Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy Using Massively Multiplexed Slit-Based Techniques and Sub-Field Motion Correction


Targeting dynamic spatially extended phenomena in the upper solar atmosphere, a new instrument concept has been developed and demonstrated at the Dunn Solar Telescope in New Mexico, USA, which provides wide-field, rapid-scanning, high-resolution imaging spectroscopy of the neutral helium \(\lambda10830\) spectral triplet. The instrument combines a narrowband imaging channel with a novel cospatial grating-based spectrograph with 17 parallel long slits that are simultaneously imaged on a single HgCdTe detector. Over a \(175'' \times 125''\) field of view, a temporal cadence of 8.5 s is achieved between successive maps that critically sample the diffraction limit of the Dunn Solar Telescope at 1083 nm (\(1.22 \lambda/D = 0.36''\)) and provide a resolving power (\(R = \lambda / \delta\lambda\)) up to \({\approx}\,25{,}000\) with a 1 nm bandwidth (i.e. \(275~\mbox{km}\,\mbox{s}^{-1}\) Doppler coverage). Capitalizing on the strict simultaneity of the narrowband channel relative to each spectral image (acquired at a rate of 9.53 Hz), this work demonstrates that sub-field image motion introduced by atmospheric seeing may be corrected post-facto in each mapped spectral data cube. This instrument furnishes essential infrared spectral imaging capabilities for current investigations while pioneering techniques for high-resolution wide-field time-domain solar astronomy.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8


  1. 1.

    For a recent review of current and planned solar instrumentation, see Kleint and Gandorfer (2015).

  2. 2.

    Destretching refers to a range of methods that enforce smooth variation of the spatial content image relative to a reference image by sub-field local correlation and interpolation.

  3. 3.

    Focal lengths are reported at visible wavelengths and are not individually measured at 1083 nm.

  4. 4.

    IDL® is a product of Harris Geospatial Solutions.

  5. 5.

    The same correction has been applied to off-limb targets; however, the correction typically can only support larger sub-field kernel sizes dependent upon available off-limb structure in the narrowband image.

  6. 6.

    The IDL® function trigrid is used for the interpolation.

  7. 7.

    Tip/tilt correction refers to the application of the values \(\{ \Delta x_{\mathrm{c}}, \Delta y_{\mathrm{c}}\}|_{n}\) as defined in Section 3. Seeing correction (or sub-field correction) refers to the mapping between \(\{x_{\mathrm{sky}}',y_{\mathrm{sky}}'\}\) and \(\{x_{\mathrm{sky}},y_{\mathrm{sky}}\}\) provided by the destretching procedure and applied to the spectral data.


  1. Beckers, J.M.: 1998, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 129, 191. DOI . ADS .

  2. Bershady, M.A.: 2009, ArXiv e-prints. ADS .

  3. Breckinridge, J.B.: 1971, Appl. Opt. 10, 286. DOI . ADS .

  4. Calcines, A., López, R.L., Collados, M., Vega Reyes, N.: 2014, In: Ground-Based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V, Proc. SPIE 9147, 91473I. DOI . ADS .

  5. Cao, W., Denker, C.J., Wang, H., Ma, J., Qu, M., Wang, J., Goode, P.R.: 2004, In: Fineschi, S., Gummin, M.A. (eds.) Telescopes and Instrumentation for Solar Astrophysics, Proc. SPIE 5171, 307. DOI . ADS .

  6. Cao, W., Jing, J., Ma, J., Xu, Y., Wang, H., Goode, P.R.: 2006, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 838. DOI . ADS .

  7. Cao, W., Goode, P.R., Ahn, K., Gorceix, N., Schmidt, W., Lin, H.: 2012, In: Rimmele, T.R., Tritschler, A., Wöger, F., Collados Vera, M., Socas-Navarro, H., Schlichenmaier, R., Carlsson, M., Berger, T., Cadavid, A., Gilbert, P.R., Goode, P.R., Knölker, M. (eds.) Second ATST-EAST Meeting: Magnetic Fields from the Photosphere to the Corona, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series 463, 291. ADS .

