and function of self-esteem: Sociometer theory. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 32: 1–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Leary, M. R., Cottrell, C. A., and Phillips, M. (2001a). Deconfounding the effects of dominance and social acceptance on self-esteem. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 81: 898–909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leary, M. R., Kelly, K. M., Cottrell, C. A., and Schreindorfer, L. S. (2001b). Individual Differences in the Need to Belong. Unpublished manuscript, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC.Google Scholar
  40. Leary, M. R., Springer, C., Negel, L., Ansell, E., and Evens, K. (1998). The causes, phenomenology, and consequences of hurt feelings. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 74: 1225–1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lerner, J. S., and Tetlock, P. E. (1999). Accounting for the effects of accountability. Psychol. Bull. 125: 255–275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Lind, E. A. (2001). Thinking critically about justice judgments. J. Vocat. Behav. 58: 220–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lind, E. A., and Tyler, T. R. (1988). The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  44. Miller, D. T. (2001). Disrespect and the experience of injustice. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52: 527–553.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship? J. Appl. Psychol. 76: 845–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. O’Connell, L. J. (2000). The worlds of religion and psychiatry: Bioethics as arbiter of mutual respect. In Boehnlein, J. K. (ed.), Psychiatry and Religion: The Convergence of Mind and Spirit, American Psychiatric Press, Inc., Washington, DC, pp. 145–157.Google Scholar
  47. Olson, M. (1965). The Logic of Collective Action. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  48. Olson-Buchanan, J. B. (1996). Voicing discontent: What happens to the grievance filter after the grievance? J. Appl. Psychol. 81: 52–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rawls, J. (1971). A Theory of Justice. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  50. Reis, H. T., Collins, W. A., and Berscheid, E. (2000). The relationship context of human behavior and development. Psychol. Bull. 126: 844–872.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Sedikides, C. (2002). Putting our selves together: Integrative themes and lingering questions. In Forgas, J. P., and Willimas, K. D. (eds.), The Social Self: Cognitive, Interpersonal, and Intergroup Perspectives, Psychology Press, New York, pp. 365–380.Google Scholar
  52. Sedikides, C., and Brewer, M. B. (2001). Individual Self, Relational Self, Collective Self. Psychology Press, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  53. Sedikides, C., and Gregg, A. (2003). Portraits of the self. In Hogg, M. A., and Cooper, J. (eds.), Sage Handbook of Social Psychology, Sage Publications, London.Google Scholar
  54. Sedikides, C., Herbst, K. C., Hardin, D. P., and Dardis, G. J. (2002). Accountability as a deterrent to self-enhancement: The search for mechanisms. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 83: 592–605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Sedikides, C., and Strube, M. J. (1997). Self-evaluation: To thine own self be good, to thine own self be sure, to thine own self be true, and to thine own self be better. In Zanna, M. P. (ed.), Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol., Academic Press, New York, Vol. 29, pp. 209–269.Google Scholar
  56. Simon, B., and Stürmer, S. (2003). Respect for group members: Intragroup determinants of collective identification and group-serving behavior. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 29: 183–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith, H. J., and Tyler, T. R. (1997). Choosing the right pond: The impact of group membership on self-esteem and group-oriented behavior. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 33: 146–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Smith, K. G., Carroll, S. J., and Ashford, S. J., (1995). Intra- and interorganizational cooperation: Toward a research agenda. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 7–23.Google Scholar
  59. Snyder, M., and Cantor, N. (1998). Understanding personality and social behavior: A functionalist strategy. In Gilbert, D., Fiske, S., and Lindzey, G. (eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology, McGraw-Hill, New York, Vol. 1, pp. 635–679.Google Scholar
  60. Stapel, D. A., and Koomen, W. (2001). I, we, and the effects of others on me: How self-construal level moderates social comparison effects. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 80: 766–781.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Steele, C. M. (1988). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. In Berkowitz, L. (ed.), Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol., Academic Press, New York, Vol. 21, pp. 261–302.Google Scholar
  62. Tajfel, H., and Turner, J. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Worchel, S. (ed.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations, Nelson Hall, Chicago.Google Scholar
  63. Tesser, A. (1988). Toward a self-evaluation model of social behavior. In Berkowitz, L. (ed.), Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol., Academic Press, San Diego, CA, Vol. 21, pp. 181–227.Google Scholar
  64. Thibaut, J., and Walker, L. (1975). Procedural Justice: A Psychological Analysis. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  65. Twenge, J. M., Baumeister, R. F., Tice, D. M., and Stucke, T. S. (2001). If you can’t join them, beat them: Effects of social exclusion on aggressive behavior. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 81: 1058–1069.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Twenge, J. M., Catanese, K. R., and Baumeister, R. F. (2002). Social exclusion and self-defeating behavior. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 83: 606–615.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Tyler, T. R. (1989). The psychology of procedural justice: A test of the group value model. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 57: 333–344.Google Scholar
  68. Tyler, T. R. (1999). Why people cooperate with organizations: An identity-based perspective. Res. Organ. Behav. 21: 201–246.Google Scholar
  69. Tyler, T. R. (2001). Cooperation in organizations: A social identity perspective. In Hogg, M. A., and Terry, D. J. (eds.), Social Identity Processes in Organizational Contexts, Psychology Press, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 149–166.Google Scholar
  70. Tyler, T. R., and Blader, S. (2000). Cooperation in Groups: Procedural Justice, Social Identity, and Behavioral Engagement. Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  71. Tyler, T. R., Degoey, P., and Smith, H. (1996). Understanding why the justice of group procedures matter: A test of the psychological dynamics of the group-value model. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 70: 913–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tyler, T. R., and Huo, Y. J. (2002). Trust in the Law. Russell Sage Foundation, New York.Google Scholar
  73. Tyler, T. R., and Lind, E. A. (1992). A relational model of authority in groups. In Zanna, M. (ed.), Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol., Academic Press, New York, Vol. 25, pp. 115–191.Google Scholar
  74. Tyler, T. R., and Smith, H. J. (1998). Social justice and social movements. In Gilbert, D. T., Fiske, S. T., and Lindzey, G. (eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology, McGraw-Hill, New York, 4th ed., pp. 595–632.Google Scholar
  75. Tyler, T. R., and Smith, H. J. (1999). Justice, social identity, and group processes. In Tyler, T. R., Kramer, R. M., and John, O. P. (eds.), The Psychology of the Social Self. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahaw, New Jersey, pp. 223–264.Google Scholar
  76. Van den Bos, K., and Lind, E. A. (2002). Uncertainty management by means of fairness judgments. In Zanna, M. P. (ed.), Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol., Academic Press, San Diego, CA, Vol. 34, pp. 1–60.Google Scholar
  77. Van den Bos, K., and Spruijt, N. (2002). Appropriateness of decisions as a moderator of the psychology of voice. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 32: 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., and Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 54: 1063–1070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Social PsychologyTilburg UniversityThe Netherlands
  2. 2.New York UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations