Advertisement

Solar Physics

, 292:12 | Cite as

Historical Auroras in the 990s: Evidence of Great Magnetic Storms

  • Hisashi Hayakawa
  • Harufumi Tamazawa
  • Yurina Uchiyama
  • Yusuke Ebihara
  • Hiroko Miyahara
  • Shunsuke Kosaka
  • Kiyomi Iwahashi
  • Hiroaki Isobe
Article

Abstract

A significant carbon-14 enhancement has recently been found in tree rings for the year 994, suggesting an extremely strong and brief cosmic ray flux event. The origin of this particular cosmic ray event has not been confirmed, but one possibility is that it might be of solar origin. Contemporary historical records of low-latitude auroras can be used as supporting evidence of intense solar activity around that time. We investigate previously reported as well as new records that have been found in contemporary observations from the 990s to determine potential auroras. Records of potential red auroras in late 992 and early 993 were found around the world, i.e. in the Korean Peninsula, Saxonian cities in modern Germany, and the Island of Ireland, suggesting the occurrence of an intense geomagnetic storm driven by solar activity.

Keywords

Sun Extreme space weather events Magnetic storm Historical documents Carbon-14 spike 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank T. Nagamoto for bibliographical information on the medieval western calendar system, H. Arimitsu for technical advice on transliteration of Saxonian manuscripts, D.P. Cabezas for grammatical advice, M. Takakuwa and M. Hayakawa for giving us advice and insights on medieval western history and contemporary documents, and F. Miyake for interpreting the carbon-14 spike in 993/994, although the responsibility for the text rests entirely upon the authors. We also acknowledge the support from the Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences (CPIS) of SOKENDAI, the Kyoto University’s Supporting Program for Interaction-based Initiative Team Studies “Integrated study on human in space” (PI: H. Isobe), the Interdisciplinary Research Idea Contest 2014 by the Center of Promotion Interdisciplinary Education and Research, the “UCHUGAKU” project of the Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, and the Exploratory and Mission Research Projects of the Research Institute of Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University. This work was also encouraged by Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, Grant Number JP15H05816 (PI: S. Yoden), JP15H03732 (PI: Y. Ebihara), and JP15H05815 (PI: Y. Miyoshi).