  8. Casini, R., Judge, P.G., Schad, T.A.: 2012, Astrophys. J. 756, 194. DOI . ADS .

  9. Cavallini, F.: 2006, Solar Phys. 236, 415. DOI . ADS .

  10. Chae, J., Park, H.-M., Ahn, K., Yang, H., Park, Y.-D., Nah, J., Jang, B.H., Cho, K.-S., Cao, W., Goode, P.R.: 2013, Solar Phys. 288(1), 1. DOI .

  11. Collados, M., López, R., Páez, E., Hernández, E., Reyes, M., Calcines, A., Ballesteros, E., Díaz, J.J., Denker, C., Lagg, A., Schlichenmaier, R., Schmidt, W., Solanki, S.K., Strassmeier, K.G., von der Lühe, O., Volkmer, R.: 2012, Astron. Nachr. 333, 872. DOI . ADS .

  12. Doerr, H.-P., von der Lühe, O. II, Kentischer, T.J.: 2008, In: Ground-Based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy II, Proc. SPIE 7014, 701417. DOI . ADS .

  13. Dunn, R.B.: 1964, Appl. Opt. 3, 1353. DOI . ADS .

  14. Dunn, R.B., Smartt, R.N.: 1991, Adv. Space Res. 11, 139. DOI . ADS .

  15. Erickson, E.F., Rabanus, D.: 2000, Appl. Opt. 39(25), 4486. DOI .

  16. Freeland, S.L., Handy, B.N.: 1998, Solar Phys. 182, 497. DOI . ADS .

  17. Harvey, J., Hall, D.: 1971, In: Howard, R. (ed.) Solar Magnetic Fields, IAU Symposium 43, 279. ADS .

  18. Jaeggli, S.A., Lin, H., Mickey, D.L., Kuhn, J.R., Hegwer, S.L., Rimmele, T.R., Penn, M.J.: 2010, Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. 81, 763. ADS .

  19. Johanneson, A., Bida, T., Lites, B., Scharmer, G.B.: 1992, Astron. Astrophys. 258, 572. ADS .

  20. Katsukawa, Y., Kamata, Y., Anan, T., Hara, H., Suematsu, Y., Bando, T., Ichimoto, K., Shimizu, T.: 2016, In: Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave, Proc. SPIE 9904, 99045I. DOI . ADS .

  21. Keller, C.U., Johannesson, A.: 1995, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 110, 565. ADS .

  22. Kentischer, T.J., Schmidt, W.., von der Lühe, O., Sigwarth, M., Bell, A., Halbgewachs, C., Fischer, A.: 2012, The Visible Tunable Filtergraph for the ATST. 8446, 844677. DOI .

  23. Kiselman, D., Pereira, T.M.D., Gustafsson, B., Asplund, M., Meléndez, J., Langhans, K.: 2011, Astron. Astrophys. 535, A14. DOI . ADS .

