An Optical Atmospheric Phenomenon Observed in 1670 over the City of Astrakhan Was Not a Mid-Latitude Aurora
It has recently been claimed (Zolotova and Ponyavin Solar Phys., 291, 2869, 2016; ZP16 henceforth) that a mid-latitude optical phenomenon, which took place over the city of Astrakhan in July 1670, according to Russian chronicles, were a strong aurora borealis. If this were true, it would imply a very strong or even severe geomagnetic storm during the quietest part of the Maunder minimum. However, as we argue in this article, this conclusion is erroneous and caused by a misinterpretation of the chronicle record. As a result of a thorough analysis of the chronicle text, we show that the described phenomenon occurred during the daylight period of the day (“the last morning hour”), in the south (“towards noon”), and its description does not match that of an aurora. The date of the event was also interpreted incorrectly. We conclude that this phenomenon was not a mid-latitude aurora, but an atmospheric phenomenon, the so-called sundog (or parhelion), which is a particular type of solar halo. Accordingly, the claim of a strong mid-latitude aurora during the deep Maunder Minimum is not correct and should be dismissed.
KeywordsSolar activity Sunspots Solar observations Solar cycle
IGU and GAK acknowledge support by the Academy of Finland to the ReSoLVE Center of Excellence (project no. 272157). JMV was supported by the Junta de Extremadura (Research Group Grants GR15137) and by the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad of the Spanish Government (AYA2014-57556-P).
Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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