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. An, Y.S., Sim, G.G., Song, D.J.: 2009, Chronological Table of Calendar in Koryo Dynasty, Korean Academic Information, Seoul (in Korean). Google Scholar
  2. Breeze, A.Ó., Muraíle, N.: 2010, Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, I, Brill, Leiden, 93. Google Scholar
  3. Butler, R.F.: 1992, Paleomagnetism: Magnetic Domains to Geologic Terranes, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. Google Scholar
  4. Calvisius, S.: 1629, Opus Chronologicum ex Autoritate Sacrae Scripturae ad Motum Luminarium Coelestium Contextum, Impensis Johannis Thymii Bibliopolæ, Frankfurt. Google Scholar
  5. Carrington, R.C.: 1859, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. 20, 13.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carrington, R.C.: 1863, Observations of the Spots on the Sun from November 9, 1853, to March 24, 1861, Made at Redhill, William & Norgate, London. Google Scholar
  7. CELT: 2000, Corpus of Electronic Texts, text ID number: T100001A, University College Cork, Ireland. http://www.ucc.ie/celt. Accessed 01 Dec. 2016.
  8. Chapman, J., Neuhäuser, D.L., Neuhäuser, R., Csikszentmihalyi, M.: 2015, Astron. Nachr. 336(6), 530.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunphy, G.: 2010, Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, I, Brill, Leiden, 96. Google Scholar
  10. Ebihara, Y., Ejiri, M.: 2000, J. Geophys. Res. 105(A7), 15843.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Flechner, R.: 2013, Early Mediev. Eur. 21(4), 422.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fritz, H.: 1873, Verzeichniss Beobachteter Polarlichter, C. Gerold’s & Sohn, Wien. Google Scholar
  13. Grotefend, H.: 1898, Taschenbuch der Zeitrechnung des deutschen Mittelalters und der Neuzeit, Hahnische Buchhandlung, Hannover. Google Scholar
  14. Gnevyshev, M.N.: 1938, Izv. Gl. Astron. Obs. Pulkove 24, 37. Google Scholar
  15. Güttler, D., et al.: 2015 In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters 411, 290.  DOI. Google Scholar
  16. Hampson, R.T.: 1841, Medii Aevi Kalendarium, II, Henry Kent Caston and Co., London. Google Scholar
  17. Hayakawa, H., Tamazawa, H., Kawamura, A.D., Isobe, H.: 2015, Earth Planets Space 67, 82.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hayakawa, H., Isobe, H., Kawamura, A.D., Tamazawa, H., Miyahara, H., Kataoka, R.: 2016a, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 68(3), 33.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hayakawa, H., Iwahashi, K., Tamazawa, H., et al.: 2016b, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 68(6), 99.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hayakawa, H., Mitsuma, Y., Fujiwara, Y., et al.: 2016c, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan, in press. arXiv.
  21. Hayakawa, H., Misuma, Y., Ebihara, Y., Kawamura, A.D., Miyahara, H., Tamazawa, H., Isobe, H.: 2016d, Earth Planets Space 68, 195.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hayakawa, H., Kawamura, A.D., Tamazawa, H., et al.: 2016e, Sokendai Reviews for Cultural and Social Studies, submitted. Google Scholar
  23. Hennessy, W.M., McCarthy, B. (eds.): 1887, Annala Uladh: Annals of Ulster otherwise Annala Senait, Annals of Senat: a chronicle of Irish affairs from A.D. 431 to A.D. 1540. I., Alexander Thom & Co., Dublin. Google Scholar
  24. Kataoka, R., Isobe, H., Hayakawa, H., et al.: 2016, Space Weather, submitted. Google Scholar
  25. Kawamura, A.D., Hayakawa, H., Tamazawa, H., Miyahara, H., Isobe, H.: 2016, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 68(5), 79.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keimatsu, M.: 1970, In: Annual of Science. College of Liberal Arts 7, 1 Google Scholar
  27. Kennel, C.F., Petschek, H.E.: 1966, J. Geophys. Res. 71(1), 1.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kimball, D.S.: 1960, A study of the aurora of 1859, Scientific Report No. 6, the University of Alaska, Anchorage. Google Scholar
  29. Korte, M., Constable, C.: 2011, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 188(3–4), 247.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lakhina, G.S., Tsurutani, B.T.: 2016, Geosci. Lett. 3, 5.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee, E.H., Ahn, Y.S., Yang, H.J., Chen, K.Y.: 2004, Solar Phys. 224(1–2), 373.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Link, F.: 1962, Geofys. Sb. 10, 297. Google Scholar
  33. Loomis, E.: 1859, Am. J. Sci. (Second Series) 29(84), 385. Google Scholar
  34. Loomis, E.: 1860a, Am. J. Sci. (Second Series) 29(85), 92. Google Scholar
  35. Loomis, E.: 1860b, Am. J. Sci. (Second Series) 29(86), 249. Google Scholar
  36. Loomis, E.: 1860c, Am. J. Sci. (Second Series) 30(88), 79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Loomis, E.: 1860d, Am. J. Sci. (Second Series) 30(90), 339. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Loomis, E.: 1861a, Am. J. Sci. (Second Series) 32(94), 71. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Loomis, E.: 1861b, Am. J. Sci. (Second Series) 32(96), 318. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Loomis, E.: 1865. In: Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute, 208. Google Scholar
  41. Maehara, Y., Shibayama, T., Notsu, S., et al.: 2012, Nature 485, 7399.  DOI. Google Scholar