  24. Kleint, L., Gandorfer, A.: 2015, Space Sci. Rev. DOI . ADS .

  25. Kuckein, C., Martínez Pillet, V., Centeno, R.: 2012, Astron. Astrophys. 542, A112. DOI . ADS .

  26. Lagg, A., Lites, B., Harvey, J., Gosain, S., Centeno, R.: 2015, Space Sci. Rev. DOI . ADS .

  27. Lee, D.T., Schachter, B.J.: 1980, Int. J. Comput. Inf. Sci. 9(3), 219. DOI .

  28. Leenaarts, J., Golding, T., Carlsson, M., Libbrecht, T., Joshi, J.: 2016, Astron. Astrophys. 594, A104. DOI . ADS .

  29. Lemen, J.R., Title, A.M., Akin, D.J., Boerner, P.F., Chou, C., Drake, J.F., Duncan, D.W., Edwards, C.G., Friedlaender, F.M., Heyman, G.F., Hurlburt, N.E., Katz, N.L., Kushner, G.D., Levay, M., Lindgren, R.W., Mathur, D.P., McFeaters, E.L., Mitchell, S., Rehse, R.A., Schrijver, C.J., Springer, L.A., Stern, R.A., Tarbell, T.D., Wuelser, J.-P., Wolfson, C.J., Yanari, C., Bookbinder, J.A., Cheimets, P.N., Caldwell, D., Deluca, E.E., Gates, R., Golub, L., Park, S., Podgorski, W.A., Bush, R.I., Scherrer, P.H., Gummin, M.A., Smith, P., Auker, G., Jerram, P., Pool, P., Soufli, R., Windt, D.L., Beardsley, S., Clapp, M., Lang, J., Waltham, N.: 2012, Solar Phys. 275, 17. DOI . ADS .

  30. Lin, H.: 2014, mxSPEC: A Massively Multiplexed Full-Disk Spectroheliograph for Solar Physics Research. 9147, 914712. DOI .

  31. Lin, H.: 2016, Front. Astron. Space Sci. 3, 9. DOI . ADS .

  32. Lin, H., Versteegh, A.: 2006, In: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, Proc. SPIE 6269, 62690K. DOI . ADS .

  33. López Ariste, A., Le Men, C., Gelly, B., Asensio Ramos, A.: 2010, Astron. Nachr. 331, 658. DOI . ADS .

  34. Marino, J., Rimmele, T.: 2010, Appl. Opt. 49(31), G95. DOI .

  35. Martin, S.F., Ramsey, H.E., Carroll, G.A., Martin, D.C.: 1974, Solar Phys. 37, 343. DOI . ADS .

  36. Mein, P.: 1977, Solar Phys. 54, 45. DOI . ADS .

  37. Mein, P.: 1991, Astron. Astrophys. 248, 669. ADS .

  38. November, L.J., Simon, G.W.: 1988, Astrophys. J. 333, 427. DOI . ADS .

  39. Penn, M.J.: 2014, Living Rev. Solar Phys. 11(1), 2. DOI .

  40. Reardon, K.P., Cavallini, F.: 2008, Astron. Astrophys. 481, 897. DOI . ADS .

  41. Rimmele, T.R.: 1994, Astron. Astrophys. 290, 972. ADS .

  42. Rimmele, T.R., Marino, J.: 2011, Living Rev. Solar Phys. 8(1), 2. DOI .

  43. Rimmele, T.R., Richards, K., Hegwer, S., Fletcher, S., Gregory, S., Moretto, G., Didkovsky, L.V., Denker, C.J., Dolgushin, A., Goode, P.R., Langlois, M., Marino, J., Marquette, W.: 2004, In: Fineschi, S., Gummin, M.A. (eds.) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series 5171, 179. DOI . ADS .

  44. Rimmele, T., McMullin, J., Warner, M., Craig, S., Woeger, F., Tritschler, A., Cassini, R., Kuhn, J., Lin, H., Schmidt, W., Berukoff, S., Reardon, K., Goode, P., Knoelker, M., Rosner, R., Mathioudakis, M. (DKIST TEAM): 2015, In: IAU General Assembly 22, 2255176. ADS .

  45. Robertson, J.G.: 2013, Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust. 30, e048. DOI . ADS .

  46. Schad, T.A.: 2016, AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts.

  47. Schad, T.A., Penn, M.J., Lin, H., Judge, P.G.: 2016, Astrophys. J. 833, 5. DOI . ADS .

  48. Schad, T., Lin, H., Ichimoto, K., Katsukawa, Y.: 2014, In: Ground-Based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V, Proc. SPIE 9147, 91476E. DOI . ADS .

