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Solar Physics

, 294:79 | Cite as

Chinese Sunspot Drawings and Their Digitization – (I) Parameter Archives

  • G. H. Lin
  • X. F. Wang
  • S. LiuEmail author
  • X. Yang
  • G. F. Zhu
  • Y. Y. Deng
  • H. S. Ji
  • T. H. Zhou
  • L. N. Sun
  • Y. L. Feng
  • Z. Z. Liu
  • J. P. Tao
  • M. X. Ben
  • J. Lin
  • M. D. Ding
  • Z. Li
  • S. Zheng
  • S. G. Zeng
  • H. L. He
  • X. Y. Zeng
  • Y. Shu
  • X. B. Sun
Article

Abstract

Based on the Chinese historical sunspots drawings, a data set consisting of the scanned images and all their digitized parameters from 1925 to 2015 have been constructed. In this paper, we briefly describe the developmental history of sunspots drawings in China. This paper describes the preliminary handling processes that start from the initial scanning to the extraction of parameters, and finally summarizes the general features of this data set. It is the first systematic project in the Chinese solar-physics community to digitize the historical series of sunspot drawings. Our data set fills in an almost 90-year historical gap, which originates from an area spanning 60 degrees from east to west and 50 degrees from north to south and has no continuous and detailed digital sunspot observation information. Being complementary to other sunspot observations in the world, our data set provides abundant information to the long-term solar activity cycles research.

Keywords

Sunspot Solar cycle Sunspot drawings Digitalization Physical parameters Big data 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the reviewer for valuable suggestions and constructive criticism, which improved the clarity of the article. The work was funded by National Science Foundation of China Grant Nos.: u1531247 and 1142790111427901, the 13th Five-year Informatization Plan of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Grant No. XXH13505-04 and the special foundation work of the ministry of science and technology of the of China Grant No.: 2014fy120300. We would like to thank our predecessors who have been engaged in the observation of sunspot in China over the past decades.

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. H. Lin
    • 1
    • 2
  • X. F. Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • X. Yang
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. F. Zhu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Y. Y. Deng
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. S. Ji
    • 3
  • T. H. Zhou
    • 3
  • L. N. Sun
    • 4
  • Y. L. Feng
    • 5
  • Z. Z. Liu
    • 5
  • J. P. Tao
    • 5
  • M. X. Ben
    • 5
  • J. Lin
    • 5
  • M. D. Ding
    • 6
    • 7
  • Z. Li
    • 6
    • 7
  • S. Zheng
    • 8
  • S. G. Zeng
    • 8
  • H. L. He
    • 8
  • X. Y. Zeng
    • 8
  • Y. Shu
    • 8
  • X. B. Sun
    • 8
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Solar ActivityChaoyang District, BeijingP.R. China
  2. 2.National Astronomical ObservatoriesCASChaoyang District, BeijingP.R. China
  3. 3.Purple Mountain ObservatoryCASNanjingP.R. China
  4. 4.Qingdao Observatory, Purple Mountain ObservatoryCASQingdaoP.R. China
  5. 5.Yunnan Astronomical ObservatoryCASKunmingP.R. China
  6. 6.School of Astronomy & Space ScienceNanjing UniversityNanjingP.R. China
  7. 7.Key Laboratory for Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing UniversityMinistry of EducationNanjingP.R. China
  8. 8.College of ScienceChina Three Gorges UniversityYichangP.R. China

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