Solar Physics

, 292:30 | Cite as

Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Resulting from Earth-Directed CMEs Using SOHO and ACE Combined Data During Solar Cycle 23

  • Evangelos Paouris
  • Helen Mavromichalaki


In this work a total of 266 interplanetary coronal mass ejections observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (SOHO/LASCO) and then studied by in situ observations from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft, are presented in a new catalog for the time interval 1996 – 2009 covering Solar Cycle 23. Specifically, we determine the characteristics of the CME which is responsible for the upcoming ICME and the associated solar flare, the initial/background solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions before the arrival of the CME, the conditions in the sheath of the ICME, the main part of the ICME, the geomagnetic conditions of the ICME’s impact at Earth and finally we remark on the visual examination for each event. Interesting results revealed from this study include the high correlation coefficient values of the magnetic field \(B_{z}\) component against the Ap index (\(r = 0.84\)), as well as against the Dst index (\(r = 0.80\)) and of the effective acceleration against the CME linear speed (\(r = 0.98\)). We also identify a north–south asymmetry for X-class solar flares and an east–west asymmetry for CMEs associated with strong solar flares (magnitude ≥ M1.0) which finally triggered intense geomagnetic storms (with \(\mathrm{Ap} \geq179\)). The majority of the geomagnetic storms are determined to be due to the ICME main part and not to the extreme conditions which dominate inside the sheath. For the intense geomagnetic storms the maximum value of the Ap index is observed almost 4 hours before the minimum Dst index. The amount of information makes this new catalog the most comprehensive ICME catalog for Solar Cycle 23.


Coronal mass ejections Interplanetary Magnetosphere Geomagnetic disturbances Solar wind Disturbances Magnetic fields Interplanetary 



We are grateful to the providers of the solar, interplanetary, and geomagnetic data used in this work. The coronal mass ejection data are taken from the SOHO/LASCO CME list ( ). This CME catalog is generated and maintained at the CDAW Data Center by NASA and The Catholic University of America in cooperation with the Naval Research Laboratory. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. Thanks are also due to Dr. N. Gopalswamy for useful suggestions and to the anonymous referee for comments improving this paper significantly.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

11207_2017_1050_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (139 kb)
(Microsoft Excel Worksheet 151 kB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of PhysicsNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Faculty of PhysicsNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece

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