  49. Scharmer, G.B., Narayan, G., Hillberg, T., de la Cruz Rodriguez, J., Löfdahl, M.G., Kiselman, D., Sütterlin, P., van Noort, M., Lagg, A.: 2008, Astrophys. J. Lett. 689, L69. DOI . ADS .

  50. Scherrer, P.H., Schou, J., Bush, R.I., Kosovichev, A.G., Bogart, R.S., Hoeksema, J.T., Liu, Y., Duvall, T.L., Zhao, J., Title, A.M., Schrijver, C.J., Tarbell, T.D., Tomczyk, S.: 2012, Solar Phys. 275, 207. DOI . ADS .

  51. Schmidt, D., Gorceix, N., Goode, P.R., Marino, J., Rimmele, T., Berkefeld, T., Wöger, F., Zhang, X., Rigaut, F., von der Lühe, O.: 2017, Astron. Astrophys. 597, L8. DOI . ADS .

  52. Schmidt, W., Schubert, M., Ellwarth, M., Baumgartner, J., Bell, A., Fischer, A., Halbgewachs, C., Heidecke, F., Kentischer, T., von der Lühe, O., Scheiffelen, T., Sigwarth, M.: 2016, In: Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, Proc. SPIE 9908, 99084N. DOI . ADS .

  53. Semel, M.: 2003, Astron. Astrophys. 401, 1. DOI . ADS .

  54. Sigwarth, M., Baumgartner, J., Bell, A., Cagnoli, G., Fischer, A., Halbgewachs, C., Heidecke, F., Kentischer, T.J., Kestner, B., Kuschnir, P., von der Lühe, O., Pinard, L., Michel, C., Reichman, W.J., Sassolas, B., Scheiffelen, T., Schmidt, W.: 2016, Development of High Reflectivity Coatings for Large Format Fabry–Perot Etalons. 9908, 99084F. DOI .

  55. Socas-Navarro, H.: 2010, Astron. Nachr. 331, 581. DOI . ADS .

  56. Srivastava, N., Mathew, S.K.: 1999, Solar Phys. 185, 61. DOI . ADS .

  57. Suematsu, Y., Saito, K., Koyama, M., Enokida, Y., Okura, Y., Nakayasu, T., Sukegawa, T.: 2016, In: Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Optical, Infrared, and Millimeter Wave, Proc. SPIE 9904, 990411. DOI . ADS .

  58. van Noort, M., Rouppe van der Voort, L., Löfdahl, M.G.: 2005, Solar Phys. 228, 191. DOI . ADS .

  59. Vissers, G., Rouppe van der Voort, L.: 2012, Astrophys. J. 750, 22. DOI . ADS .

  60. von der Lühe, O., Kentischer, T.J.: 2000, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. 146, 499. DOI . ADS .

  61. Wallace, L., Livingston, W., Hinkle, K., Bernath, P.: 1996, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 106, 165. DOI . ADS .

  62. Wöger, F., von der Lühe, O., Reardon, K.: 2008, Astron. Astrophys. 488, 375. DOI . ADS .

Download references


The National Solar Observatory (NSO) is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA), under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. We extend thanks to Doug Gilliam at the Dunn Solar Telescope for help in instrument setup, alignment, and operation. Grants provided by the Major Research Instrument Program of the National Science Foundation, award number ATM04-21582 and ATM09-23560, supported the procurement of the IR camera and the high-efficiency bandpass isolation filters, which were used temporarily for the reported instrument. NSO/Kitt Peak FTS data used here were produced by NSF/NOAO.

Author information

Correspondence to Thomas Schad.

Ethics declarations

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Below are the links to the electronic supplementary material.

(MP4 10.6 MB)

(MP4 11.7 MB)

(MP4 16.9 MB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Schad, T., Lin, H. Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy Using Massively Multiplexed Slit-Based Techniques and Sub-Field Motion Correction. Sol Phys 292, 158 (2017).

Download citation


  • Instrumentation
  • Techniques: imaging spectroscopy
  • Chromosphere: active
  • Infrared: spectroscopy