Solar Physics

, Volume 291, Issue 9–10, pp 3061–3074 | Cite as

A Revised Collection of Sunspot Group Numbers

  • J. M. Vaquero
  • L. Svalgaard
  • V. M. S. Carrasco
  • F. Clette
  • L. Lefèvre
  • M. C. Gallego
  • R. Arlt
  • A. J. P. Aparicio
  • J.-G. Richard
  • R. Howe
Sunspot Number Recalibration

Abstract

We describe a revised collection of the number of sunspot groups from 1610 to the present. This new collection is based on the work of Hoyt and Schatten (Solar Phys. 179, 189, 1998). The main changes are the elimination of a considerable number of observations during the Maunder Minimum (hereafter, MM) and the inclusion of several long series of observations. Numerous minor changes are also described. Moreover, we have calculated the active-day percentage during the MM from this new collection as a reliable index of the solar activity. Thus, the level of solar activity obtained in this work is greater than the level obtained using the original Hoyt and Schatten data, although it remains compatible with a grand minimum of solar activity. The new collection is available in digital format.

Keywords

Sunspots, statistics Solar cycle, observations 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de FísicaUniversidad de ExtremaduraMéridaSpain
  2. 2.Instituto Universitario de Investigación del Agua, Cambio Climático y Sostenibilidad (IACYS)Universidad de ExtremaduraBadajozSpain
  3. 3.W.W. Hansen Experimental Physics LaboratoryStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  4. 4.Departamento de FísicaUniversidad de ExtremaduraBadajozSpain
  5. 5.World Data Center SILSORoyal Observatory of BelgiumBrusselsBelgium
  6. 6.Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP)PotsdamGermany
  7. 7.Independent ScholarVendômeFrance
  8. 8.AAVSO, Solar SectionCambridgeUSA

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