Solar Physics

, 293:160 | Cite as

Flare-related Recurring Active Region Jets: Evidence for Very Hot Plasma

  • Sargam M. MulayEmail author
  • Sarah Matthews
  • Takahiro Hasegawa
  • Giulio Del Zanna
  • Helen Mason
  • Toshifumi Shimizu


We present a study of two active region jets (AR jets) that are associated with two C-class X-ray flares. The recurrent, homologous jets originated from the northern periphery of a sunspot. We confirm flare-like temperatures at the footpoints of these jets using spectroscopic observations of Fe xxiii (263.76 Å) and Fe xxiv (255.11 Å) emission lines. The emission measure loci method was used to obtain an isothermal temperature, and the results show a decrease (17.7 to 13.6 MK) in the temperature during the decay phase of the C 3.0 flare. The electron number densities at the footpoints were found to range from \(1.7 \times 10^{10}\) to \(2.0 \times 10^{11}~\mbox{cm}^{-3}\) using the Fe xiv line pair ratio. Nonthermal velocities were found to range from 34 – 100 km/s for Fe xxiv and 51 – 89 km/s for Fe xxiii. The plane-of-sky velocities were calculated to be \(462 \pm 21\) and \(228 \pm 23~\mbox{km}/\mbox{s}\) for the two jets using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 171 Å channel. The AIA light curves of the jet footpoint regions confirmed the temporal and spatial correlation between the two X-ray flares and the jet footpoint emission. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) also confirmed superhot plasma of 27 (25) MK with a nonthermal energy of \(2.38 \times 10^{26}\) (\(2.87 \times 10^{27}\)) \(\mbox{erg}\,\mbox{s}^{-1}\) in the jet footpoint region during the rise (peak) phase of one of the flares. The temperatures of the jet footpoint regions obtained from EIS agree very well (within an uncertainty of 20%) with temperatures obtained from the Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellite (GOES) flux ratios. These results provide clear evidence for very hot plasma (\({>}\,10~\mbox{MK}\)) at the footpoints of the flare-related jets, and they confirm the heating and cooling of the plasma during the flares.


Active regions Corona Flares Heating Jets Spectral line 



The data analysis and results presented in this paper are an outcome of collaborative work. This project has been funded through the award of the Daiwa-Adrian Prize through the Daiwa Anglo-Japanese foundation. The work was carried out when one of the authors, S.M.M., was a Ph.D. student at the University of Cambridge, UK. This work (except FERMI and HMI data analysis) has been included in her Ph.D. thesis as Chapter 9. SMM acknowledges support from the Cambridge Trust, University of Cambridge, UK. HEM, GDZ and SAM (grant number ST/N000722/1) acknowledge the support of STFC. AIA data are courtesy of SDO (NASA) and the AIA consortium. CHIANTI is a collaborative project involving George Mason University, the University of Michigan (USA) and the University of Cambridge (UK). Hinode is a Japanese mission developed and launched by ISAS/JAXA, with NAOJ as domestic partner and NASA and STFC (UK) as international partners. It is operated by these agencies in co-operation with ESA and NSC (Norway). We acknowledge the RHESSI team for the open access to the data. We also acknowledge the use of Fermi Solar Flare Observations facility which is funded by the Fermi GI program ( ).

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical SciencesUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA)GaneshkhindIndia
  3. 3.Department of Space and Climate Physics, Mullard Space Science LaboratoryUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of ScienceThe University of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan
  5. 5.Institute of Space and Astronautical ScienceJapan Aerospace Exploration AgencySagamiharaJapan

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