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Coronal Hole and Solar Global Magnetic Field Evolution in 1976 – 2012

Abstract

We study the spatial-temporal evolution of a coronal hole and compare it with that of the solar global magnetic field in Cycles 21 – 23 (1976 – 2012). We also analyze the latitude-longitude distribution dynamics of coronal holes and the regularities in the global magnetic field associated with the solar polar field reversal. Polar and non-polar coronal hole populations are considered. The investigation reveals some temporal and spatial regularities in coronal hole distributions that match the global magnetic-field cycle evolution well. The results show that the non-polar coronal hole longitudinal distribution follows all configuration changes in the global magnetic-field structure. Reorganizations of the global magnetic field and coronal hole distributions occur simultaneously during a time interval of a few solar rotations. The cycle evolution of the non-polar coronal holes reflects the transition of the solar global magnetic field from the zonal structure to sectorial and vice versa. Two different types of waves of non-polar coronal holes are revealed from their latitudinal distribution. The first are short poleward waves. They trace the poleward motion of the unipolar photospheric magnetic fields from approximately \(35^{\circ}\) to the associated pole in each hemisphere and the redevelopment of a new-polarity polar CH. Although they start the poleward movement before the change of the polar magnetic field in the associated hemisphere, they reach the pole after the polar reversal. The other type of non-polar CH wave forms two sinusoidal branches associated with the positive- and negative-polarity magnetic fields. The complete period of the wave is equal to \(\approx268~\mbox{CRs}\) (22 years). These wave CHs arrive at high latitudes during declining phases when the new-polarity polar CHs are already completely formed.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge Tlatov A.G. and all the Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of Pulkovo Observatory team for the catalog of coronal holes used in this study.

Wilcox Solar Observatory data used in this study were obtained via the web site http://wso.stanford.edu at 2015:02:26 00:54:03 PST courtesy of J.T. Hoeksema. The Wilcox Solar Observatory is currently supported by NASA.

NSO/Kitt Peak data used here are produced cooperatively by NSF/NOAO, NASA/GSFC, and NOAA/SEL.

The Yohkoh mission was developed and launched by ISAS/JAXA, Japan, with NASA and SERC/PPARC (UK) as international partners. This work made use of the Yohkoh Legacy data Archive at Montana State University, which is supported by NASA.

SOHO/EIT data were used. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

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Correspondence to Irina A. Bilenko.

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Bilenko, I.A., Tavastsherna, K.S. Coronal Hole and Solar Global Magnetic Field Evolution in 1976 – 2012. Sol Phys 291, 2329–2352 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11207-016-0966-2

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Keywords

  • Magnetic fields, corona
  • Coronal holes
  • Solar cycle, observations