  42. Maehara, Y., Shibayama, T., Notsu, Y., et al.: 2015, Earth Planets Space 67, 59.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mannucci, A.J., Tsurutani, B.T., Iijima, B.A., et al.: 2005, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L12S02.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. MacAirt, S., MacNiocaill, G. (ed. & trans.): 1983, The Annals of Ulster, Dublin, I. Google Scholar
  45. McCarthy, D.: 1994, Peritia 8, 46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McCarthy, D., Breen, A.: 1997, Vistas Astron. 41(1), 117.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mekhaldi, F., et al.: 2015, Nat. Commun. 6, 8611.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Miyake, F., Nagaya, K., Masuda, K., Nakamura, T.: 2012, Nature 486, 240.  DOI. ADSGoogle Scholar
  49. Miyake, F., Masuda, K., Nakamura, T.: 2013, Nat. Commun. 4, 1748.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Miyake, F., Masuda, K., Hakozaki, M., Nakamura, T., Tokanai, F., Kato, K., Kimura, K., Mitsutani, T.: 2014, Radiocarbon 56(3), 1189.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Máille, T.Ó.: 1910, The Language of the Annals of Ulster 2, University Press, Manchester. Google Scholar
  52. Neuhäuser, R., Neuhäuser, D.L.: 2015, Astron. Nachr. 88, 789.  DOI. Google Scholar
  53. Notsu, Y., Shibayama, T., Maehara, H., Notsu, S., Nagao, T., Honda, S., Ishii, T.T., Nogami, D., Shibata, K.: 2013, Astrophys. J. 771(2), 127.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Petrie, G.: 1830. In: The Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, George Bonham, Dublin, 381. Google Scholar
  55. Petrovay, K., van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.: 1997, Solar Phys. 176, 249.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Saito, K., Ozawa, K.: 1992, Examination of Chinese Ancient Astronomical Records. Yuzankaku, Tokyo (in Japanese). Google Scholar
  57. Shibata, S., Isobe, H., Hillier, A., et al.: 2013, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 65(3), 49.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shiota, D., Kataoka, R.: 2016, Space Weather 14(2), 56.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Short, T.: 1749, General Chronological History of the Air, Weather, Seasons, Meteors, etc. in Sundry Places and Different Times, Longman & Millar, London. Google Scholar
  60. Stephenson, F.R., Willis, D.M., Hallinan, T.J.: 2004, Astron. Geophys. 45(6), 6.15.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stephenson, F.R.: 2015, Adv. Space Res. 55(6), 1537.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stokes, W.: 1905, The Martyrology of Oengus the Culdee: Félire Óengusso Céli Dé 29, Harrison and Sons. Google Scholar
  63. Tomaszek, M.: 2010, Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, I, Brill, Leiden, 80. Google Scholar
  64. Tsurutani, B.T., Lakhina, G.S.: 1997, Rev. Geophys. 35, 491.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tsurutani, B.T., Gonzalez, W.D., Lakhina, G.S., Alex, S.: 2003, J. Geophys. Res. 108, A7.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tsurutani, B.T., Verkhoglyadova, O.P., Mannucci, A.J., et al.: 2007, J. Geophys. Res. 113, A05311.  DOI. ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Tsurutani, B.T., Echer, E., Guarnieri, F.L., Kozyra, J.U.: 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L06S05.  DOI. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Usoskin, I.G., Kromer, B., Ludlow, F., Beer, J., Friedrich, M., Kovaltsov, G.A., Solanki, S.K., Wacker, L.: 2013, Astron. Astrophys. 552, L3.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Vaisberg, O.L., Zastenker, G.N.: 1976, Space Sci. Rev. 19, 687.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Vaquero, J.M., Vázquez, M.: 2009, The Sun Recorded Through History, Springer, Berlin. Google Scholar
  71. Waldmeier, M.: 1955, Ergebnisse und Probleme der Sonnenforschung, 2nd edn. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Leipzig. Google Scholar
  72. Warner, D.A.: 2010, Encyclopedia of the Medieval Chronicle, II, Brill, Leiden, 1424. Google Scholar
  73. Willis, D.M., Stephenson, F.R., Singh, J.R.: 1996, Q. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 37, 733. ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Yau, K.K.C., Stephenson, F.R., Willis, D.M.: 1995, A catalogue of auroral observations from China, Korea and Japan (193 BC–AD 1770), Chilton. Google Scholar
  75. Yokoyama, N., Kamide, Y., Miyaoka, H.: 1998, Ann. Geophys. 16, 566.  DOI. ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hisashi Hayakawa
    • 1
  • Harufumi Tamazawa
    • 2
  • Yurina Uchiyama
    • 3
  • Yusuke Ebihara
    • 4
    • 5
  • Hiroko Miyahara
    • 6
  • Shunsuke Kosaka
    • 7
  • Kiyomi Iwahashi
    • 8
  • Hiroaki Isobe
    • 5
    • 9
  1. 1.Graduate School of LettersKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Kwasan ObservatoryKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Humanities and Sociologythe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Research Institute for Sustainable HumanosphereKyoto UniversityUjiJapan
  5. 5.Unit of Synergetic Studies for SpaceKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  6. 6.Musashino Art UniversityKodairaJapan
  7. 7.Graduate School of LettersTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  8. 8.National Institute for Japanese LiteratureTachikawaJapan
  9. 9.Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human SurvivabilityKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations